Imágenes de páginas

him to gain a higher branch. The write who were designed for public ofiflood, however, now began to abate. cers, servants of the church, or for medi. Ortega, in swimining among the thorny cal practice; and they were principally boughs, received a wound in his leg, chosen from the families of the ca which was never thoroughly healed dur- ciques and chief persons of the town, ing the two and twenty years that he --for amid this perfect equality of survived this dreadful adventure." goods, there was an inequality of rank,

Of the governinent established by the as well as office. The Cacique retained Jesuits, and the discipline imposed on his title, and some appearance of disthe Indiaus, Mr. Southey has furnished tinction, and was exempt from tribute" a copious, and we believe a faithful, state. “ Equal care was taken to employ ment: it was obviously calculated to and to amuse the people ; and for the preserve them in a state of ignorance Jatter purpose, a religion which con. and subordination. To arrest the pas sisted so inuch of externals afforded sions was the great object of their spi- excellent means. It was soon discoritual governors : early marriages were vered that the Indians possessed a reuniversal, but the change of state pro- markable aptitude for music.” duced no accession of care.

Having also, like the Chinese, an “ An Indian of the Reductions never admirable ingenuity in imitating what. knew, during his wbole progress from ever was laid before them, they inade all the cradle to the grave, what it was to

kinds of musical instruments: the lute, take thought for the morrow: all his guitarre, barp, violin, violincello, sackduties were comprized in obedience. but, corvet, oboe, spinette, and organ, The strictest discipline soon becomes were found among them; and the chotolerable when it is certain and im- ral part of the church service excited mutable;- that of the Jesuits extended the admiration and astonishment of all to every thing, but it was neither capri. Europeans who visited the Reductions. cious nor oppressive. The children were “In dancing, according to the ordiconsidered as belonging to the commu nary manner, the Jesuits saw as many nity; they lived with their parents, that dangers as the old Albigenses, or the the course of natural affection might Quakers in later times; and like them, not be interrupted; but their education perhaps, believed that the paces of a was a public duty. Early in the morning promiscuous dance were so many steps the bell summoned them to church, toward Hell. But they knew ihat to where having prayed and been exa this also the Indians had a strong promined in the catechism, they heard pensity, and therefore they made dancmass ; their breakfast was then given ing a part of all their religious festivithem at the Rector's from the public ties. Boys and youlbs were the per. stores ; after which they were led by formers; the grown men and all the an elder, who acted bolh as overseer females assisted only as spectators, and censor, to their daily occupations. apart from each other : the great square From the earliest age the sexes were was the place, and the Rector and his separated; they did not even enter the Coadjutor were seated in the churcb. church by the same door, nor did wo. porch lo preside at the solemnity. The man or girl ever set foot within the performances were dramatic figureJcsuit's house. The business of the dances, for which the Catholic mythoyoung girls was to gather the cotton, Jogy furnished subjects in abundance. and drive away birds from the field. Sometimes they were in bonour of the The boys were employed in weediog, Virgin, whose Bags aud banners were keeping the roads in order, and other then brought forih ; each of the daytasks suited to their strength.”

cers bore a letter of her name upon • Those children who by the manner a shield, and in the evolutions of the in which they repeated inorning and dance the wbole were brought together evening their prayers and catechism, and displayed in their just order : at were thought to give promise of a good intervals they stopt before her image, voice, were instructed in reading, writ- and bowed their heads to the ground. ing, and music, and made choristers; Sometimes they represented a battle there were usually about thirty in a between Christians and Moors, always Reduction : this was an honour which to the proper discomfiture of the Misparents greatly coveted for their chil. believers. "The Three Kings of the East dren. Except these choristers, only formed the subject of another favourile those children were taught to read and pageant; the Nativity of another ; but

that which perhaps gave most delight object of their legislation. Beside the was the battle between Michael and the overseers who inspected the work of Dragon, with all his imps. These sto- the Indians, there were others who actries were sometimes represented in the ed as inspectors of their moral conduct, form of /utos, or Sacred Plays (like the and when they discovered any mismysteries of our ancient drama), in demeanor, clapped upon the offender wbicb no female actors were admitted.” a penitential dress, and led bim first

“One great festival in every Reduc. to the church to make his confession tion was the day of its tutelar saint, in public, and then into the square when the boys represented religious to be publicly beaten. It is said that dramas; the inhabitants of the nearest these castigations were always received Reductions were invited, and by means without a murmur, and even as an act of these visits a chearful and friendly of grace,-so completely were they intercourse was maintained. But here, taught to lick the hand which chasas in most other Catholic countries, tised and fed them. The children were the most splendid spectacle was that classed according to their ages, and every #bich, in the naked monstrosity of class had its inspectors, whose especial. Romish superstition, is called the Pro business it was to watch over their becession of the Body of God! On this haviour ; some of these censors stood day the houses were hung with the best always behind them at church with productions of the Guarani loom, inter- rods, by help of which they maintained spersed with rich feather-works, gar- strict silence and decorum. This system Jands, and festoons of flowers. The succeeded in effectually breaking down wbole line of the procession was co the spirit. Adults, who bad eluded the vered with mats, and strewn with flowers constant superintendance of their inand fragrant herbs. Arches were erected spectors, would voluntarily accuse theinof branches wreathed with flowers, and selves, and ask for the punishment which birds were fastened to them by strings of they had merited; but by a wise presuch length as allowed them to fly from caution they were not allowed to do bough to bough, and display a plumage this in public till they had obtained more gorgeous than the richest produce permission, and that permission was of the vegetable world. Wild beasts seldom accorded to the weaker sex. were secured beside tbe way, and Jarge They would often enquire of the priest vessels of water placed at intervals, in if what they had done were or were wbich there were the finest fish, that not a sin ; the same system wbich renall creatures might thus by their repre- dered their understanding torpid, prosentatives render homage to the pre- ducing a diseased irritability of consent Creator! The game which had science, if that may be called conbeen killed for the feast made a part science which was busied with the of the spectacle Seed reserved for the merest trifles, and reposed implicitly next sowing was brought forth to re upon the priest. In consequence of ceive a blessing, and the first fruits of their ulter ignorance of true morality, the harvest as an offering. . The flour. and this extreme scrupulosity, one of and-water object of Romish idolatry their confessions occupied as much time went first, under a canopy, which was as that of ten or twelve Spaniards. The borne by the Cacique and the chief Pope, in condescension to their weakmagistrates of the town: the royal ness, indulged them with a jubilee every standard came next: then followed the year; and on these occasions the Mismale inhabitants in military array, horsesionaries of the nearest Reductions went and foot, with their banners. There to assist each other. The Jesuits boast, was an allar at the head of every street; that years would sometimes pass away tbe sacrament stopped at each, while a without the commission of a single molletto, or anthem, was sung i and the deadly sin, and that it was even rare bowling of the beasts assorted strangely to hear a confession which made abso. with these strains, and with the chaunt. Jution necessary.” ing of the choristers."

* Man may be made either the tamest or the most ferocious of animals. The

EVENING Hours; a Collection of Ori. Jesuits' discipline, beginning with birth

ginal Poems. 1817. pp. 123. and ending only with death, ensured It is truly a source of self-gratulation that iimplicit obedience wbich is the first to all those doomed to exereise their duły of Monachism, and was the great talents in the “art and mystery" of

analysing the various' merits and de- must forbid us to allow even toleration merits of our no less various authors, to the following specimens :when the tedium of this professional “ But, oh! it was pot, Genius never gave investigation is relieved by any amuse Her Bard, the stripling to the gloomy grave. -ment or instruction derived from the

He died, works over which they sit in judgment.

But poverty and pride Happily for our patience, this has been

Had blasted to the core ; partly our good fortune with the pre

And hate, sent volume ; and though we cannot

Revengeful and elate, conscientiously offer unreserved praise,

With madness stung him sore."

Page 21, its anonymous author will, we hope, not be entirely dissatisfied with our

" And now another minstrel strikes critical award, which, we can assure him, shall be impartial.

His high toned lyre to heavenly strain ;

Stealing, stealing, Had we been honoured with a pre

Melting, melting, vious consultation, our advice would

How the sound uuquestionably have been,-not to pub

Floats around! Jish: for though youth is to be admitted Quivering in air the cadence dies, now as an apology for many inaccuracies,

swells again !" Page 30. and imperfections, yet it is certainly Our readers will, we think, never no excuse for their exposure: and here, guess, that the gentleman bere reprethough mingled with many beauties, sented as exercising the joint profesare also far too many instances of con sions of a pick pocket and a tallow. fusion, negligence, and defect, to meet chandler, by “stealingand “mellthe public eye. The irregular odes are ing," is our immortal Bard, Milton! irregular beyond precedent (so far they though both these extracts are exceeded correspond with their distinction, and in ludicrous effect, by our author's addeserve their name), while the Pro dress to bis “ Lyre ;" where that unsopopæie is introduced to the fullest toward piece of a poet's furniture is extent of the licentia poelica, giving represented as beeding the influence of to nothing, as well as to every thing, neither " Sun,” por “ Moon,” but, a local habitation and a name." In

6 Careless it hangs; evidence of our not wilfully mis. No pleasing note stating facts, we quote at random from

Flies from the strings in air to float; a poem on Genius,” where we are No willing wire informed,

Attentive hangs, or heeds my ire,

Ör, hears my pangs!" “ Some fiend pourtrays the maddening

Page 59. start,

More might produce satiety, and we The pain, the agony of heart, When Chatterton absorb'd the poison’d of our subject. The sentiments of the

therefore gladly pass on to another part boul! I see; -I see his frantic gaze !

several sonnets are truly poetical, though The lightning of his eye decays,

their expression is very seldom melo. And one convulsive pang, -one struggle dious ; indeed, after all our painfully reyields his soul." Page 26,

iterated attempts to read, or to compre

hend, the following passage, we bave Of Chatterton's suicide we have re

been reluctantly compelled to desist from peatedly heard, and as repeatedly de

the endeavour, almost without a bope plored his vohappy fate; but until now, of our readers being more fortunate we knew not the extent of his suffer. than ourselves. ings,-we knew not, that he swallowed

“Great Russell, victim of a vepal rage! the bowl as well as the poison ! An inference, which though here positive shall be the pole-star of sublimity,

Thy nane revolving with each future age, from the passage transcribed, a very

And the politic mariner from far tribing correction would have avoided Shall hail it as the Magi did their star!" or removed. An affectation of simpli.

Page 128. city, verging on silliness, is another error, for which, however, youth offers Some enquiry will perhaps be made

more reasonable apology than for as to the former, though the refinement of “ Who is he that sweeps the strings ? our poetic taste, by the illustrious

Yonder Minstrel-How he sings !" School of our living Bards of Britain,

Page 29



And gladly would we make reply: yet,

« MORNING. alas ! though our Bard has here furnished us with such very apposite language for

-“ Aurora, daughter of the dawn, asking the question, he leaves it, like

With rosy lustre streak’d the dewy lawn." the author of Jupius, to descend to

" -'Twas morn-and from the East the oblivion a secret unrevealed ! It has been hitherto our ungracious His glowing beams, and ting’d the moun

sun had shed task to notice this volume only by its tains red; defects; but we now turn with infi- The dancing mists in swift succession flew, nitely more complacency to introduce Chas'd by the early breeze that softly blew its beauties, and we trust the author Along the swelling hills ;-lhe yellow beam will feel no disposition to doubt the Smild on the forest, sparkled on the stream, sincerity of our praises, because our And gaily laughing at the conquer'd night, ceasures may have appeared barsh, and Display'd on every spire the grateful light. our criticisms severe. He will remem

The pearly drops, that bent the blooming

thorn, ber, that

Started from slumber with the opening « Praise undeserved is censure in disguise;"

morn, and, that

And from the green leaves dropping,

spread around “ Skilful surgeons cut beyond the wound, Delightful fragrance on the daisied ground; To make the cure complete."

While oft, responsive to the woodman's

stroke, Many of the pieces display very con The clear-ton'd echoes of the hills awokesiderable poetical talent, aided by gene. The cheerful lark, high mounting, haild the sal harmony of numbers, and tolerable

day, correctness of versification. Where the And carol'd in mid air his matin lay: metre is regular, be bas proved of what Seeking his scatter'd flocks, and whistling his powers are capable, when adhering loud, to the primary rules of composition. The sturdy shepherd cadia his bleating and the legitimate principles of poesy.

crowd ;

With frequent pause he stopp'd-and gázThose pieces wbich deviate from these

ing highprinciples, are indeed singular; so much

Admir'd the orient beauties of the sky: so, that we are convinced they never can

And, stedfast viewing, breath'd the silent become plural by imitation, and we have

prayerno doubt that his porte feuille coplains When all bis toils were past t'inhabit many poems infinitely superior to most there."

Page 77. in this collection." Abelard lo Eloise"

This breathes the real eloquence of deserves much commendation for its nature and of poetry ; and as there are imagery, its pathos, and its delicacy; some other picces in the volume equally though alloyed by several passages which pleasing, we have no doubt, spite of disgrace their company.

There are,

our adverse criticisms, that “ Evening besides this, two or three others, which Hours" will keep some of its readers give fair promise of fulure excellence,

up all night.

J. when matured by age and experience, of which, indeed, we should entertain no doubt, was his exuberance of fancy Macbeth and King Richard The more beneath controul, or his powers

TAIRD: An Essay, in Answer to under the guidance of a judgment more

Remarks on some of the Characters corrected and more cool. We wish not

of Shakspeare. By J. P. KEMBLE. to dissuade him either from writing, or

1817. crown 8vo. pp. 17-1. from publishing, for we think he pos. The Olympic victors still live in the sesses abilities sufficient for both; but we eternity of Pindar's verse, and why would recommend most earnestly his should not the fame of Roscious be profitiog by, that advice upon these supported by the painter, the sculptor, subjects, which he had doubtless very and the bard? The Ode of Campbell is many literary friends well qualified to worthy of its subject and occasion, for give. Our previous quotations having the retirement of Kemble from the substantiated the justice of our un- stage was the setting of a day-star from welcome censures, we feel equally cer the theatrical hemisphere-a lumioary tain, that the subjoined extract will which has long illustrated the wide and fully justify our warmth of praise and wonderful creations of our inmortal deserved cocomiums.

Shakspeare.-His evening beams were

brilliant, and his departure was a sub- duct to our consciousness of what is ject of general regret. He has left right. lights behind him, but we cannot ex. We mean not by these observations to pect soon to witness the rising of such insinuate that Mr. Kemble has been too another sun. Never did the moral highly honoured-we would only infer, dignity, and the classical refinement that we must not suffer our devotion to of the British stage, meet with a more the liberal arts to supplant our duty to. active advocate, or a more industrious wards the interests of trade-We must contributor,-Never were the capacity pot wander so far into the fields of and the character of an actor in his luxury and refinement,- which are at profession, and in private life, more the very edge of the precipice, and respected and esteemed, -and never vpon the very borders of destruction, was there such a meeting of the noble -as to remember, patronize, and how and the learned to do honour to a pro- nour, those things only, which are a fessor of the histrionic art upon a simi- pleasure and a recreation to us, neglect. lar occasion.

ing our co-operation in, and our encou. Thanks, however, to the commercial ragement and support of the more hum. genius of our ever happy, if industrious, ble and more general labours which de island, the various businesses of men tain men from those weaknesses and made the honour calm compared with vices wbose termination is the destructhat ecstatic ferment into wbich Athens tion of states. would have been thrown;-Idleness and The natural qualifications and the at. pleasure and profligacy we trust, al. tainable requisites of an actor, together though they had well wigh got bold with the power of theatrical representa! of us in the exhibitions of the Parks, tions upon the principles of a people, are still too far from us to create a are such, that the profession ought to contempt of national sobriety, dignity, be divested of that licentious and Epiand truth, in honour of any individual, curean garb, in which, by popular preor in celebration of any occurrence. judice, it has so long been invested. Exaggeration is the very spirit of pub. Nothing could have tended so much to Jic feeling and applause. When the effect this, and to inspire in the mind of multitude are of one mind and one every actor a suitable self-respect, as purpose, the cataract of Enthusiasm, the nature of the compliment which Mr. out of whose mouth issues no reason Kemble received at the close of his able thing, has neither ground, check, theatrical career; the particulars of por opposition : it inundates the temple which have already been before our of Truih in its career; nor, till the tor readers. rent has subsided, cao the goddess enter Well!-hut what has all this to do into her sanctuary-or give voice to the with Mr. Kemble's Essay? We must trumpet of Fame, or open the coffers of confess-little; but if it have any thing rational reward. Here, were we to mo to do with inan, we trust it will be ralize, we might observe how admirable accepted as over and above the prois the decree of Providence in causing a mise: it is, however, so far connected diversity of opinions among men in mat- with our present subject, as the name of ters of no needful moment, -the enthu- Mr. Kemble is connected with his re siasm of imagination is weakened, and cent retirement from the stage. The the ecstasy of madness prevented by publication of his Essay, particularly perpetual opposition and controversy; at such a crisis, could not fail to excite while in the commandments of the law a considerable degree of interest and the consciences of men remain the same, curiosity. mand for enthusiasm in the ful6lment The characters of Shakspeare, how. of those commandments, man will not ever familiar, continue objects of cu. stand accused. Where men differ in rions research and edifying contemopinion, there is no need of confor- plation,-and notwithstanding the nummity-all intolerance or persecution for ber of our commentators, the labours mere opinion's sake is wrong—but of this peculiar criticism will increase where mien have been agreed through- till the works of Shakspeare shall be no out all ages, their knowledge must be The object of this volume is the suggestions of truth-and happi- to show, in opposition to Mr. Whateler, ness would dwell in us with truth, were and to Steevens, who has followed on it not for the contradiction of our con.

his side, " that Macbeth has a just


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