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merce, by the intercourse of empires, Circulation is the life-blood of a na. embraces and connects the whole of this tion; to this even taxation gives a sti. great globe.

mulus; wbat is collected of the people Jo the present state of the world, circulates to the heart of the State and bow many kinds of commerce are Bows back again, vivifying all its memthere?

bers. lo Hindostan, at this hour, a wellTwo principal-internal and external : proportioned and well-organized plan of the home trade and foreign cominierce. internal revenue, on that prolific and The first connects, maintains, and be thick-peopled Continent, would in its nefits, the inhabitants of each distinct reflux to a large military establishment, state or community ; the other coupects and in an infinity of useful channels of and approximates nation with nation. improvement and activity, raise again

What are the branches and fruits of that fine country, and mild and plastic tbe ioteroal commerce of a State? people, to a point of civilization, in

They are these :- Manners, customs, tellect, ease, and power, wbich could national differences; the politic laws soon defy the barbarous Pindarries, and which form the civil rites of general ob- all the other savage and greedy tribes Jigalion, of which the public law of a which hover round their confines; break people is formed ; the civil law, which in and ravage their fair fields, despoil determines the lot and the duty of each their villages, and sweep away their individual, and secures to him the pos- gentle females and interesting infants. session and use of their respective pro A most ingenious and profound perties; and their exchange among French author said, above eighty years them, which comprehends finance, com ago, that if the King of France should merce, or trade, properly so called, confide to him the Administration of manufactures, and products of indus- the Finances, bis study should be to try.

diminish his collections and to in. What then remains peculiar to foreign crease his expense"-to lessen taxation commerce ?

in provinces which are poor, and to inAll the same objects, but considered crease in them the establishment of ex. more collectively, and without this the pense for the means of improvement, baunts of tigers and of lions would be reduciog expenses in stations of more less dangerous neighbourhoods for hu ease and greater means ; in the science man societies than the dwellings of their of Goveroment “ benefits are the right fellow men.

arm of authority." We cannot long We should distinguish the foreign take money froin à purse, which no commerce of different states into two means or band replenishes. kinds ; the trade of production, or the 21st November, 1817.

R. exchange of the excess of one, for the articles of similar abundance which each may desire of the other; and a

To the Editor of the European Magazine. mercenary coinmerce, which trafficks in


October 27, 1317. the products of other States

, and finds I was your magazine for September,

WAS , subsistence, and often makes great gains by being the carrier and go-between, the subject Marriage;" the observa. the broker of the exchanges of other tions there are certainly just, but at the nations: France and Hollaud exemplify same time deficient. In enumerating this distinction.

the points necessary for reflection be. Those oations have been distinguished fore marriage, religion has been omitas commercial which have addicted ted; whether this happened from an themselves to navigation, or the carry oversight of the writer, or a consideraing trade, to manufactures, or cspeci- tion that it was not one of the points, ally, to the operations of banking and I leave to himself. But in my opinion exchange. Some great kingdons have it certainly is, and perhaps the first ; neglected these, content to exchange though often disregarded, it should simply the superflux of a fine soil for have beco considered, in the subject the various exotics they have desired, before me, as instruction is uudoubtedly of the produce or industry of other the intent of the author, and where that Japds.

is the case religion should not be omit. Commerce, strictly su, called, is a ted. Perhaps the writer inay say, be spring of absolute and great importance has included it under “ Virtuous Princi. to all states.

ples;" it inay be so, but it is certainly

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of sufficient consequence to be consi.

IRISH EXTRACTS. dered separate ; besides, there are many

CONTAINING A CONCISE DESCRIPTION OF things appertaioing to religioo, which

SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN are virtuous in themselves in different

IRELAND ; WITH THE ANTIQUITIES, persons, but when joined become insup

CUSTOMS, CHARACTER, AND MANNERS portable ; for instance, two persons mar

OF THAT COUNTRY. rying of different denominations of Cbristians, or perhaps a Roman Catho.

BY THOMAS STRINGER, M.D. Jic and a Dissenler, a Cnitariau and a (Continued from page 323.)

Baptist, is sure to bring misery unto both parties, unless one becomes a convert to the other, which is seldom the

ROCEEDING castward from the

Giant's Causeway about five miles Again : An irreligious person marry.

along the coast, and somewhat eastward ing a religious one, unhappiness ensues,

from Ballintoy, on a most romantic unless a sense of shame in the first picturesque shore, is a whimsical little briogs on a conversion, wbich some

fishing rock, connected to the main times happens ; other instances might land by a very extraordinary flying be produced, but these I consider sutli. bridge; it'is called Carrick-a Řede, or

the Rock on the Road, cent, to prove that religion should not be a secondary consideration. True

Or that dread bridge by hempen fetters happiness is to be obtained by the mar. bound, riage of two persons both Teligious, and From steep to steep at Reda's gulf pronot otherwise. To confirm this idea, I found,

Drummond. shall not give any particular instance, but refer loquirers to a book, much in

At a particular scason of the year the public estimation, entitled,

** The Re

salmon come along the coast in quest ligious Courtship,” which will produce of the different rivers in which they ausufficient proofs. The writer may say, pually cast their spawn. In this expe. perhaps, it was so little thought of he dition the fish generally swim close to did not mention it;-I answer, the in

the shore, that they may not miss the tent of writing is to show, not what

port, and the fishermen who are well mankind are, but what they ought to

aware of this coasting voyage of the be; and every Christian will allow, that salmon, take care to project the nets religion should be inore atlended to at such places as may be most convethan it is.--Sir, should you think the

nient for intercepting them in their above worth notice, and acceptable to your readers, an insertion will oblige,

It so happens that Carrick-a Rede is Your occasional Correspondent, which is suited for the purpose. Here,

the only place on this abrupt coast ALBERT. then, or no where, must be the fishers.

But how to get at the rock is lle gues

tiou. A chasm, full 60 feet in breadth, To the Editor of the Luropean Magazine and of a depth frightful to look at, se

parates it from the adjacent land, in the SIR,

bottom of which the sea breahs with N one of the Monthly Publications an uninterrupted roar over the rocks;

the island itself is inaccessible on every strictures, on those concluding lines of side, except one spot, where, under the Thompson's Seasons –

shelter of an impending rock, a luxu. “ Ye good distrest!

riant herbage flourishes; but the wild. Ye noble few! who here unbending stand

ness of the coast and the turbulence of Beneath life's pressure,” &c. &c.

the sea make it very difficult to laud

here. If you can inform me through the medium of your Magazine where I can

In this perplexity there is really to find them, you will greatly oblige,

resource, except attempting a bridge

of ropes from the main and to the Your obedient Servant,

island, which accordingly the fishermen

B. K. every year accomplish in the summer London.

months, in a very singular manner: 180 November 17, 1817,

strong cables arc calcuded across the



gulph by an expert climber, and fas- enlivened by the red and green tints of tened firmly into iron rings mortised ochre and grass, casts a degree of life into the rock on either side. Between and cheerfulness over the different these ropes a vumber of boards, about a objects. foot in breadth, are laid in succession,

Or Torr's bleak rocks Titanjan limbs o'er. supported at intervals by cross cords,

spreari, and thus the pathway is formed, which,

Or cloudy Benmore lifts his giant head, tbough broad enough to bear a man's

Or where Kenban his chalky brow uprears. foot with tolerable convenience, does by no means hide from view the pointed Torr is a sharp promontory, about rocks and raging sea beneath, which, in five miles from Cushendun, on the this situation, exhibit the fatal effects shores of Cushleak. The ruins of Du. of a fall in very strong colouring ; while wavarre, an old fort, said to be a work the swingings and undulations of the of the giants, may be seen near the bridge itself, and of the hand-rope, point of the promontory, and at some wbich no degree of tension can prevent distance above it, Sleacht na Carragh, in so great a length, suggest no very their grave. West of Torr is Kenban, comfortable feelings to persons of weak i. e. the white or fair head, improperly nerves. Upon the whole, it is a beauti- transferred to Benmore is a picturesque ful bridge in the scenery of a landscape, rock of limestone topped with the ruins but a frightful one in real life.

of a castle, about two miles westward of Descriplion Hamilton. Ballycastle.

West of Torr stands the bold and ma. PENMORE, or FAIRHEAD.

jestic promontory of Benmore, comThe eastern side of Ballycastle Bay monly but improperly known by the terminates in the bold promontory of name of Fairhead, the Rubogdium of Fairbead, at the distance of eight miles Ptolemy. Hamilton justly describes it, eastward of the promontory of Bengore as characterized by a wild and savage already mentioned. The promontory sublimity. None of the numerous preof Fairbead raises its lofty summit more cipices on the coast, indeed, can vie than 400 feet above the sea. It presents with it in elevation, extent, and granto view a vast compact mas of rude co deur. It is composed of a range of lumnar stones, the forms of which are enormous basaltic pillars, according to extremely gross, many of them being a measurement made in the summer of near 150 feet in length, and in the tex 1810, by Professor Playfair, 283 feet ture so coarse as to resemble black high, and resting on a base wbich makes schorle stone, rather than the close fine the whole altitude 631 feet. One of the grain of the Giants Causeway basaltes. columns is a quadrangular figure, prisAt the base of these gigantic columos matic, measuring 33 feet by 36 on the lies a wild waste of natural ruins of an sides, and about 200 feet perpendicular. enormous size, which, in the course of Compared to this what is Pompey's successive ages have been tumbled Pillar, or the celebrated column which down from their foundation by storms, stod before the temple of Venus Geneor some powerful and more mighty trix, at Rome, or the pedestal of Peter operations of nature. These massive the Great's statute at Petersburgh. The bodies have sometimes withstood the precipice towering majestic over an shock of their fail, and often lie in awful waste of broken columns, presents groups and clumps of pillars, re. to the spectator the most stupendous sembling many of the varieties of ar colounade ever erected by nature, and in tificial ruins, and forming a very novel comparison of which, the proudest moand striking landscape.

numents of human architecture are but A savage wildness characterizes this the efforts of pigmy imbecility to the great promontory, at the foot of which omnipotence of God. He who does not the ocean rages with uncommon fury. feel impressions of the sublime ou BeuScarce a single mark of vegetation has more, must be incapable of feeling them yet crept over the hard rock to divere in any situation. sify its colouring, but one uniform grey The enormous pillars of this promonDess clothes the scene all around. Upon tory are separable into smaller columns, the whole, it makes a fine contrast with the line of whose contact is very percep. the beautiful capes of Bengore, where tible in some of the falleo joints. the varied brown shades of the pillars, The grey man's path is a fissure in

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The face of the precipice, by which a visited it but from nocessity; and some path wiods down to the shore. A huge curious arrangements of the columbar pillar has fallen across the top of the tis. basaltes, with which it abouods, have sure, but it is immoveably fixed, and never been noticed except by its ioba. may be passed under without any ap bitants. prebension.

Drummond. The chalky cliffs of Raghery, crowned Hamilton observes, that though he by a venerable covering of brown rock, has described tbe basalt pillars of those forio a very beautiful and picturesque two magnificent promontories, Ben appearavce, as one is sailing towards inore and Fairbead, yet there are many them; and if the turbulence of the sea other similar arrangements through this do not restrain the eyes and fancy from country, which, though less worthy of expatiating around, such a striking siobservation as great objects, yet be militude appears between this and the come extreinels interesting when one opposite coast, as readily suggests an wishes to search minutely into the natu- idea, that the island might once have ral causes which might bave produced formed a part of the adjacent country, these extraordinary pillars.

from whence it has been disunited by The mountain of Duomull, lying be some violent shock of nature. tween Coleraine and the river Bush, Rachery is near five miles in length, abounds in this species of stone, parli- and about three quarters of a mile in cularly at the craigs of Islamore, where breadth ; towards the middle it is bent two different ranges of columns may be ju an angle, opposite to Ballycastle, add discovered, and at most of the guarries forms a tolerable bay, affording good which have occasionally been opened anchorage in deep water, witb a stiff round the mountain. They may be clay botiom; but a westerly wiod raises seen also at Dunluce Hill, near the such a heavy swell all along this coast, Castle of Dunluce; in the bed of the that few vessels can ride out a gale from river Bush, near the Bridge of Bush

that quarter. MiNs; on the suipmit of the mountain Raghery contains about 1100 inha. of Croaghmore; in many parts of the bitants. The coltivated land is kindig high land over Ballintoy; in the island enough, and produces excellent barley. of Kagbery; and io various other places, In a plentiful year 6001. worth of this through an extent of coast about 15 grain has been exported from it. The miles in leogth, and two in breadth.* craggy pasture fattens a small, but deli

Six or seven miles off the north coast cious breed of sheep. Even its inhos of Antrim, nearly opposite to Carrick- pitable rocks supply to the hand of ina-Rede and Fairbead, the places we have dustry a rich source of wealth, in the been just describing, lies the

sea-weed it affords for the manufacture

of kelp, which under an indulgent land ISLAND OF RAGHERY, OR RATALIN,

Jord, often goes to pay the wbole rent Thus described by Hamilton. Rag of the island. The horses as well as hery Island lies six or seven miles off sheep are small in kind, but extremely the northern coast of Antrim, opposite serviceable, and sure-footed beyond to Ballycastle Bay. Stands between this

conception. and the Scottish coast. Though the The inbabitants are a simple, labo island be not very remote, yet its situa- rious, and honest race of people, and tion, so much exposed to the northern ocean, and the turbulence of its irregu- island, which may very much surprise a

possess a degree of affectiou for their lar tides, have thrown such difficulties stranger. In coversation tbey always in the

of landsmen, lhat few bave talk of Ireland as a foreign country, and

really have scarce any intercourse with * Beyond this tract, which abounds in it, except in the way of their lille perfect pillars, an attentive observer will trade. À comnion and heavy curse be able to trace the same species of fossils, among them is, “ May Ireland be your in very distant parts of the country, as far binder end " as the porthern shore of Lough Neah, and From this amor patriæ arises their the mountains of the county of Derry ; in many places of which, imperfect

columnar great population, notwithstanding the forms may be observed: so that the great perils that attend their turbulent coast, cause whiclı geverated this species of stone,

as they never entertain a tbonght of has been exerted through a space of more trying to better their fortune by setting than 10 miles in length, and 20 in breadth, in any of the neighbouring lowds of that is, throuzh above 800 square miles. Antrim,

Small as this spot is, one can never INTERIOR OF AFRICA, theles distinguish two different charac

OBSERVATIONS on ABSTRACTS from the ters among its inhabitants. The Kenra

Travels of Ali Bey and ROBERT mer, or wesier eod, is craggy and moun

Adams, in the JOURNAL of SCIENCE tainous, the land in the vallies rich and

and the Arts, Vol. I. No. 2, Page 264, well cultivated, but the coast destitute

edi ed at the Royal INSTITUTION of of harbours. A single native is here

GREAT BRITAIN. known to fix his rope to a stake driven into the summit of a precipice, and froin

To the Editor of the European Magazine. thence alone, unassisted, to swing dowa

SIR, the face of a rock io quest of the nests IN

'N the discussion on Aly Bey's Tra. of sea-fowl.

vels in the Journal of Science and From hence activity, bodily strength, the Arts above-mentioned, are the fol. and self-dependance are eminent anung lowing words.* the Kenramer-men. Want of inter Aly Bey has added, in a separate course with strangers has preserved chapter all the information be received many peculiarities, and their native respecting a Mediterranean Sea, from a Irish coutioues to be tbe universal lan. merchant of Morocco, of the name of guage.

Sidi Matte Buhlal, who had resided The Ushot-end, on the contrary, is many years at Tombuctoo, and in other barren in its soil, but inore open and countries of Sudan or Nigritia; the well supplied with little harbours: bence most material of which was, that Tonits inhabitants are become fishermen, but is a large town, very trading, and are accustomed to make short voyages inhabited by Moors and Negroes, and to barter. Intercourse with strangers

was at the same distance from the Nile has rubbed off many of their peculiarin Abid (or Nile of the Negroes, or Niger) ties, and the English language is well

as Fez is from Wed-Sebu, that is to say, understood and spoken.

about three hundred English miles.This distinction, I fear, my seem As this passage is quoted from Ali foolishly speculative, considering the Bey by the first literary, society of Great diminutive object of it; and yet, I as Britain, and is therefore calculated to sure you, it is a matter of fact; and the create a doubt of the accuracy of what inhabitants themselves are so well aware I have said, respecting the distance of of this, that in perilous situations, dif- the Nilo El Abeede, from Timbuctoo, ferent offices and stations are appointed in the enlarged editions of my acunto each, according as he is an Ushot count of Marocco, &c. page 297, I or a Keoramer-man.

consider it a duty which I owe to my Raghery has formerly been, as it country and to myself, not to let this were, a stepping-stone between the sentence pass through the press,

without Irish and Scotlish coasts, which the na- submitting to the public, through the tives of each country alternately used same medium of intelligence, my obser: in their various expeditioos, and for vations on the subject. which they frequently fought.

Sidi Matte Buhlal is a native of Fas; In my return froni Raghery I spent the pame, according to the Arabic or a few days at Ballycastle, a town pretty thography, is Sidi El Matie Hellel ; coasiderable in this part of the world, this gentleman is one out of twenty which has been almost the entire crea authorities from wbom I derived the tion of one man, a Mr. Boyd, who died information recorded in my account of some years ago.

Marocco, and respecting Timbuctoo, The eastern side of Ballycastle bay and the interior of Africa. His whole terminates in the bold promontory of family, wbich is respectable and numeFairhead. Between this and the town rous, are among the first Timbuctoo lie the collieries, in an abrupt bank that merchants, that have their establishoverhangs the sea. Ships, however, can ments at Fas. I should, however, add, not derive much advantage from this that ainong the many authorities from circumstance, as the uosheltered situa. whoin 1 derived my iuformation, relation of the place, and the prevailing live to Timbuctoo, ibere were two Mus. westerly winds, make a delay on the, selmen in particular, merchants of recoast extremely dangerous, and renders spectability and intelligence, who came it difficut to embark the coals.

from Timbucloo to Santa Croz, SOOR (To be continucl.)

• Page 270.

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