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after I opened that port to Dutch com interior of this unexplored continent, merce, in the capacity of agent of Hal- my account will be so inuch the more innd, by order of the Emperor of Ma- authentic. My confidence in this opi. rocco, Muley Yezzid, brother and pre- nion, (however dogmatical it may apdecessor of tbe present Emperor, Soli- pear) is founded on the original and in. man; these two gentlemen bad resided telligent sources of my information, on at Timbuctoo, and in other parts of a long residence and general acquain. Soudan, 15 years, trading during the tance with all the principal inhabitants whole of that period, with Parbeylil, on of West Barbary, whose connections the coast of the Red Sea, with Jinnie, lay in Soudan, and at Timbuctoo, in a Iloussa, Wangara, Cashna, and other competent knowledge and practical ac. countries of the interior, from whom, quaintance with the languages of North and from others equally intelligent and Africa, and a consequent ability to discredible, I procured iny information criminate the accuracy of the sources of respecting the Medilerranean Sea in the my intelligence. interior of Africa, called the Sea of Sou This being premised, I now proceed dun, situated 15 days journey east of to offer to the public my animadver. Timbuctoo. These two Musselmensions on the above quotation from the merchants had amassed considerable Jourval of Science and the Arts. fortunes at Timbuctoo, and were on
I have actually crossed the Wad Sebu, their journey to Fas, their native place; or the River Sebu, alluded to in the but in consequence of a civil war raging above quotation, which passes through at that time throughout West Barbary the Breber, Kabyl of Zimure Shelleb; I (particularly in the province of Haha, have crossed the same river several through which it was indispensable that times at the city of Mequinez, and also they should pass, in their way to l'as), at Meheduma, where it enters the ato they sojourned with me two months, lantic Ocean in lat. N. 34. 15. and from after which they departed for Fas, with this experimental knowledge of the
These intelligent Moors course of that river, I can affirm with gave me much information respecting confidence, that it is not inaccurately Timbuctoo, and the interior countries, laid down in my map of West Barbary, where theyhad resided; theysold me many facing page 1, of my account of Marocarticles of Soudanic manufacture, anong co, &c. and that it is not 300 * Eaglish which were three pieces of fine cotton miles from Fas, but only six English cloth, manufactured at Timbuctoo, and miles from that city. I can also assert, some ornaments of pure gold in or-mo from incontestible testimony, that 'Tom. lu, of exquisite workmanship, of the but, or Timbuctoo, is not 300 miles manufacture of Jinnie. One of these from the Nile El Abude, but only about pieces of Timbuctoo manufacture, of 12 English miles from that stream, the cotton interwoven with silk, of a square latter bing south of the town. blue and white pattern, dyed with In Respecting the following passage, in digo of Timbucloo, I had the honour to the above-quoted Journal of Science and present to the British Museum, in April, the Arts, page 272:1796, where it is now deposited.*
“ This river contains the fierce aniI have been led into this digression, mals called Tzemsah, which devour from certain insinuations that have men." been t insidiously propagated, refiect. I shall only observe, that Temsah is ing on the accuracy of my statements, the word in the African Arabic which respecting the interior of Africa, and, I denominates the crocodile. must add, that I always have felt, and still Farther on in the same page, we bare feel confident, that in proportion as we
the words shall become more acquainted with the “ We must suppose that the Joliba
makes at this spot a strange winding, This piece of cloth, about two yards which gives to the inhabitants of Mowide and five long, had the honour of rocco the opinion they express." offering to Sir Josaph Banks, who declined This supposed winding is actually receiving it, but at the same time suggested asserted to exist, and is depominated by that it was an article deserving public no the Arabs + El Kose Nile, i. e. the arch tice, and would be considered an acceptable present by the British Museum,
* Vide Jackson's enlarged account of + See my Letter to the Editor of the
Morocco, &c. page 297, Monthly Magazine, March, 1817, page 125. t ibid p. 305.
or curve of the Nile, and is situated be- scribed the town of Timbuctoo to be tween the cities of Timbuctoo and under the sovereiguty of a Negro Prince Jinnie.
is to me incomprehensible. The various I should here adduce some further sources of informalion that I have in. testimony respecting the course of the vestigated uniformly declare that sove. Nile El Abeede, but as the quotation reigo to be a Negro, and that his name from Aly Bey, in the above Journal, in the year 1800 was Woolo, this acpage 271, asserts it to be towards the count it appears is confirmed by Adams, east, and again, in page 272, declares it who says Woolo was King of Timbucto be towards the west, such incohe. too in 1810, and that he was then old rence, I presume, requires no confuta- and grey-beaded. Some years after the tion; I consider that it originates from above period, Riley’s Narrative, epito. Moorish inaccuracy.
mised in Leydeu's Discoveries and The La Mar Zurak of Adams, if any Travels in Africa, Vol. I. speaking of the such river exists, may be a corruplion King of Timbuctov, says, -* This soveof Sugia el Ilumra, i.e. the Red Stream, reign is a very large, old, grey-headed a river in the soutbern confines of the black,called Shegar, which means şultan; Desart, nearly in the same longitude this, however, I must observe, is a miswith Timbucioo; this river the late interpretation of the word shegar, wbich Emperor of Marocco, Muley Yezzid, is an African Arabic word, and signifies announced as the southern boundary of red, or carrotty, and is a word applicahis dominions; but from the accounts ble to his physiognomy, but certainly which I have bad of it, it was not of that not to his rank : Abd-Shegar, a carrotty magnitude which Adams ascribes to the or red Negro.” Mar Zarak, nor was it precisely in the If these two testimonies, since 1800, neighbourhood of Timbuctoo when I be correct and I really see no reason to was a resident in South Barbary. Rivers, doubt them), then the anachronisin, of however, which pass through sandy or
which I am accused in the New Suppledesert districts often change their ment to the Encyclopedia Britannica courses in the space of 21 hours by the title Africa), is misapplied. drifting of the moving sands impelled Many of the king's civil officers, how by the wind, instances of which I have ever, in 1800, were Mooselmen, but the myself witnessed.
military are altogether Negroes. If this river proceeded from the However fervent the zeal of MobamDesert, it might have had the name medanism may be at Timbuctoo, it is of El Bahar ahara, i. e. the River of not, I imagine, sufficient to convert the Sahara ; the word la mar is a Lingua Negroes, who have not the best opinion Franca, or corrupt Spanish word, sigui. of the Mohammedan tencts. The Nefying the sea, and might have been used groes, however, are disposed to abjure to this poor sailor by a native, to make idolatry for any other form of religion it the inore intelligible to bim, many that they can be persuaded to think pre. Spanish words having crepi into the ferable, or that boids out a better proso Arabic vo«abulary, and are occasionally pect, a convincing proof of which has used by those Africans who bave had in been shown in the readiness of the Afrie tercourse with Europeans.
caos of Congo and Avgola to renounce The next passage for animadversion their idolatry for the Christian faith, is as follows:
and by the conversion of thousands to “ The state in which he represented that faith by the indefatigable zeal of Timbuctoo, and its being the residence the Catholic Missionaries when the Porn of a Negro Sovereign, iostead of a Mus. tuguese fiest discovered those countries, selman.
and which, if the Sovereign of Portugal The state in which he has represented bad persevered with that laudable zeal Timbuciou is, I think, extremely inac withi which he began to promote the curate, and being a slave, it is more conversion of the Africans, the inhabia than probable that he was placed in a * tants of those extensive and populous fondaque, or a caravausera, belonging countries might at this day have been to the king, which he mistook for his altogether members of the Christian palace; but that his narrative should be Church. deeined inaccurate, because he has de
I am, Sir,
Your most obedient servant, * Vide Jackson's Account of Marocco,
JAMES G. JACKSON. &c. page 293.
London, Dec. 1917.
THE AGE OF TIME.
production, the human brain. This " Nunc est mundi senectus." was the “ attic salt of ancient Greece." HAT is that anachronism of Why is this precious" saline lop-dress
speech, or confusion of ideas, ing,” so little sought, and so rarely prowhich calls the last years of mortality duced in these latter times? Is its im. its old age, and the early centuries of portation prohibited ? or is the native this world's creation, its old times? How production and the curious chemistry gratifying would it be to the fading of its forming precipitation too much beauty of fasbion, to find her latest day, checked by the heavy stamp-duty on her youngest too; and how content to our diurnal folios, the ready receplacles be complimented and flattered on the of its smallest granulations? wit and graces of her early ancient To no one of the natural and univerdays? Surely the world was young at
sal elements of our uses, is the “ ne its creation ; aud even the first and only quid nimis" more applicable, or the pair of its inhabitants, though innocent caution required, than to salt of every and happy, were not wisc; nor have kind (the attic alone excepted): salt is transmitted that inberitance to any of sauce for our appetites and physic for their numerous descendants. But if our soils ; not food for either: used human wisdom be a plant of slow growth, too copiously, it is scurvy for the body, it seems, in the species, as in the iodivi. and sterility to the land. The health of dual, to grow with his age, and strength the inhabitants of the European quarter en by bis experience.. What is the of the globe, the absence of the intercausc, and how do we justify this habi- mitting plagues by which they were tual appeal to antiquity for its wisdoin, formerly visited and afflicted; the infrewhile all bistory gives us honest evi- quency of the scorbutic habit; the redence of weakness, folly, and crime in duced virulence of all the variolous affecall its series. Even Moses, Solomon, tions, which yield now so easily to the merand David not altogether excepted. curial and vaccine remedies, are all much Are we not always referring to soine to be referred to the desuetude of the too superhuman commuoications to man, constant diet of salted meals and fish. in the beginning, of which we cherish The use of the other salts, which has even the earliest and slightest glimpses been introduced or extended by our ad. we can still discern ?
vance in the sciences of medicine and Our moral system is, perbaps, yet far chemistry, and in particular of that from its maturity. We should then do bet. vegelablc salt of the Atlantic islands, ter to strive to honor our advance, and to “ the saccharine,” has contributed to justify our progress in science and expe. our health, comfort, and delectations rience; to acknowledge and to evidence have rendered our temperaments more by our iinprovement that we have fallen bland“ by cooling the blood and særeto on the “olden times," and not to fancy ening the juices;" it would be well did an impotence, or fashion false excuses our experience allow us to say truly, for not profiting by the teaching lessons that they have lessened fighting among of the earlier and younger periods of the us, as much as they have relieved human society.
fretfuloess, and lessened scratchOct. 7.
ALPHA. ing.” For though we are not of opioion
that sugar-candy and lollipops have Toe SALINE AND THE SACCHARINE.
sharpened our wits, they seem to have THE qualities, virtues, and powers tended to sweeten tbe breatb, dulcify
the temper, and soften our speech, and and medicinal, and its various ada many with the Chinese leaf, to have smoothed uses and benefits to mankind, have been the association of our intercourse, eased known and acknowledged in the earliest the malrimonial yoke, and to have retimes. “ Ye are the salt of the earth," lieved our feinales from much of the was said to those who were to amend
slinking and stupifying effects of ardeat and advance the moral condition of
spirits, and tongue-tying tobacco. nian ; its physical powers justified un Why theo should the fioancial econodoubtedly the strength and propriety of my of the British Isles take so much the metaphor. There was a sall known paios, in the short-reaching policy of an formerly (about 2100 years ago) of unreflecting imitation of Norman bed which the name has come dowu to us, custom (the gabelle), and a half-indolent with some few speciinens of its happy adherence to the practice of long pas! cffect, even on that delicate organ of times, which we most simply call tbe
“ olden times,” though it is the last tion-out of merc resentment to bis hour that is the oldest, if not the wisest only daughter, who married against his since the creation; to neutralize, cramp, consent. or annihilate our peculiar advantages “ Well, but how does this affect me?" in the abundant salt of our sea coasts Many years ago, Sir, during your and springs, and its cheap conversion falber's life time, his claim to a consi. by our ready and inexhaustible coal; derable part of the estate was disputed neglecting or preventing all or much by this very Sir Thomas" of its great use and value, in all its che Which, if I remember right, was mical varieties of application to our afterwards dropped for the want of a fish, food, manures, manufactures, mc particular document, absolutely neces. dicine, cattle, and corn?
sary to establish it.” Surely, revenue in its largest receipt ** Exactly so. However, in looking and general results, can have no per over the papers since his death, the wanent and improving root or source,
solicitor en ployed by the new possessor but in the produce or riches of the scas has accidently stumbled upon this very and the soil, by industry, economy, and paper; and, in a conversation with me skill, by that cheapness which is the coo. iwo days ago, hiuted it, as his probable sequence of abundance, not of the mi. intention of proceeding against you in sery of ill-paid labour, and low-priced case of a refusal.” laud, grain, or manufactures; these, “ Did you ever hear my father mention pushed too far, are in no long course, the circumstance?" "Very seldoni, as the the very opposites to wealth or case, occurrence took place before I entered to the improvement of revenue, or the his service ; but Mr. Plausible was acsecurity of the creditor of the state. quainted with the transaction, and October 7.
OMICRON. could, most probably, give you more
certain infurination about it. Iu the
mean time, it would be as well to exaHISTORY OF PETER PLIANT. mine the papers of my late master, for
any document relative to it.”. (Continued from page 441.)
* Right, Mr. Somers-after breakO sooner were the occurrences of fast we will attend to it; at present let
us join the ladies." suspension of mental power,” vulgarly The conversation now turned upon called sleep, than they rose a second more general subjects, and enquiries time to my imagination, dressed in all were made after ail the appendages of the alluring colours fancy could invent. niy household, till my thoughts rccurred I will vot tire your patience by detail to the incident that took place the day ing them, but merely observe, that they. I left the country, and the farmer and revelled in my brain till the dawn of his daughter were the subjects of our morning was so far advanced, that a consideratio!). gentle knock on iny chamber door, “Oh, I had nearly forgot it," refrom the knuckles of Mr. Somers, dis- turned Mr. S. “ the farmer is quite repelled the little train and reinstated covered of his accident, and desires me Reason in her seat.
to present his grateful respects for your My desire to know the cause of his timely assistance. I lost no time in journey to London operated so forcibly obeying your summons, and went back. upon me that a few minutes only elapsed wards and forwards occasionally, till he before I obeyed his sumnions and cu• was perfectly restored. He is a much tered the drawing room.
pearer neighbour at present, for old • My presence is rather unexpected, Chickweed, who used to live at the I dare say, Sir," observed he ; but an bortom of the lane, having run away in occurrence has taken place which 1 debt and left the cottage vacant, the thought so expedient for you to be former took it. He is a kind-hearted nade acquainted with, that I left the soul, and, with his daughter, occasionmansion in the care of my son, and ally enlivens the solitude of the ball. came myself.” Unexpected, cer But we hope soon to see you with us." tainly, but not the less welcome. What “ The tiine will not be long now; and, has occurred;"
indeed, wuch bearer thao I cxpected, "Your oid neighbour, Sir Thomas if your present errand turns out of any Thrifty, is dead ; and, as I understand, consequence. But I must see Mr. Plau. bas lelt bis properly to a distant sela siblc on the subject immediately; and,
in the mean time, Icave you to amuse ference Ibat exists, is, that the social iny aunt and cousins with a detail of tenor of my Lord's babils, when in my agricultural concerns, and as many company, produces a sensible effect articles out of last week's County Cbro. upon the claret boitle, and leads him nicle as you think will entertain them.” into a state of inebriation: whereas
I accordingly waited on Mr. Plausi John's social babits lead him to the ble, and gave him a slight sketch of the sign of the Jolly God, where he gets circumstance. After a few minutes gloriously drunk. The insinuating af. consideration he thus explained it - fected airs, which are reckoned vastly “ Some years before your father came engaging in Lady Belty, are impertiinto the possession of the estate, the pent in her waiting-maid. Rank, får lands in question were mortgaged, and from being an excuse for fully, is an so peculiar was the agreeinent, that if additional reason against it; and, would not redeemed by a certain time, they its followers remember the duly they were to be forfeited. They were so, owe to society, and evioce the superibut, unfortunately, the document prov. ority of their situation by their examing it was mistaid. This reaching the ple, they would possess a double claim cars of Sir Thomas, he thought it a to respect, and their mobility would good opportunity to revive bis claim; have a better foundation than pride of but he also having neglected the ori birth or extent of ancestry. ginal agreement of his uncle's, the These reflections brought me bome; question could not proceed. Matters where, having coinniunicated Mr. Plau. have stood in this staic ever since, and sible's advice, it was agreed that Mr. unless you are fortunate enough to find Somers should immediately return, and the lost document, I fear you will institute a general search for the docueventually lose your claim, as your ment wanting. The next day he ac. falber's witnesses are not alive.”
cordingly left London. I thanked him for his advice, and re The season of the year had now retraced my steps, reflecting on the un turned when the birth of a Saviour is certainty of fortune and the chance of celebrated by the Christian world. As Josing my estaie, when I was suddenly is usual on these cases, my aunt had accosted with the voice of a gentleman, long been accustomed to entertain a and turning round beheld sir E. Court large party of friends, among whom I ly—“Ah, Mr. Pliant, hope you are was glad to perceive Mr. Manning and well - how are tbe ladies ? - eb his family. Our observance of the day thoughtful; what, meditating some was divested of those disgraceful prue scheme upon the dear creatures-0, ceedings, which too often accompany ou're a sad fellow, Mr. Pliant." I it; we felt that we had met to celebraie smiled at his interpretation of my no common event, and looked upon it thoughts, and was going to undeceive as a day rather calculated to repress liion, when the wheels of a carriage than excite those licentious propeosilies whirled swiftly by us, and recogoizing which are commonly indulged. in the person of the charioteer
Relurning frome one evening, in this dear friend the Hom. Toin Careless," he season of festivity, from Mr. Manning's, called to him to stop, and putting hiscard at whose house i bad become a frequent into niy hand, espressing a wish to sce visitor, a violent quarrel took place in me whenever it was agreeable, mounted the street, at the head of which I obe the box and drove off with his friend. serves Sir Edward Courily. So loud
I could not help siniling at the vola were the mutual imprecations on both tility of sir Edward; but my attention s des, that it was some time before I was speedily engrossed by a different couli ailempt to paciiy bim; bul, as rellection When the votaries of high soon as I could, I endeavoured to relife coniescend to follow these murstills present the imprudence of such an ac. which more properly belong to their tion-buiibe more I lalked, the pariner interiors, we must not wonder that rank they greu-ull, at length, Sir Edward ceases to be respected ; that Jobn as are me a gentle pushi, aird told me he sumes all the ease and in perlance of wanted none of my interference. Not his manner; or that Bett: apes the de. disconcerted by this, and considering licate fuities of her inisiress. But such his siluaiion (being engaged with a paris the force of fisbion; it has the power cei ol worthkn fellowsi, I slitl urged of colouring over wang foibles which my endeavours, tiil, irritated by my would cise disgust 115. The only dir incessanl coircuties, be dumncd inc for