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were all delightful. The principal modern artists of celebrity. This acamale singer Signor Galli) has the demy of painting and sculpture has most profound and sonorous bass voice produced some excellent artists. I ever heard, and is a perfect Hercu- Among other sights in Milan, I les in figure, a tremendous looking went to Girolamo's theatre of puppets, fellow, with a neck like a bull, and (le Marionette,) and laughed more features of animated bronze. Six Nalthan at any exhibition I ever beheld. dis in conjunction would not equal You may perhaps think this was the solemn thundering roll of his childish enough entertainment; so it deep-spreading voice; it filled the was. But you don't know it, nor have whole theatre, which is larger than you ever seen any thing like it, nor the London Opera House. The stage any thing so superlatively ludicrous. is immense, contains six hundred peo. The puppets were about five feet (or ple and forty horses with ease. The perhaps less) in height; and Girola rest of the performers were cosimo (the master and owner of the cosi. This theatre is very like the theatre) was the animating soul and Opera-house in London, in the in- voice of these grotesque images. He side, but I do not think it is well had to speak and modulate his voice constructed for the propagation of in the characters of nine or ten difsound-2 feeble voice is not heard ferent dramatis persona, male and fem in the middle of the pit. What do male. He was, of course, invisible. you think was the price of admit. After an overture from a most mitance ? 30 sous, or 15 pence Sterling! serable orchestra, in which there was to the pit I mean, If you take a box neither time nor tune, nor any thing for the night, and get six or seven peo- like tolerable music, the curtain (on ple to join with you, it will cost you which was a very clever painting) Do more. It is not well lighted-only drew up, and a little deformed black, one candelabra, and the foot-lights of in a suit of brown, with scarlet stocka the stage. This gives it a gloomy ings, and an immense cocked hat, appearance. People there (if they moved forward upon the stage, and choose) light their own boxes, but began a soliloquy, which was interthere were only a few straggling can- rupted by the entrance of another des in them, glimmering here and strange figure, (a female,) who enterthere amidst the dusky twilight of ed into a smart dialogue with the lite this large theatre. The ballet was ele black, whose gestures, grimaces, very good and very splendid. Here and contortions of limb, were amazthey introduce a ballet between the ingly absurd, although perfectly in acts of the opera, and I think injudi, unison, in point of time and Italian ciously ;-it spoils the connection of manner, with the recitation which the piece. The scenery, dresses, and seemed to proceed from his inflexible decorations, were much finer than at lips. Had it not been for a certain Paris. The orchestra is a very excel awkward rigidity in their sidelong lent one.

motions, when moving from one part 16th Oct.- I visited also at Milan Il of the stage to another, and for the vi, C. R. Palazzo delle Scienze e belle Arti sibility of the wires attached to their di Brera, a celebrated establishment, heads, and descending from the roof and one of the finest edifices in that above the stage, one might have been city. As our time was limited I could deceived for a little into a belief of not visit any other parts of this palace the animal existence of these strange but those which contain the paintings personages. They walked about very and statues, and casts in plaster,-the clumsily, to be sure ; but then they collection of paintings is admirable, bowed, and curtsied, and flourished some of the works of the greatest mas, with their arms, and twisted themters are deposited here in a number selves about, with as much energy and of apartments dedicated to different propriety of effect as most of those styles and stages of the pictorial art; worthy living puppets who infest the and there are some very ancient paintstages of the little theatres in London. ing in fresco. There were several There were two skeletons, who playartists at work in the rooms making ed their parts admirably. They glidcopies of some of the paintings. The ed about, and accompanied their holcasts are very fine, and there are a low-voiced speeches with excellent few heads and figures in marble by gesticulations, while their fleshless. jaws moved quite naturally. Then, to shun detection in this way. They to crown all, there was a ballet of a- murdered every passenger whom they bout a dozen of these puppets; and stopped, and buried them along with they danced with all the agility of a the horses, which they killed. They Vestris, and cut much higher than burned the carriages and the bagever he did in his life. They actually gage, reserving only the money, did cut extremely well while in the watches, rings, &c. T'he public were air. You know the technical mean- amazed by the disappearance of all ing of that word in the dancing-mas- the travellers going between Florence ter's vocabulary. All the airs and and Bologna, for no vestige of them graces of the French opera-dancers, or their carriages, &c. could be found. their pirouettes, spinning round with A celebrated English traveller mena horizontal leg, &c. were admirably tions, that two of his friends, (Pisans,) quizzed. One of these dancers (dres- passing that road, rested near Pietra sed like a Dutchman) stopped short, Mala to sleep. They had a horrid after a few capers, and, drawing a supper ; and the landlady told th«m snuff-box from his pocket, took a she must send two miles for sheets. pinch; then replaced the box, and They observed, in the midst of the set off again with a most exalted ex. poverty and filth of the house, that ample of the entrechat. His partner she wore diamond rings ; and this, helped herself (from a pocket-pistol) with the terrible accounts of the place, to a dram, and then recommenced her determined them not to remain there, furious exertions !

They slipped out of the house before The streets of Milan are wonder- midnight, and, fortunately, escaped fully dark and quiet in the evening. with their lives, We slept two nights The city seems deserted ; and you among those wild and dreary moun. would almost imagine yourself in the tains, the scenes of so many murders midst of that place (mentioned in the and robberies. Arabian Nights) where the inhabi. The view of Florence from the Aptants were turned into stone. The penines, at eight o'clock yesterday, contrast between the streets of Milan was charming,—the morning clear and those of Paris or London, of an and sunny, but chill. Such a scene evening, is quite striking; the latter of richness and beauty it is not easy full of moving life, and light, and bus to conceive. The country all round tle, and vivacity, and noise the for- for many miles (and as far, and farmer gloomy, silent, and lifeless. ther, than the eye can reach) is a per

At Bologna I saw nothing remark- fect garden of the most charming deable, excepting the bronze Neptune scription ;-vines, olive-trees, orangeof the fountain, by John of Bologna. trees, pear-trees, apple-trees, &c. &c. The arcades that run along the princi- cover the plain, and the sides of the pal streets of this city are yery well mountains, which inclose this beauticalculated to shelter foot-passengers ful place. The country about Bofrom the rains and from the scorch- logna and Florence seems to me the ing sun of that climate. Ever since finest that I have passed through ;we began to ascend the Simplon the about Bologna it is charming, and weather has been very cold. Here, here still more enchanting. The river at this moment, it is as cold as in Arno, flowing through Florence, and Scotland at the same season. My fin- winding along amidst the richest culgers are quite benumbed. Yesterday tivation in the long extended plain, morning, about nine o'clock, we are adds infinitely to the beauty of the rived here, having been two days and landscape. I walked yesterday, at a half in crossing the Appenines, in sunset, along the fine avenue of cyshocking weather,-misty, rainy, and press and ever-green oaks, that leads very cold. By the bye, a few years to the Poggio įmperialé, the Grand ago, there was a tremendous troop of Duke's residence. It is a fine palace, banditti on these mountains, near with some admirable antique statues Pietra Mala, at which we rested for a in the court. few hours the day before yesterday. I have visited the Grand Duke's It is a wild, horrible-looking place. Palace, (il Palazzo Pitti,) one of the These miscreants had for their cap- most superb residences you can imatain the curate of a village in the gine. The greater number of the neighbourhood, and they endeavoured apartments were shut up against intru

sion; but I saw all those that were pomp and magnificence. Miners from most worthy of being seen, viz. those every part of Saxony, from the Capwhich contain the celebrated paint- tain-General to the common workings, and the Venus of Canova, be- man, assembled on this melancholy longing to this palace. This statue occasion. They were joined by all has a room appropriated to itself, and the talent and rank of Saxony. "The appears to me a very beautiful speci- whole of this immense assemblage acmen of sculpture. I saw there, a- companied the remains of Werner to mong a vast number of other fine pic- the grand cathedral of Freyberg. tures, the famous Madonna of Ra- They moved by torch-light, accomphael, besides other paintings by that panied with bands of exquisite instrugreat artist. Several Titians, Guidos, mental music, choirs of singers, and and Vandykes, and a most beautiful all the clergy of the province. This little head by Correggio. The group magnificent and striking procession of the Fatal Sisters, painted by Mi- reached the cathedral at twelve at chael Angelo, is a truly Shakespearian midnight; they entered, and filled composition—it breathes poetical hor- the whole of that immense and gorror! There is there an admirable geous edifice. An awful and imprespainting of Judith with the head of sive silence succeeded to the soft Holofernes in her hand, from which breathings of the most affecting muthe head of Judith has been engraved sic; every countenance bore marks of in France. You have seen that en- deep regret; and many, very many, graving ; but, alas ! how miserable is who knew the virtues of this admiit, compared with the original ! In rable man were melted in tears, or this, the face of Judith is beautiful absorbed in deep contemplation. This indeed-in the engraving, it is harsh- silence was interrupted by Böttiger, featured and masculine.

who delivered an oration over the As to my visiting Rome or Naples body of the illustrious deceased beat present, it is out of the question, fore it was consigned to the vault. since the roads to both these places The orator remarked, that the merits are infested with the most desperate of Werner were known in the most and atrocious banditti, especially be- remote regions of the earth; from tween Rome and Naples. Of late, the mines of Siberia to those of Peru, assassinations of plundered travellers from the wild and secluded counhave been very frequent; and five or tries near the North Cape, to the six of these murderous scoundrels smiling fields of Italy, and the luxu. have been hanged every day. The riant shores of the Black Sea. His sides of these roads are ornamented pupils were in every country of Euwith a rich display of legs and arms, rope, and even in the most distant dangling in the air in terrorem. The regions of the other quarters of the Pope is very active in destroying these globe, spreading his views and diswretches; but there are so many of coveries, and by their practical skill them, that he has hard work. Nea- developing the structure and compolitan and other troops are ordered position of the crust of the earth, to scour the country in all directions. improving mine-works, and discover Thinking it very inglorious to die by ing such minerals as are useful to the hands of Italian freebooters, I re- His name was enrolled in all main quietly where I am, and hope the principal philosophical associations for better times.

in Europe, and in Britain, a society had been established under his name,

which had eminently distinguished WERNER,

itself by the activity and talents of And the Wernerian Society. its members, and by the correct and In the preceding Number we com- extensive views of mineralogy, it cire municated to our readers a short bio- culated throughout that great country. graphical sketch of Werner, whose The information Werner received a death excited so great a sensation on short time before his death of the gethe Continent. We have now to add neral study of mineralogy in Great some interesting particulars to the ac- Britain, and of the flourishing state count then given.

of the Wernerian Society, afforded The funeral of Werner was public, him, Böttiger remarked, the greatest and conducted with extraordiŋary and most heartfelt satisfaction, and

man.

NATURAL HISTORY.

ocean.

even contributed to sooth the pains stone the particular study of the maof his disease, and to smooth his pas- rine inhabitants of the coasts and seas sage from a world of suffering to one of the Shetland Islands. No part of of peace and happiness.

the British empire in Europe offers greater variety of fishes, and of molluscous and radiated animals and zoo

phytes, than the native country of Dr 1. Ornithologia Zetlandica.

Edmonstone. This fact, indeed, is provDR EDMONSTONE of Lerwick, au, ed by the Doctor's former work, and by thor of the History of the Shetland the contributions to the British Fauna Islands, proposes to publish an Orni- in the Wernerian Memoirs. The study thologia Zetlandica, or Natural His- of the internal structure and functions tory of the birds of the Shetland Is- of these animals, with their various lands.

wonderful forms, motions, colours, Such a work, well executed, in the and lustres, does not fail to excite our style, for example, of the Fauna Græn- highest curiosity and admiration ; and landica of Fabricius, would prove a when we trace their physical distribuvaluable addition to the Zoology of tion on the coasts of the ocean-over the British Islands. Dr Edmonstone, sand banks-or in the deep gulfs we know, has devoted many years to and valleys of the submarine land, the study of the habits and manners and connect these with the depth and of the feathered tribes of his native temperature of the water, the set of country; and he has observed, with currents, and the progress of tides, we care and attention, the various changes are rewarded by the discovery of nuin their plumage, which are often so

merous interesting circumstances in striking and characteristic, and par- their natural history. Even indeticularly in the water fowl of the pendent of all other considerations,

His opportunities for investi- the mere collecting of these animated gating the natural history of these in; beings in their natural haunts, is of teresting beings of this lower world itself most interesting. Sometimes, are great, they are such, indeed, as in pursuit of them, we row along the fall to the lot of but few, and there- magnificent rocks and coasts of the fore we rejoice to find that he makes islands, or sail to the fishing grounds, ample use of them. This work, we where we may witness the labours of expect, will present us with clearly the fishermen in the great deep, or defined specific characters ; complete occasionally experience those awful and well arranged descriptions of the and impressive feelings that arise when adult male and female bird ; accurate overtaken by a storm. On other ocenumerations of the various changes casions, our researches lead us amongst in the colours of the feathers, from the rocky precipices and promontories, or young bird to the fixed state of the into caves and caverns of striking and plumage ; and interesting details of often of fearful magnitude. When their various habits, manners, uses, &c. the atmosphere is stormy, and the bilall stated in a regular and systematic lows of the ocean advance in awful order, and not in the usual vague and majesty, and break on these ironrambling manner followed by many bound coasts with the tumult of the ornithologists. We trust the zoolo- tempest and the roar of thunder, ali gist of the Shetland Isles will not al- earthly feelings are forgotten, and the low this opportunity to pass without mind is absorbed in contemplation of tracing out and explaining to his the mighty power of the eternal Goreaders the grand features of the fea- vernor of the world. But when the thered world in this region of the heaven is calm, and the wind has earth, and of shewing how these are ceased, when the sea is still, or its connected with the climate and situa- faint murmur only disturbs the sition of the country, with the vegeta- lence of nature, then the cliffs and bles that cover its surface, and the rocky promontories and caves,-the ocean with which it is surrounded.

immeasurable ocean in apparent con

tact with the skies, form a harmonious 2. Study of the Marine Animals of and sublime picture, the aspect of

Shetland recommended. which lulls the soul into a heavenly We would recommend to Dr Edmon- state of calm and repose.

3. Hot Spring rising through the Sea in which he put a fish about three or the Mediterranean. four inches long, and covered it up.

In six minutes I uncovered it, and Hot Springs make their appearance found it perfectly well boiled, and at the surface of the earth at various prepared for eating. heights; sometimes high up on moun- “In the interior of this island I found tains; or at the level of the sea, or rising large beds of native sulphur, perfectly through the rocks and sands left by the pure, and of a fine pale yellow colour; ebbtide; but it rarely happens that they and upon some parts of its coasts I are observed to rise from the bottom found a black sand, which, upon exaof the sea at a distance from the shore. mination, proved to be crystallized In Olaffsen and Povelson's account iron." of Iceland, we read accounts of hot springs that rise through the waters of the sea ; and the following fact 4. Vapour rising from the Sea in Wincommunicated to us by a naturalist ter, called in Halifax The Barwho visited the Greek Islands many ber.years ago, shows that phenomena of the same kind occur in the Mediterra

The temperature of the air at which nean.

this singular appearance takes place “ The Island of Milo, in the Archi- varies with the period of the winter. pelago, abounds with Hot Springs, and Its presence seems to depend chiefly some of those are even seen to rise on the relative temperature of the air upon its coasts, in the sea, at some and water, though it may be affected distance from the shore. One day, by other circumstances. Early in the sitting upon a rock by the side of the winter, when the temperature of the harbour, where I was preparing to water is higher, it would appear, from bathe, 1 perceived, about 10 or 50 the following table, that a less degree yards from me, a very uncommon of cold in the atmosphere will produce looking circular agitation in the sea, it than afterwards, when the water is which had the appearance of water

colder. when it first gets into a boiling state. Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1814. In swimming I directed my course towards the agitated point ; on my approach to it I felt the temperature of the water very much altered, and

A copious vapour.

Slight vapour. when I came in contact with the part Feb. 9,

No vapour. in agitation, I felt it most disagree- 15,9 A.M. 9

Slight app. of vap. 15, 8 A.M. 6

Va. pretty copious. ably hot.

“ I afterwards visited this place in a In very cold days, this vapour rose boat, and found the sea water to be many feet above the surface of the wahere 18 feet deep, and the column of ter, perhaps twenty or twenty-five feet, hot water which rose through it to be and resembled a thick fog. As the about a foot and a half in diameter. temperature rose in the forenoon, it This column rose with unequal force; generally disappeared, but in very cold sometimes it was only seen to disturb weather it continued the whole day. in a small degree the surface of the I think it was greatest during a good water, and at other times it rose con- breeze of wind,-probably from the siderably above it, so as to permit one agitation of the water exposing a greatto judge of its size. Upon a sandy er surface. beach in the same harbour I found a The range of the temperature of the geat number of small hot springs water in January and February was bubbling up through the sand. These very little. in some places had communicated so In January from 34° to 29o. great a degree of heat to the sand, In February from 33° to 270 that I was obliged to withdraw my This last was the lowest to which band from it immediately upon im- the water fell. It was on February 1st mersion. Here a Greek brought me when the thermometer in the air some small fish, which, he told me, I stood at 2o. On the following day the might very soon boil in that place. air was 41°, water 32. He dug a hole about a foot deep, in This vapour is observed only in VOL. II.

Thermometer

Dec, 22,
Jan. 10,

In Air. In Sea Wat.


10 30
8 28

28
28

C

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