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again see the light. Persons are count- their tears together, if these unhappy ed by hundreds who die every year persons supported each other in their for want of nourishment or care, of affliction ; but friendship, the sweet the blows which they have received, consoler of afflicted hearts, becomes of merely of regret, dejection, and de- mute for beings who never meet with spair. Wo to them if they dare to pity. Instead of loving and supportmurmur, or to utter the slightest la- ing, they hate and envy each other. mentation. For the smallest negli- He who has suffered too much from gence they receive two hundred strokes the cruelty of men, and from an iron on the sole of the foot, for the slight- destiny, feels the source of compasest resistance they are punished with sionate tears dried up within him, and death.

the flame of amiable sentiments extin“There is in slavery a certain cha- guished in his heart; that heart itself racter of disgrace, of meanness, of bite becomes hard as stone, The Italian terness, which chills the soul, disgusts language gives the name of intristito, the view, and revolts the thought. saddened, to a tree or a field which, Men despise and reject this degraded never seeing the sun, produces no fruit, being, as in India they despise and and is clothed with no flowers; the reject the proscribed and accursed same name may be applied to a man classes of the Parias and the Pulkis. whose mind is coldly and deeply perThe slaves, accustomed themselves verted." to be oppressed and despised, think Nothing appears to us more strikthemselves as contemptible as misera- ing than this observation of an eyeble. These iron chains, which are witness on the moral effects of slavery; with us a sign of crime and dishon- that sinking of character, that contaa our, degrade the soul of him by whom gious contempt which is felt even by they are wom. Servitude extends him who is the object of it ; that coneven to the soul. The son of civiliz- fession of inferiority, which force aed Europe learns to think himself of lone extorts from weakness; that drying a nature inferior to these savages of up of the heart which shuts it against the African Syrtes; and man, born pity, when our own misfortunes exfree, who had learned to turn his eyes haust in ourselves all our power of to Heaven, thinks himself born to suffering. Many other observations serve, and yiews himself as sunk confirm this sad truth. We know to the vile condition of a beast of bure that in great national calamities, in den. The soul is often purified in plagues, in famines, in great military the furnace of adversity; but in the reverses, the heart, amid suffering and condition of the slave there is some- danger, closes itself against compasthing dismal and abject, which makes sion; and selfishness, called forth in courage lose its temper, extinguishes all its force for the preservation of our the fire of every generous passion, existence, stifles every other affection. and deprives man of his intelligence We know that a race is seldom viewed and dignity. The greatest of all mis- with universal contempt, without befortunes is, that virtue, which triumphs coming really contemptible; that the over all afflictions, which sometimes government' which secures liberty, renders them precious to us, virtue renders men more virtuous, by renitself is often weakened or extinguish- dering them respectable in their own e in hearts oppressed by the cruelty eyes; that despotism renders them deof men, or overwhelmed by the feel graded still more than it renders them ing of a degraded nature. Gloom miserable. The experience dates from renders the heart bad, while it sinks the time of Homer, and has never the courage; the virtues are all de- been falsified. Yet it is not without rived from a noble' and exalted soul, grief we are forced to acknowledge, while meanness engenders only vice that even this inheritance, the noblest Religion itself, that pillar of Heaven, and most precious which remains to on which the Christian rests, when us, that virtue itself, as well as riches all is shaken around him, religion af- and liberty, may be taken away by fords no longer consolation to a wound- fortune. ed heart. The unhappy no longer We cordially join, then, in the naturn towards Heaven, when they feel ble wish of Mr. Pananti, for the themselves abandoned on earth. It abolition of slavery in Africa, and the were well if, in suffering, they mingled destruction of a goveriment which

to the shame of European nations, is It is not by bombardment, a meamaintained only by a robbery exer- sure cruel, because useless, that the cised against them. May there be Barbary States must be punished; it established over all the coast of Bar- is by an armed establishment fixed bary, a liberal government, which may among them. The piratical governrestore to happiness this beautiful ments must be deprived of a country portion of the world, which may call which they are unworthy to govern; a numerous people to civilization and the Moors must be rendered happy, opulence, which may make new open- instead of being punished for crimes ings to European industry in the mar- which are not theirs, and which attach ket which is richest and nearest to us, only to their masters. The whole tenor and which will receive our manufac- of history seems to prove that there is no tures in return for new sources of en, region in the world, the conquest of joyment, and for the means of sub- which would be easier than that of sistence, of which Barbary will long Mauritania, since it has scarcely ever be the granary.

been attempted without succeeding. M. Pananti leaves no room to doubt The Romans attacked Africa in the for a moment, that the bombardment centre, and, after conquering Carthage, of Algiers, executed by an English extended themselves along the two fleet, far from ameliorating the condi- shores, and reduced Numidia and tion of those who navigate the Media Mauritania into Roman provinces. terranean, or trade to Barbary, has The Vandals entered by the strait of augmented their dangers. The Dey, Cadiz, and placed it entirely under it is true, has been constrained to set their yoke, extending from west to at liberty the captives who were found east. Belisarius, with the Greeks, at Algiers; but his hatred against who called themselves Romans, atChristians, his resentment, and his tacked it anew in the centre, setting desire of vengeance, thenceforth no out from the ports of Sicily, he delonger knew any bounds. He has stroyed the power of the Vandals, received from Europeans the most and restored to Justinian those vast sanguinary affront, while his power has provinces, which it seemed ought no not been at all diminished. For we longer to belong to an empire so much must not imagine that the death of weakened. Three times, in short, eight or ten thousand men, women, Africa was conquered from east to or children, who perished in the west by the Arabs; in 647, by Abbombardment of Algiers, or the burn dallah and Zobeir ; in 667, by Akbah, ing of a great number of the houses lieutenant of the Caliph Moaviah; and of the peaceable inhabitants, is a na- in 692, by Hassan, the governor of tional calamity in the eyes of an Afrin Egypt, for the Caliph Abdalmalek. It can tyrant. It is to him only an in- appears to me, that none of these sult; and the sentiment is the more armies of conquerors ever exceeded bitter, from having been inflicted by forty thousand men. that race which he calls infidel, and The French and Spaniards had not, which he despises. Accordingly, from it is true, equal success in their atthat moment, he has not ceased to tempts upon Africa. But the religiprepare for vengeance. The African ous fanaticism which adds to the governments, formerly always divided, bravery of the soldier, almost always have been united by a close alliance. misleads the prudence of the captain. The superiority of the Sublime Porte, Nothing less than a miracle would after being long disowned, has been have been necessary to render successinvoked anew, that it may afford them ful the expedition of St Louis against protection. The most marked and Tunis in 1270; accordingly, it was a incessant activity has been employed, miracle which that pious king expectin adding to the fortifications, in mak. ed. The conquests of the Portuguese ing new levies of troops, and in build- and Spaniards, at the end of the fifing new vessels. The time can- teenth and the commencement of the not be distant, when the consuls of sixteenth centuries, were the work of a Europe will be massacred at Algiers, handful of men, whose success greatthe merchants settled there thrown ly exceeded the means by which it into chains, and when new swarms of was attained, till the period when Corsairs will infest the seas, and re- Charles V. wholly occupied by annew their system of piracy.

other train of ambition, renounced

the empire which his predecessors had haps no chance that Europe will find been on the point of founding in a hundred thousand for a plan of conMauritania.

quest which humanity and philosophy The Spaniards had conquered Oran could approve. Yet he calls for the and Bugia, and had in 1509 rendered formation of an European league to the Kings of Algiers and Tremecen deliver Africa ;—but we know what is tributary; but the greatest obstacle the usual fate of leagues ; how each to their success was found in the fero- member claims all the profit and all city of their chiefs, and the fanaticism the honour of the enterprise, throwing of their soldiers and priests. Their upon others all the labour and danger. generals deluged the shore of Africa In an invasion of Africa, negociation with blood; they acted with so much would be still more important than perfidy and intolerance, that they arms, since it would, first of all, be neunited against themselves the various cessary to persuade the people, that nations of Mauritania. They had their oppressors only were to be atfound them divided, as they now are, tacked, and that the conquerors would and all equally ready to shake off a respect their religion, their manners, yoke which was insupportable to them, their rights, and their happiness. But if another yoke, still heavier and the contradictory projects of numermore abhorred, had not been offered ous allies, their injudicious measures, in exchange. It is well known what and their secret jealousies, would unresentment was cherished by the questionably thwart every negociation. Moors against the odious Hugh de Must we then banish every hope of Moncade, who boasted of having be- redress to the land of chimeras, or, longed to the school of Cæsar Borgia, which is almost the same thing, to whose vices he possessed without his that of memory? We do not think so. good qualities.. Philippino Doria, France, Italy, and Spain, are particuready to give him battle, hesitated larly exposed to the provocations of not to set loose from chains the Moors the Barbary States. One of these naof his own gallies, and to give them tions, should it regain the vigour it

These ruffians, still covered once possessed, would be sufficient, with the blows which they had re- with only a part of its force, to effect ceived from the Genoese, for whom the conquest of Africa. In looking they were going to fight, darted for forward to an era which cannot be ward, half naked, and with sabre in distant, though nothing yet shews its hand, against the galley of the cruel near approach, it is not useless to reviceroy of Naples; and they gratified call without ceasing the outrages of their thirst for the blood of him who the piratical governments, to fix the has shed so much on the coast of attention of the public upon the adAfrica.

vantages, and the probable success of a Good policy, which is that of hu- descent upon Africa ; and to form such manity, of benevolence, of religious an opinion in Europe, that the motoleration, will always easily separate ment a sovereign, from a just sense of the Moors, the Berebbers, the Bedou- offended dignity, should undertake a in Arabs, and the cultivating Arabs, serious war against the Barbary States, at the foot of Mount Atlas, from the no other would think it lawful to opTurks their oppressors. The latter pose him in so noble an enterprise. are brave, it is true, but ignorant in Under this point of view, M. Pananti the art of war; and European tactics appears to us, by his work, to have secure to an able captain an immense deserved well of humanity. superiority over such soldiers, not

S. S. I. withstanding the greatest disproportion of numbers. The glorious campeigns in Egypt prove it. M. Pa

PRISE THE CASTLE OF EDINBURGH nanti would not wish the conquest of

DURING THE REBELLION OF 1715. Africa to be attempted with less than a hundred thousand men. It is sad

MR EDITOR, to think, that while so many hundreds As I observe that the author of of thousands have been put in motion “ Rob Roy" has cursorily mentioned by narrow and false views of ambition, the daring attempts of the Highlandby jealousy, by vengeance, and to stopers, in 1715, to surprise the Castles the career of civilization, there is per of Edinburgh and Stirling, I transmit VOL. II.

T

arms.

ACCOUNT OF THE ATTEMPT TO SUR

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for your interesting Miscellany a con- could not exactly distinguish and know temporary account of the former of their number ; whereupon he obeyed Lindthese adventures. It is extracted from say's orders, and they immediately run a letter dated September 10, 1715, down the hill, and all separated, throwing written on the spot by a gentleman away their arms, who appears to have been personally

It was near 12 before Aikman and I engaged in defending this city and with our party got out. We got the ladfortress from the rebels, and who, I of their firelocks, which are new, and the

der, which is artfully made,-seven or eight apprehend, from other circumstances, best I ever saw,-several bayonets, broad, must have been the father of the cele- swords, and a pistol. We likewise seized brated George Drummond, afterwards att the West-Port one of the conspirators, Lord Provost of Edinburgh. The called Captain M-Clain, with his firelock in letter has never before been publish- his hand, who yesternight confest his beed. I am, Sir, your obedient ser- ing concerned, and one Leslie up att the vant,

W. D. Salley Port att two in the morning, who, I Jan. 6, 1818.

believe, is concerned, but confessed no

thing,--with two writer lads att the West-We are not altogether free of Port, who gave but a lame account of them. treachery in this country, though I believe selves, but had no arms. our troops are not so much poisoned as I The false centry confessed the whole am afraid they are in England; but the vil- story yesterday; the corporal made a cunlany of three fellows, a corporall and two ning disingenuous confession likewise, but, centinells, in the Castle, brought that gar- I believe, will be more plain to-day ;-the rison within half a quarter of an hour of fellow who was drawing up the ladder debeing the Pretender's. The bank and every nies every thing, but the tying him neck thing else that's valuable in Edinburgh and heel, and keeping him in the dunmust have followed. The story is this :- geon, which is his present state, may pos

They had formed a design to scale the sibly soften him in time. From the soulwall att the Sally port, by a ladder with a

dier's confession it appears, that Ensign grappling hook affixed to it, which was to Arthur, who was two years an. Ensign in be pulled up and fixed by a centinell with the Castle, and afterwards in the foot guards, in. The attempt was to have been made whom I always took for an honest man, on Thursday night by 80 men, between was the man who debauched the corporal eleven and twelve at night, and was pre- and two centinels. He, and his brother, vented thus :—At nine att night, one of the the Doctor, were att the foot of the wall, concerned discovered it to the Justice Clerk, but all, save M-Clean, are fled. who immediately advised Collonell Stuart As the folks we have gotten are but the thereof, and ordered Aikman and me, with tools, we do not yet know the springs of a party of the Town Guard, to patroul round this attempt. the rock in the outside all night. Lieut. Lindsay commanded the guard in the Castle; he immediately put the whole gar

SOME ETYMOLOGICAL NOTICES, BY rison under arms, doubled the centrys, and patrouled in the inside round the walls all COLINTON, BART. night. At 11 the conspirators, to the num- CORSTORPHIx. Some antiquaries ber of 40, mett att the foot of the rock, and, without knowing that any part of suppose that Corstorphin was, by their design was discovered, got up to the the Romans, called Curia Storphinofoot of the wall ;—so far they succeeded, rum, from a band of soldiers of the that the false corporall being upon the name of Storphini having been staguard, had got one of the centinells who tioned there. But, as I find no auhad taken money, posted centry next to thority for this, I rather approve of the place designed, att which there was no the account I had from a friend who centry posted; the other he had kept off had occasion to see some old law paduty to enable him to do his work, and att pers about that place. A laird of the this time all three were unsuspected. Lind- name of Torfin erected a cross in the say, a few minutes before, had visited the street there; the place is still to be posts, and ordered the false centry to walk betwixt his usual station and the place de- tia, was called Corstorphín.

seen. Torfin's cross, euphoniæ grasigned, with orders, if he saw or heard any thing, to challenge and fire. What he

Gogar signifies light ; probably said had influence on the fellow, for he was from some signal given to an army, not got up to the parade, when the centry as there are many marks of some coming up to the place, found his comerad bloody engagement that has been to lying over the wall putting up the ladder; the north-west of that place. The and looking over, saw the conspirators, but word puts me in mind of Gorgie, ug

THE LATE SIR JAMES FOULIS OF

ly; from whence the name of Gor- memnon is conducted in triumph gons.

into his palace, and is followed by the Dalmeny. Write Du-mena, a black treacherous queen. The Chorus are heath, as it must formerly have been. left behind with the captive Cassan

Dundas. Hill of Fallow Deer. The dra; but the queen immediately refamily has got their name from their turns, and orders Cassandra to enter. property.

Upon this there follows the scene Barnbougle is certainly a Gaelic already alluded to, by far the finest in word, but so corrupted with coming the play, in which a new character is through the Anglo-Saxon dialect, that presented to us, that for a time abit is not easy to find what was the sorbs all our thoughts and feelings : original. The nearest I can find is the character of the prophetess, disBarna-buai-gall, the point (of land) playing with a power which seems alof the victory of strangers.

most unrivalled, the most violent and Liston. Write Lios-t-on, an en- varied emotions, arising partly from closure upon the side of a river. the visions and prophetic horrors

Carlowrie is probably Car-labrach. which successively crowd upon her Lark's town. However the spelling soul, partly from the recollections of differs, the pronunciation is the same. her misfortunes, partly from the inIn our Scottish dialect, we would call dignation of a great mind, in finding it Laverock hall.

itself undervalued and despised; and Alcathy, or Auldcathy. · The bad yet all these vehement feelings chaspronunciation and spelling sometimes tised and regulated by the dignity make explanations difficult, yet may of conscious virtue.

The scene is be discovered and explained by attena long, and cannot well be abridged ; tion. When from the name of a place it must be given, too, under great disI can describe it, I look on myself as advantages in the feebleness of a transcertainly right. You possibly knew lation,

-yet under every disadvantage, Aulcamus, on the English road, the (for the power of the original may English write it Old Cambus. When be partly guessed at, even amidst I saw the place, I knew it was Alt- the defects of a version,) it may faircamus, the rivulet of the bay, from a ly be pronounced, in point of conrivulet that there falls into a bay of ception and execution, to be one of the sea. Cumbernauld is written in the most wonderful scenes in the different manners. I suspected what whole compass of dramatic poetry. was the true name, and asked of Lord The opening of it, it may be remarkElphinston, the proprietor, whether ed, in the first place, presents us with there was not a remarkable meeting a beauty, of a kind which has been of streams near his house there, which much and very justly admired in sehe told me there was. Then I was veral instances in Shakespeare. Sir Josure that my conjecture was right, shua Reynolds, in particular, takes noand the true name must be Cumar-an- tice of that little gem of a scene in Macalt, i. e. a meeting of streams. In beth, in which the king is introduced the same way, I conjecture that Al- conversing quietly with his attendants cathy is Alt-cathach, battle-burn, from upon the beauty of the scenery as they sore engagement, great or sınall, that are advancing to the gate of that palace has happened on the burn there. from which he was destined never to Binns. A hill, or hilly.

return. A few sentences of repose Nid or Nith is the name of several thus thrown in between the horrible rivers in Britain, and on the Conti- purposes which we had just seen plotnent, and probably must have been an ted by Macbeth and his wife-and old word to express a river.

their still more horrible execution, give a momentary relief to our minds,

which, however, only serves to make OBSERVATIONS ON THE AGAMEMNON

us more awfully impressed with the OF ESCHYLUS, ILLUSTRATED WITH

scenes of blood that are immediately TRANSLATIONS.

to follow. In like manner, in this ( Continued from Page 444 of last Vo- drama, after the Chorus had given lume.)

vent to their unaccountable apprehenOur readers will recollect, that we sions, and before we are immersed in have reached that interesting point in the real horrors of the tragedy—a litthe story of this drama, when Aga- tle picture of a domestic and familiar

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