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that tyranny is a monarchical design, and not of those who have diffolved monarchy. " Witness (says " he) that consultation had in the court of France, " under Charles the IXth, at Blois, wherein Poncet, " a certain court projector, brought in fecretly by " the chancellor Biragha, after many praises of the « Ottoman government, proposes ways and means

at large, in the presence of the King, the queen

regent, and Anjou, the king's brother, how, with “ best expedition and least noise, the Turkish tyranny

might be set up in France.” I transcribe the · passage as an example of Milton's applying historical anecdotes with peculiar felicity.

He now began to employ himself in one of the great works, with which he hoped to enrich his native language. The sketch that he has drawn of himself and his studies, at this period, is so interesting and honourable, that it would be injurious not to translate the Latin expressions to which I allude.

“ * Thus (says Milton) as a private citizen, I “ gratuitously gave my assistance to the church and

66 state;

* Hanc intra privatos parietes meam operam nunc ecclesiæ , nunc reipublicæ, gratis dedi; mihi viciffim vel hæc vel illa præter incolumitatem nihil; bonam certe conscientiam, bonam apud bonos existimationem, et honeftam hanc dicendi libertatem facta ipsa reddidere : commoda alii, alii honores gratis ad se trahe,

me nemo ambientem, nemo per amicos quicquam peten. tem, curiæ foribus affixum petitoris vultu aut minouum convene tuum vestibulis hærentem nemo me unquam vidit. Domi fere me continebain ; meis ipse facultatibus, tametfi hoc civili tymultu magna ex parte fæpe detentis, et censum fere iniquius

bant ;

66 state ; on me, in return, they bestowed only the

common benefit of protection; but my conduct

assuredly gave me a good conscience, a good re“ putation among good men, and this honourable « freedom of discourse ; others have been busy in “ drawing to themselves unmerited emoluments " and honour ; no one has ever beheld me solicit« ing any thing, either in person or by my friends; " I have confined myself much at home; and by

my own property, though much of it has been 66 withheld from me in this civil tumult, I have sup

ported life, however sparingly, and paid a tax “ imposed upon me, not in the most equitable proportion.

Having now a prospect of abundant leisure, I “ directed my studies to the history of my country, “ which I began from its remotest source, and in“ tended to bring down, if possible, in a regular “ process, to the present times. I had executed “ four books, when, on the settlement of the re

public, the council of state, then first established by the authority of parliament, called me most unexpectedly to its service, and wished to employ me chiefly in its foreign concerns.” It has not

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mihi imposituin et vitam utcunque frugi tolerabam. His rebus confectis, cum jam abunde otii existimarem mihi futurum, ad historiam gentis ab ultima origine repetitam ad hæc usque temporum, fi poffem, perpetuo filo deducendam me converti: Quatuor jam libros absolveram, cum ecce nihil tale cogitantem me Caroli regno in rempublicam redacto, concilium fiatus quo dicitur cum primum authoritate parliamenti confiitutum ad fe vocat, meaque opera ad res præsertim externas uti voluit.--Profe Works, vol. ü. p. 386,


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yet, I believe, been ascertained to whom Milton was particularly indebted for a public appointment. “ He was (says Wood) without any seeking of his,

by the endeavours of a private acquaintance, who “ was a member of the new council of state, chofen " Latin secretary.” The new council consisted of thirty-nine members, including two persons, whom we may suppose equally inclined to promote the interest of Milton; these were Serjeant Bradshaw and Sir Harry Vane the younger : it seems probable that he owed his station of secretary to the former, since, in his Second Defence, he mentions him as a friend entitled to his particular regard, and draws his character in colours so vivid, that the portrait may be thought worthy of preservation, even by those who have no esteem for the original.

The character of a man so extraordinary, derived from personal intimacy, and delineated by a hand so powerful, can hardly fail to be interesting; yet it becomes still more so, if we consider it as a monument of Milton's gratitude to the friend who fixed him in that public station, which gave signal exercise to the energy of his mind, and first made him, as a Latin writer, the admiration of Europe.

Whatever influence gratitude might have on the description, and however different the ideas may be, that are commonly entertained of Bradshaw, the eulogy bestowed on him by Milton was certainly sincere; for though not frugal of his praise, yet such was his probity, that it may, I think, be fairly proved, he never bestowed a particle of applause


where he did not think it deserved; a point that I hope to establish, by refuting, in the course of this narrative, the charge of servile flattery, which he is falsely accused of having lavished upon Cromwell. .

To praise, indeed, appears to have been an occupation peculiarly suited to his spirit, which was naturally fanguine, free from the gloom of sarcastic melancholy, and ever ready to glow with affectionate enthusiasm. His character of Bradshaw may illustrate this remark; it is written with peculiar elegance and affection; the following portion of it will be sufficient to shew, not only the fervency of his friendship, but his facility and force of pencil in the delineation of character *.

* “ Attulerat ad legum fcientiam ingenium liberale, animum " excelsum, mores integros ac nemini obnoxios; ••• nee trif“ tis, nec, feverus, fed comis ac placidus. In confiliis ac labo“ ribus publicis maxime omnium indefessus, multisque par unus ; “ domi, fi quis alius, pro suis facultatibus hospitalis at splendidus ; “ amicus longe fidelissimus ; atque in omni fortuna certiffimus ; " bene merentes quofcunque nemo citius aut libentius agnoscit, “ neque majore benevolentia profequitur ; nunc pios, nunc doctos, “ aut quamvis ingenii laude cognitos, nunc militares etiam et fortes “ viros ad inopiam redactos fuis opibus sublevat ; iis, fi non indi

gent, colit tamen libens atque amplectitur ; alienas laudes per“ petuo prædicare, suas tacere folitus. Quod fi caufa oppreffi cu

jufpiam defendenda palam, fi gratia aut vis potentiorum oppug“ nanda, fi in quemquam benemeritum ingratitudo publica objur

ganda fit, tum quidem in illo viro, vel facundiam vel constantiam “ nemo desideret, non patronum, non amicum, vel idoneum magis " et intrepidum, vel disertiorem alium quisquam fibi optet ; habet, *s

quem non minæ dimovere recto, non metus aut munera pro" pofito bono atque officio, vultusque ac mentis firmiffimo ftatu

dejicere valeant.”—Prose Works, vol. ii. p. 389.


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tune ;

“ He had, united to the knowledge of law, a libe“ ral disposition, an elevated mind, and irreproach« able integrity of morals, neither gloomy nor se

vere, but courteous and mild.

« In public councils and labours he is the most “ indefatigable of men, and alone equal to many; “ in his house he, if any man, may be esteemed “ hospitable and splendid, in proportion to his for

as a friend faithful in the highest degree, " and most surely to be depended upon in every

emergency; no man sooner or more freely ac“ knowledges, merit, wherever it may be found;

no man rewards it with greater benevolence; he “ raises from indigence at his own cost, sometimes

men of piety, learning, and talents, sometimes “ those brave military men, whose prosperity has “ not been equal to their valour : such persons, if

they are not indigent, he still honours with his “ regard; it is his nature to proclaim the desert of “ others, and to be filent on his own.

“ If the cause of any one under oppression is to “ be openly defended, if the influence or authority “ of men in power is to be opposed, if the ingrati“ tude of the public towards any individual of “ merit is to be reproved, no want will be found in 66 this man, either of eloquence or courage; nor

can any sufferer wish to find, on such occasions, a

patron and a friend more suited to his necessities, “ more resolute, or more accomplished; he already “ possesses such a friend, and such a patron as no

menaces can drive from the line of rectitude, 66 whom neither terrors nor bribes can divert from

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