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Ah, who hath any cause to mourn, but we? For joyful mother, one that wails the name;
(Sitting down by her. For one being sued to, one that humbly sues ; Q. Mar. If ancient sorrow be most reverent, For queen, a very caitiff crown'd with care : Give mine the benefit of seniory,!
For one that scorn'd at me, now scorn'd of me; And let my griefs frown on the upper hand. For one being fear'd of all, now fearing one; If sorrow can admit society,
For one commanding all, obey'd of none. (Sitting down with them. Thus hath the course of justice wheel'd about, Tell o'er your woes again by viewing mine :- And left thee but a very prey to time; I had an Edward, till a Richard kill'd him; Having no more but thought of what thou wert, I had a husband, till a Richard kill'd him : To torture thee the more, being what thou art. Thou hadst an Edward, till a Richard kill'd him; Thou didst usurp my place, And dost thou not Thou hadst a Richard, till a Richard kill'd him. Usurp the just proportion of my sorrow?
Duch. I hada Richard too, and thou didst kill him; Now thy proud neck bears half my burden'd yoke I had a Rutland too, thou holp'st to kill him. From which even here I slip my wearied head, 2. Mar. Thou hadst a Clarence too, and Richard | And leave the burden of it all on thee. kill'd him.
Farewell, York's wife,-and queen of sad misFrom forth the kennel of thy womb bath crept
chance,A hell-hound, that doth bunt us all to death: These English woes shall make me smile in France That dog, that had his teeth before his eyes, Q. Eliz. O thou well skill'd in curses, stay a while, To worry lambs, and lap their gentle blood; And teach me how to curse mine enemies. That foul defacer of God's handy-work;
Q. Mar. Forbear to sleep the night, and fast the That excellent grand tyrant of the earth,
day; That reigns in galled eyes of weeping souls, Compare dead happiness with living wo; Thy womb let loose, to chase us to our graves.- Think that thy babes were fairer than they were, O upright, just, and true-disposing God, And he, that slew them, fouler than he is : How do I thank thee, that this carnal cur Bettering thy loss makes the bad causer worse; Preys on the issue of his mother's body,
Revolving this will teach thee how to curse. And makes her pew-fellow2 with others' moan! Q. Eliz. My words are dull, 0, quicken them Duch. O, Harry's wife, triumph not in my woes ;
with thine! God witness with me, I have wept for thine. Q. Mar. Thy woes will make them sharp, and Q. Mar. Bear with me, I am hungry for revenge, pierce like mine.
[Erit Q. Mar. And now I cloy me with beholding it.
Duch. Why should calamity be full of words? Thy Edward he is dead, that kill'd my Edward; Q. Eliz. Windy attorneys to their client woes, Thy other Edward dead, to quit my Edward ; Airy succeeders of intestate joys, Young York he is but boot, because both they Poor breathing orators of miseries ! Match not the high perfection of my loss. Let them have scope: though what they do impart Thy Clarence he is dead, that stabb'd my Edward ; | Help nothing else, yet do they ease the heart. And the beholders of this tragic play,
Duch. If so, then be not tongue-ty'd: go with The adulterate Hastings, Rivers, Vaughan, Grey, Untimely smother'd in their dusky graves.
And in the breath of bitter words let's smother Richard yet lives, hell's black intelligencer; My damned son, that thy two sweet sons smother'd. Only reserv'd their factor, to buy souls,
(Drum, wilhin. And send them thither: But at hand, at hand, I hear his drum,-be copious in exclaims. Ensues his piteous and unpitied end: Earth hell burns, fiends roar, saints pray,
Enter King Richard, and his train, marching. gapes, To have him suddenly convey'd from hence :- K. Rich. Who intercepts me in my expedition? Cancel bis bond of life, dear God, I pray,
Duch. O, she, that might have intercepted thee, That I may live to say, The dog is dead! By strangling thee in her accursed womb, Q. Eliz: 0, thou didst prophesy, the time would From all the slaughters, wretch, that thou hast done.
Q. Eliz. Hid'st thou that forehead with a golden That I should wish for thee to help me curse That bottled spider, that foul bunch-back'd toad. Where should be branded, if that right were right, Q. Mar. I called thee then, vain flourish of my The slaughter of the prince that ow'd that crown, fortune;
And the dire death of my poor sons, and brothers? I call'd thee then, poor shadow, painted queen; Tell me, thou villain-slave, where are my children The presentation of but what I was,
Duch. Thou toad, thou toad, where is thy brother The flattering index4 of a direful pageant,
Clarence ? One heav'd a high, to be hurl'd down below: And little Ned Plantagenet, his son ? A mother only mock'd with two fair babes; 2. Eliz. Where is the gentle Rivers, Vaughan, A dream of what thou wast; a garish flag,
Grey ? To be the aim of every dangerous shot;
Duch. Where is kind Hastings? A sign of dignity, a breath, a bubble;
K. Rich. A flourish, trumpets !-strike alarum, A queen in jest, only to fill the scene.
drums ! Where is thy husband now? where be thy brothers ? | Let not the heavens hear these tell-tale women Where be thy two sons ? wherein dost thou joy? Rail on the Lord's anointed: Strike, I say:Who sues, and kneels, and says—God save the
Either be patient, and entreat me fair,
(4) Indexes were anciently placed at the be(1) Seniority. (2) Companion.
ginning of books. (3) Thrown in to boot.
(5) Flaring. (6) Owned.
K. Rich. Ay; I thank God, my father, and your- Q. Eliz. To save her life, I'll say—she is not so. self.
K. Rich. Her life is safest only in her birth. Duch. Then patiently hear my impatience. Q. Eliz. And only in that safety died her broK. Rich. Madain, I have a touch of your con
K. Rich. Lo, at their births good stars were opThat cannot brook the accent of reproof.
posite. Duch. O, let me speak.
Q. Eliz. No, to their lives bad friends were conK. Rich. Do, then ; but I'll not hear.
trary: Duch. I will be mild and gentle in my words. K. Rich. All unavoided' is the doom of destiny. K. Rich. And brief, good mother; for I am in Q. Eliz. True, when avoided grace makes deshaste.
tiny : Duch. Art thou so hasty? I have staid for thee, My babes were destin'd to a fairer death, God knows, in torment and in agony.
If grace had bless'd thee with a fairer life. K. Rich. And came I not at last to comfort you? K. Rich. You speak, as if that I had slain my Duch. No, by the holy rood, thou know'st it well,
cousins. Thou cam'st on earth to make the earth my hell. Q. Eliz. Cousins, indeed; and by their uncle A grievous burden was thy birth to me;
cozen'd Tetchy: and wayward was thy infancy;
Of comfort, kingdom, kindred, freedom, life. Thy school-days, frightful, desperate, wild, and fu- Whose hands soever lanc'd their tender hearts, rious ;
Thy head, all indirectly, gave direction : Thy prime of manhood, daring, bold, and ven-No doubt the murderous knife was dull and turous;
blunt, Thy age confirm'd, proud, subtle, sly, and bloody, Till it was whetted on thy stone-hard heart, More mild, but yet more harmful, kind in hatred : To revel in the entrails of
my lambs. What comfortable hour canst thou name,
But that stills use of grief makes wild grief tame, That ever grac'd me in thy company?
My tongue should to thy ears not name my boys, K. Rich. Faith, none, but Humphrey Hour, that Till that my nails were anchor'd in thine eyes; call'd your grace
And I, in such a desperate bay of death, To breakfast once, forth of my company. Like a poor bark, of sails and tackling reft, If I be so disgracious in your sight,
Rush all to pieces on thy rocky bosom.
And dangerous success of bloody wars,
yours, K. Rich. You speak too bitterly.
Than ever you or yours by me were harm'd! Duch.
Hear me a word; R. Eliz. What good is cover'd with the face of For I shall never speak to thee again.
heaven, K. Rich. So.
To be discover'd, that can do me good ? Duch. Either thou wilt die, by God's just ordi- K. Rich. The advancement of your children, nance,
gentle lady. Ere from this war thou turn a conqueror;
2. Eliz. Up to some scaffold, there to lose their Or I with grief and extreme age shall perish,
heads? And never look upon thy face again.
K. Rich. No, to the dignity and height of fortune, Therefore, take with thee my most heavy curse, The high imperial type of this earth's glory. 6 Which, in the day of battle, tire thee more, R. Eliz. Flatter my sorrows with report of it;
Than all the complete armour that thou wear'st! Tell me, what state, what dignity, what honour, My prayers on the adverse party fight;
Canst thou demnise to any child of mine? And there the little souls of Edward's children K. Rich. Even all I have; ay, and myself and all, Whisper the spirits of thine enemies,
Will I withal endow a child of thine ; And promise them success and victory,
So in the Lethe of thy angry soul Bloody thou art, bloody will be thy end;
Thou drown the sad remembrance of those wrongs, Shame serves thy life, and doth thy death attend. Which, thou supposest, I have done to thee.
[Exit. Q. Eliz. Be brief, lest that the process of thy Q. Eliz. Though far more cause, yet much less kindness spirit to curse
Last longer telling than thy kindness' date. Abides in me; I say amen to her. (Going K. Rich. Then know, that from my soul, I love K. Rich. Stay, madam, I must speak a word with
thy daughter. you.
Q. Eliz. My daughter's mother thinks it with her 2. Eliz. I have no more sons of the royal blood,
soul. For thee to murder: for my daughters, Richard,- K. Rich. What do
think? They shall be praying nuns, not weeping queens; R. Eliz. That thou dost love my daughter, from And therefore level not to hit their lives.
thy soul : K. Rich. You have a daughter callid-Elizabeth,|| So, from thy' soul's love, didst thou love her brothers; Virtuous and fair, royal and gracious.
And, from my heart's love, I do thank thee for it. 2. Eliz. And must she die for this ? O, let her live, K. Rich. Be not so hasty to confound my meanAnd I'll corrupt her manners, stain her beauty ;
ing : Slander myself, as false to Edward's bed;
mean, that with my soul I love thy daughter, Throw over her the veil of infamy:
And do intend to make her queen of England. So she may live unscarr'd of bleeding slaughter, 2. Eliz. Well then, who dost thou mean shall be I will confess she was not Edward's daughter.
her king? K. Rich. Wrong not her birth, she is of royal K. Rich. Even he, that makes her queen : Who blood.
else should be?
Q. Eliz. What, thou ? (1) Disposition. (3) Touchy, fretful. (4) Unavoidable. (5) Constant. (6) A crown. (7) Bequeath.
Even so: What think you With the sweet silent hours of marriage joys : of it, madam?
And when this arm of mine hath chastised Q. Eliz. How canst thou woo her?
The petty rebel, dull-brain'd Buckingham, K. Rich.
That I would learn of you, Bound with triumphant garlands will I come, As one being best acquainted with her humour. And lead thy daughter to a conqueror's bed; Q. Eliz. And wilt thou learn of me?
To whom I will retail my conquest won, K. Rich.
Madam, with all my heart. | And she shall be sole victress, Cæsar's Cæsar. Q. Eliz. Send to her by the man that slew her Q. Eliz. What were I best to say ? her father's brothers,
brother A pair of bleeding hearts; thereon engrave, Would be her lord? Or shall I say, her uncle? Edward, and York, then, haply,I will she weep: Or, he that slew her brothers, and her uncles? Therefore present to her,-as sometime Margaret Under what title shall I woo for thee, Did to thy father, steep'd in Rutland's blood, That God, the law, my honour, and her love, A handkerchief; which, say to her, did drain Can make seem pleasing to her tender years? The purple sap from her sweet brother's body, K. Rich. Infer fair England's peace by this alAnd bid her wipe her weeping eyes withal. If this inducement move her not to love,
Q. Eliz. Which she shall purchase with still Send her a letter of thy noble deeds ;
-lasting war. Tell her, thou mad'st away her uncle Clarence, K. Rich. Tell her, the king, that may command, Her uncle Rivers; ay, and, for her sake, Mad'st quick conveyance with her good aunt Anne. Q. Eliz. That at her hands, which the king's K. Rich. You mock me, madam; this is not the
K. Rich. Say, she shall be a high and mighty To win your daughter. Q. Eliz.
There is no other way; Q. Eliz. To wail the title, as her mother doth. Unless thou could'st put on some other shape, Ř. Rich. Say, I will love her everlastingly. And not be Richard that hath done all this. Q. Eliz. But how long shall that title, ever, last?
K. Rich. Say, that I did all this for love of her? K. Rich. Sweetly in force unto her fair life's end. Q. Eliz. Nay, then indeed, she cannot choose Q. Eliz. But how long fairly shall her sweet life
but have thee, Having bought love with such a bloody spoil. K. Rich. As long as Heaven, and nature lengthK. Rich. Look, what is done cannot be now amended:
Q. Eliz. As long as hell, and Richard, likes of it. Men shall deal unadvisedly sometimes,
Ř. Rich. Say, I, her sovereign, am her subject Which after-hours give leisure to repent. If I did take the kingdom from your sons, Q. Eliz. But she, your subject, loaths such soveTo make amends, I'll give it to your daughter.
reignty. If I have killd the issue of your womb,
K. Rich. Be eloquent in my behalf to her. To quicken your increase, I will beget
Q. Eliz. An honest tale speeds best, being plainMine issue of your blood upon your daughter.
ly told. A grandam's name is little less in love,
K. Rich. Then, in plain terms tell her my loving Than is the doting title of a mother; They are as children, but one step below,
Q. Eliz. Plain, and not honest, is too harsh a style. Even of your mettle, of your very blood;
K. Rich. Your reasons are too shallow and too Of all one pain, --save for a night of groans
quick. Endur'd of her, for whom you bid like sorrow. Q. Eliz. O, no, my reasons are too deep and Your children were vexation to your youth,
dead ;But mine shall be a comfort to your age. Too deep and dead, poor infants, in their graves. The loss, you have, is but-a son being king, K. Rich. Harp not on that string, madam; that And, by that loss, your daughter is made queen.
is past. I cannot make you what amends I would, Q. Eliz. Harp on it still shall I, till heart-strings Therefore accept such kindness as I can. Dorset, your son, that, with a fearful soul,
K. Rich. Now, by my George, my garter, and Leads discontented steps in foreign soil,
my crown, This fair alliance quickly shall call home
Q. Eliz. Profan'd, dishonour'd, and the third To high promotions and great dignity :
usurp'd. The king, that calls your beauteous daughter-wife, K. Rich. I swear. Familiarly shall call thy Dorset-brother;
Q. Eliz. By nothing; for this is no oath. Again shall you be mother to a king,
Thy George, profan'd, hath lost its holy honour; And all the ruins of distressful times
Thy garter, blemish'd, pawnd his knightly virtue ; Repair'd with double riches of content.
Thy crown, usurp'd, disgrac'd his kingly glory: What! we have many goodly days to see : If something thou would'st swear to be believ'd, The liquid drops of tears that you have shed, Swear then by something that thou hast not wrongd. Shall come again, transform'd to orient pearl ; K. Rich. Now by the world,
Advantaging their loan, with interest
'Tis full of thy foul wrongs. Of ten-times-double gain of happiness.
R. Rich. My father's death, Go then, my mother, to thy daughter, go;
Q. Eliz. Thy life hath that dishonour'd. Make bold her bashful years with your experience; K. Rich. Then, by myself, Prepare her ears to hear a wooer's tale;
Thyself is-self-misus'd. Put in her tender heart the aspiring flame
K. Rich. Why then,
by God, Of golden sovereignty; acquaint the princess Q. Eliz.
God's wrong is most of all
If thou had'st fear'd to break an oath by him, (1) Perhaps.
In the Levitical law, chap. xviii. 14. (3) The ensigns of the order of the Garter.
The unity, the king thy brother made,
Cate. Here, my good lord. Had not been broken, nor my brother slain.
Catesby, fly to the duke. If thou hadst fear'd to break an oath by him, Cate. I will, my lord, with all convenient haste. The imperial metal, circling now thy head, K. Rich. Ratcliff, come hither: Post to Salisbury; Had grac'd the tender temples of my child; When thou com’st thither,-Dull unmindful villain, And both the princes had been breathing here,
(To Catesby. Which now, two tender bed-fellows for dust, Why stay'st thou here, and go'st not to the duke? Thy broken faith hath made a prey for worms. Cate. First, mighty liege, tell me your highness' What canst thou swear by now?
pleasure, K. Rich.
By the time to come. What from your grace I shall deliver to him. Q. Eliz. That thou hast wronged in the time K. Rich. O, true, good Catesby ;-Bid him levy o'erpast;
straight For I myself have many tears to wash
The greatest strength and power he can make, Hereafter time, for time past, wrong'd by thee. And meet me suddenly at Salisbury. The children live, whose parents thou hast slaugh- Cate. I
Rat. What, may it please you, shall I do at SalUngovern'd youth, to wail it in their age :
isbury? The parents live, whose children thou hast butcher's, K. Rich. Why, what would'st thou do there, Old barren plants, to wail it with their age.
before I go? Swear not by time to come: for that thou hast Rat. Your highness told me, I should post before. Misus' ere us'd, by times ill-us'd o'erpast. K. Rich. As I intend to prosper, and repent!
Enter Stanley. So thrive I in my dangerous attempt
K. Rich. My mind is chang'd.- -Stanley, what Or hostile arms! myself myself confound !
news with you? Heaven, and fortune, bar me happy hours ! Stan. None good, my liege, to please you with Day, yield me not thy light; nor, night, thy rest !
the hearing; Be opposite all planets of good luck
Nor none so bad, but well may be reported. To my proceeding, if, with pure heart's love, R. Rich. Heyday, a riddle! neither good nor Immaculate devotion, holy thoughts,
bad ! I tender not thy beauteous princely daughter ! What need'st thou run so many miles about, In her consists my happiness, and thine;
When thou may'st tell thy tale the nearest way? Without her, follows to myself, and thee,
Once more, what news? Herself, the land, and many a Christian soul,
Richmond is on the seas. Death, desolation, ruin, and decay :
K. Rich. There let him sink, and be the seas It cannot be avoided but by this;
on him! It will not be avoided, but by this.
White-liver'd runagate, what doth he there? Therefore, dear mother (I must call you so,) Stan. I know not, mighty sovereign, but by guess. Be the attorney of my love to her.
K. Rich. Well, as you guess ? Plead what I will be, not what I have been ; Stan. Stirr'd up by Dorset, Buckingham, and Not my deserts, but what I will deserve:
Morton, Urge the necessity and state of times,
He makes for England, here to claim the crown. And be not peevishl found in great designs. K. Rich. Is the chair empty ? is the sword unQ: Eliz. Shall I be tempted of the devil thus ?
sway'd? K. Rich. Ay, if the devil tempt thee to do good. Is the king dead ? the empire un possess'd? Q. Eliz. Shall I forget myself, to be myself? What heir of York is there alive, but we? Å. Rich. Ay, if yourself's remembrance wrong || And who is England's king, but great York's heir? yourself.
Then, tell me, what makes he upon the seas? 2. Eliz. But thou didst kill my children.
Stan. Unless for that, my liege, I cannot guess. K. Rich. But in your daughter's womb I bury K. Rich. Unless for that he comes to be your them :
liege, Where, in that nest of spicery,2 they shall breed You cannot guess wherefore the Welshman comes. Selves of themselves, to your recomforture. Thou wilt revolt, and fly to him, I fear.
2. Eliz. Shall I go win my daughter to thy will? Slan. No, mighty liege; therefore mistrust me not. X. Rich. And be a happy mother by the deed. K. Rich. Where is thy power then, to beat him Q. Eliz. I go.-Write to me very shortly,
back? And shall understand from me her mind. Where be thy tenants, and thy followers ? K. Rich. Bear her my true love's kiss, and so Are they not now upon the western shore,
farewell. (Kissing her. Erit Q. Eliz. Safe-conducting the rebels from their ships ? Relenting fool, and shallow, changing-woman! Stan. No, my good lord, my friends are in the How now? what news?
K. Rich. Cold friends to me : what do they in Enter Ratcliff; Catesby following.
the north, Rat. Most mighty sovereign, on the western coast When they should serve their sovereign in the west? Rideth a puissant navy; to the shore
Stan. They have not been commanded, mighty Throng many doubtful hollow-hearted friends,
king : Inarm'd, and unresolv'd to beat them back: Pleaseth your majesty to give me leave, 'Tis thought, that Richmond is their admiral; I'll muster up my friends ; and meet your grace, And there they hull, expecting but the aid Where, and what time, your majesty shall please. Of Buckingham, to welcome them ashore.
K. Rich. Ay, ay, thou would'st be gone to join K. Rich. Some light-foot friend post to the duke with Richmond : of Norfolk :
I will not trust you, sir. Ratcliff, thyself,-or Catesby; where is he?
Most mighty sovereign,
You have no cause to hold my friendship doubtful ; (1) Foolish. (2) The phænir's nest. I never was, nor never will be, false.
K. Rich. Well, go, muster men. But, hear you, || My son George Stanley is frank’d4 up in bold; leave behind
It'I revolt, off goes young George's head; Your son, George Stanley; look your heart be firm, The fear of that withholds my present aid. Or else his head's assurance is but frail.
But, tell me, where is princely Richmond now? Stan. So deal with him, as I prove true to you.
Chris. At Pembroke, or at Ha'rford-west, in [Exit Stanley.
Stan. What men of name resort to him?
Chris. Sir Walter Herbert, a renowned soldier;
Oxford, redoubted Pembroke, sir James Blunt, Sir Edward Courtney, and the haughty prelate, And Rice ap Thomas, with a valiant crew; Bishop of Exeter, his elder brother,
And many other of great fame and worth: With many more confederates, are in arms. And towards London do they bend their course, Enter another Messenger.
If by the way they be not fought withal.
Sian. Well, hie thee to thy lord; commend me 2 Mess. In Kent, my liege, the Guildfords are in
Tell him, the queen hath heartily consented And every hour more competitors!
He shall espouse Elizabeth her daughter.
(Gives papers to Sir Christopher.
(Exeunt. 3 Mess. My lord, the army of great Bucking
ham K. Rich. Out on ye, owls ! nothing but songs of death? (He strikes him.
ACT V. There, take thou that, till thou bring better news.
3 Mess. The news I have to tell your majesty, ||SCENE 1:-Salisbury., An open place. Enter Is,-that, by sudden floods and fall of waters, the Sheriff, and Guard, with Buckingham, led to Buckingham's army is dispers'd and scatter'd; execution. And he himself wander'd away alone,
Buck. Will not king Richard let me speak with No man knows whither.
him? K. Rich.
O, I cry you mercy : Sher. No, my good lord; therefore be patient. There is my purse, to cure that blow of thine.
Buck. Hastings, and Edward's children, Rivers, Hath any well-advised friend proclaim'd
Grey, Reward to him that brings the traitor in?
Holy king Henry, and thy fair son Edward,
By underhand corrupted foul injustice;
If that your moody discontented souls
Do through the clouds behold this present hour, Dorset,
This is All-Souls' day, fellows, is it not? 'Tis said, my liege, in Yorkshire are in arms.
Sher. It is, my lord. But this good comfort bring I to your highness, - Buck. Why, then All-Souls' day is my body's The Bretagne navy is dispers'd by tempest:
doomsday. Richmond, in Dorsetshire, sent out a boat
This is the day, which, in king Edward's time, Unto the shore, to ask those on the banks, If they were his assistants, yea, or no;
I wish'd might fall on me, when I was found
False to his children, or his wife's allies : Who answer'd him, they came from Buckingham || This is the day, wherein I wish'd to fall Upon his party : he, mistrusting them,
By the false faith of him whom most I trusted; Hois'd sail, and made his course again for Bretagne. | This, this All-Souls
' day to my fearful soul, K. Rich. March on, march on, since we are up is the determin'd respite of my wrongs.s in arms;
That high All-seer which I dallied with, If not to fight with foreign enemies,
Hath turn'd my feigned prayer on my head,
And given in earnest what I begg'd in jest.
Thus doth be force the swords of wicked men
To turn their own points on their masters' bosoms : Cate. My liege, the duke of Buckinghamis taken, || Thus Margaret's curse falls heavy on my neck,
, That is the best news ; That the earl of Richmond When he, quoth she, shall split thy heart with Is, with a mighty power,2 landed at Milford, Is colder news, but yet they must be told.
Remember Margaret was a prophetess.K. Rich. Away, towards Salisbury ; while we Come, sirs, convey me to the block of shame; reason here,
Wrong hath but wrong, and blame the due of blame. A royal battle might be won and lost :
(Exeunt Buckingham, &c. Some one take order, Buckingham be brought To Salisbury ;-the rest march on with me. (Exe. SCENE II.—Plain near Tamworth. Enter,
with drum and colours, Richmond, Oxford, Sir SCENE V.- A room in Lord Stanley's house. James Blunt, Sir Walter Herbert, and others,
Enter Stanley and Sir Christopher Urswick.3 with forces, marching.
(4) A sty in which hogs are set apart for fattening. (3) Chaplain to the countess of Richmond. (5) Injurious practices.