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judgment and observation must decide where emphasis is to be placed; his perception and good taste must decide what inflection, form of stress, and movement of the voice, will best express the thought; and these should at all times be obedient to his will, when occasion calls for their use.

For a complete system of articulation, he is referred to the Gradual READER; and for a full understanding of the rules, principles, and illustrations on the subject of Inflection, Stress, Emphasis, Pause, Tremor, and Circumflex, he is referred to the N. A. SECOND CLASS READER.

Other principles on reading yet remain to be explained. The subject is here continued; and in the following pages will be found a treatise on the higher departments of elocution, in which are explained and illustrated the use and power of the vocal elements, as the essential constituents o mmanding eloquence and impressive delivery.


1. PITCH, the degree of elevation of the voice in uttering any sentiment, must be considered as one of the constituents in the expression of speech. It is to be noticed that the voice, in all varieties of utterance, moves within a limited compass, above or below which it cannot reach without disagreeable straining.

2. The various degrees of elevation, within this compass, are denominated intervals, some one of which is to be preferred or assumed as a favorable station for the starting-point key-note," from which the intervals are to be calculated, and above or below which all the modulations of the voice are to be referred.



3. The tone of the voice in unimpassioned utterance, in ordinary unexciting narrative, may be most conveniently assumed as the "key-note," which has a governing influence

in the relative movement of the voice throughout the who. compass of the intervals. This governing note may, and often does, vary in different individuals, according to circumstances; but still it will be found sufficiently exact for all purposes.

4. The voice should be vigorously exercised on all the intervals, both above and below this "key-note;" and, cost what it may, the pupil must persevere, till he can give full and distinct utterance, in well-defined stress and in gracefullyextended time, to sentiments on any of the intervals, either high or low, or he never can read well. This, then, is an elementary condition in good reading; it is that upon which other excellences may be engrafted; nay, the whole of the other excellences of the voice combined will not be a substitute sufficient to remedy this defect.

5. It often happens that the sentiments vary in such a manner, that the voice must rise or fall through two or more consecutive intervals; and this movement is denominated the "concrete pitch." On the other hand, the sentiments may vary to such a degree, that the voice must skip suddenly from one interval to a remote one; and when this takes place, the movement is denominated the " discrete pitch." This movement will be more fully and properly considered under a subsequent head, when the principles of transition will be explained and illustrated.

6. Spirited declamation, brisk, animated, lively sentiments, and exciting narrative, beautiful poetic description, and all the tender and pathetic emotions, are appropriately uttered on the higher intervals; but sentiments expressive of the sterner emotions, together with those of dignity, force, reverence, solemnity, awe, terror, consternation, and others of a kindred nature, are appropriately uttered on the lower intervals.

7. All these must, of course, require a certain degree of force and stress, and a gracefully-extended quantity, in connection with other vocal elements, by which the speaker is enabled to set forth the exquisite fineness of emotion and the intricate subtilties of thought.


8. The following diagram is designed to show on what intervals the above-named sentiments and emotions are uttered. The intervals on which the voice gives utterance to sentiments and intensity to the thoughts, except those of grief, are the third, fifth, and the octave above and below the “keynote."


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Spirited Declamation.

Gay, Brisk, and Humorous Description.

Ordinary Declamation.

Unimpassioned Narrative.

Dignified Sentiments.

Solemn and Impressive Thoughts.

Deep Solemnity, Awe, Consternation.

Spirited Declamation.

9. "He woke to hear his sentry's shriek


10. "Strike-till the last armed foe expires;
Strike for your altars and your fires;

Strike-for the green graves of your sires,
God, and your native land."

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To arms! They come! The Greek! the Greek.'

"Shout, Tyranny, shout, Through your dungeons and palaces, Freedom is o'er.


"On, ye brave,
Who rush to glory, or the grave!
Wave, Munich, all thy banners wave,
And charge with all thy chivalry!'

13. Now for the fight-now for the cannon peal!


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through blood, and toil, and cloud, and fire'

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On, then, hussars ! Now give them rein and hee
Think of the orphan child, the murdered sire.
Earth cries for blood. In thunder on them wheel'
This hour to Europe's fate shall set the triumph seal.

Gay, Brisk, and Humorous Description.

14 "Last came Joy's ecstatic trial.

He, with viny crown advancing,
First to the lively pipe his hand addressed;
But soon he saw the brisk, awakening viol,
Whose sweet, entrancing sound he loved the best.

15. "I come, I come! - Ye have called me long.

I come o'er the mountains with light and song.
Ye may trace my step o'er the wakening earth,
By the winds which tell of the violet's birth."
16 "Then I see Queen Mab hath been with you.
She come

In shape no bigger than an agate stone
On the forefinger of an alderman,
Drawn by a team of little atomies
Athwart men's noses, as they lie asleep;
Her wagon-spokes made of long spinners' legs ;
The cover, of the wings of grasshoppers;
The traces, of the smallest spider's web;
The collars, of the moonshine's watery beams;
Her whip, of cricket's bone; the lash, of film;
Her wagoner, a small, gray-coated gnat.
Her chariot is an empty hazel-nut,

Made by the joiner squirrel, or old grub,
Time out of mind the fairies' coachmakers.
And in this state she gallops, night by night, ́
Through lovers' brains, and then they dream of love
O'er lawyers' fingers, who straight dream on fees;
O'er ladies' lips, who straight on kisses dream.
Sometimes she gallops o'er a courtier's nose,
And then dreams he of smelling out a suit;
And sometimes comes she with a tithe-pig's tail.
Tickling a parson's nose, as he lies asleep;
'Then dreams he of another benefice.
Sometimes she driveth o'er a soldier's neck;
And then dreams he of cutting foreign throatsy

Of breaches, ambuscadoes, Spanish blades,
Of healths five fathom deep; and then anon
Drums in his ear; at which he starts and wakes,
And, being thus frighted, mutters a prayer or two,
And sleeps again."

Ordinary Declamation.

17. "I deem it my duty, on this occasion, to suggest, that the land is not yet wholly free from the contamination of a traffic at which every feeling of humanity must revolt."

18. "Let the consequences be what they may, I am determined to proceed. The only principles of public conduct which are worthy of a man, are to sacrifice estate, health, ease, applause, even life, at the sacred call of his country."

Unimpassioned Narrative.

19. "There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job, and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God and eschewed evil."

Dignified Sentiments.

20. "Sir, in the most express terms, I deny the competency of parliament to do this act. I warn you, do not dare to lay your hand on the constitutions. I tell you, that if, circumstanced as you are, you pass this act, it will be a nullity, and no man in Ireland will be bound to obey it. I make the assertion deliberately. I repeat it, and call on any man who hears me to take down my words. You have not been elected for this purpose. You are appointed to make laws, not legislatures."

Solemn and Impressive Thoughts.

21. "It must be so; - Plato, thou reasonest well.
Else whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire,
This longing after immortality?

Or whence this secret dread, and inward horror,
Of falling into nought? Why shrinks the sou!
Back on herself, and startles at destruction?

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