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fault of the designation is that it appears to abjure one half the province of statesmen in too sharply defining the other half. For it is the business of statesmen to construct as well as to conserve. Improvement and reform are components in the policy of every set of men who aspire to the government of a free people. And it seems to us that the history of the party which has accepted the name of Conservative is conspicuous for the constructive faculty with which it has conceived and executed bold and valuable improvements. The reform in the currency, the reform in our penal code, the formation of our police, the permanent success with which the deficient revenue bequeathed by his Whig predecessors to Sir Robert Peel was converted into the overflowing exchequer which has led to so vast and continuous a reduction of taxation, by the development to our resources given in the reform of our tariffs, assisted by the bold expedient of the income tax,—a masterpiece of fiscal policy, to which, assisted indeed by the gold discoveries and the rapid growth of the railway system, may be mainly traced the prosperous conditions of our revenue and our commerce, but which, incurring the severest censure of Lord Russell, found its most eloquent opponent in Macaulay, and its yet more eloquent defender in the present Lord Derby ;—all these suffice for brilliant proof that, in the art of improvement and the skill of safe adaptability to the requirements of the time, the party called Conservative need fear no comparison with the party which rejoices in the name of Liberal.

There is, however, one essential obligation imposed upon the division of political opinion to which we give the title of Conservative (not without hope that it may invent another, more significant of all its functions), viz. the obligation of rendering the changes it suggests or sanctions harmonious to the generic character of the people and the institutions under which that character has been formed and developed. Its policy in this respect should be regulated by the love for the practical which pervades the English mind, in contradistinction to that preference for ingenious theories in which our philosophical reformers imitate the speculative sages of the Continent. In the works before us are traced the causes of the political happiness we enjoy and the imperial greatness we have attained. Among those causes something, no doubt, is originally due to the qualities of race on which M and Mons. Esquiros equally insist; but ethnology forms a small part in the learning of statesmen. Causes more adapted to their study and more entitled to their respect may be found in the depth and solidity of the foundations of a freedom which has hitherto never been entrusted to the proverbial

fickleness fickleness of mere numbers, irrespectively of property and education—a freedom that has hitherto been accompanied with some moral or social elevation of purpose; for the system of self-government pervading the whole framework of English life offers in every sphere inducements to the individual to rise in position and influence, and the instinct of an Englishman is trained to aspire by the circumstances around him. In every municipality, in every vestry, it is open to some man to obtain a station and importance beyond his fellows by capacity for business or force of character. Among the gentry the squire of comparatively small possessions can become a leading power in his county, according to the energy and talent he displays as a magistrate, an agricultural improver, a promoter, as landlord or philanthropist, of the general good. There is not a village in which the peasantry do not recognise an aristocracy among themselves—do not give an influence and respect to their own best men, though they are but ploughmen and hedgers. Thus the genius of aristocracy has become interwoven with the English character, and if it were ejected from the constitution it would be a violence to the organic life of the nation.

The highest merit of the hereditary body to which the word aristocracy is more peculiarly applied consists in this,—that they have maintained and spread throughout the whole people the perception of aristocracy as a thing wholly apart from the titles

of a noblesse. They have done this, according to M , by the

absence of unpopular privileges or exemptions from the duties of citizens—by their frank and hearty participation in the affairs of the country, their zeal for its honour, and their emulation to be foremost in the ranks of its defenders. Their younger sons, descending cheerfully into the ranks of the people, with which they rapidly become fused, carry with them that sentiment of character and action which is best expressed by our English word gentleman. And that sentiment is so prevalent in all grades of our society, that one scarcely smiles to hear a tinman in a municipal council rebuke a grocer for not behaving like a gentleman, or a candidate address the mob gathered round a hustings as 'gentlemen and electors.'

It is, then, this characteristic of Englishmen—this desire of the individual rather to raise himself to the height of others more favoured by fortune or culture than to drag them down to his level—which separates our English system of freedom from the levelling attributes of a democracy. And it seems to us that in all changes of an organic nature our freedom will become endangered in proportion as this character is ignored or renounced.

Not without justice M advances the thesis,' Sans aristocratic

il il n'y a point de liberte durable.' And in defending the law of primogeniture as essential in placing aristocracy upon the permanent basis of property, M no less truly observes how much

this custom, derived from an hereditary class of proprietors, has tended to quicken in all classes the desire of the citizen to perpetuate his race by fixing its home in the land :—

'Qui no voit de suite,' exclaims M , 'le fondement Bolide que la

terre fournit aux institutions politiques? Nous toils, reduits trop souvent par 1'exigenoe de nos fortunes a vendre Heritage paternel, que sommes-nous But le sol Franijais? Des Nomades. Nos etablissements ressomblant a des tentes que le vont des revolutions emporte, ou que lu main du tcmps arrache avec leg piquets mal assures qni leur servent de supports. Le citoyen Anglais prend racine dans le sol Anglais: son home, pour parler cetto languo rude mais expressive, constitue un asile sacre ou il vit en hommo libre,—en roi!'

In office or out of office, whether framing judicious reforms or resisting crude innovations, we believe it to be the aim and object of that large division of the intelligence, the property, and, fairly estimated, the numerical population of England, which acknowledges its political leaders in the men now entrusted with the administration of affairs, to preserve her freedom, enhance her prosperity, and, redeem in the eyes of foreigners the imperilled sense of her dignity and power. This can only be done by a careful respect for each political condition of vitality and health that, by the just equilibrium of forces, constitutes, in harmonious combination, the unity of the whole commonwealth.

The liberties of which the House of Commons is the most ostensible guardian depend not upon the numbers of the electors, but upon the powers of the representative Chamber; and those powers would become incompatible with the safety of the state either at home or abroad if the aggregate intellect which guided them were below the public opinion formed by educated reasoners. It has been because the mind of the nation has hitherto found in its Parliament no ignoble utterance—no permanent prevalence of the passions which stir the many, to the suppression of the wisdom that originates in the few—that, to use the eloquent words with which M. Esquiros concludes his survey of the English at home, 'Liberty has hitherto been the Cape of Tempests to the continental nations that have sought it, but to England, who has found it r.ntl been so happy as to keep it, it is a haven.'





Aard-vark of South Africa, 363.
Academy (Royal), foundation of, 123.
Admiralty, reform required by the

Board of, 543.
Albert Xyanza, Lake. 155.
Alcwyn, intellectual Prime Minister to

Charlemagne, 321.

Animals, habitations of, 355 — bur-
rowing mammalia, 3(iO—burrowing
birds, S6.'J — wood-tunnelling birds,
3P7—burrowing reptiles, 368—pen-
sile habitations of mammalia, 375—
pensile birds, 377 — pensile nest-
making insects, 378—fishes as archi-
tects, 379 — nests of water insects,
381--social insects, 387.
Ant (the driver), one of the most ter-
rible insects in existence, 387—drives
before it every living creature, 16.—
villages deserted on its approach,
Ant-balls, 383 — suspension bridge of

ants, ib,
Antiquity, remains of, monumental and

literary, 325.

Architecture, architectural forms of
gradual growth, 427 — the largest
buildings the oldest, 429—pyramids
at Ghizeh, 16.—the untutored idea of
greatness is greatness of size, 430—
the Egyptians built not for beauty or
nse, but for eternity, 16.—temple at
Ghizeh, 431 — culminating era of
Egyptian artistic embellishment, ib.
edifices of the Pharaonic kings,' 432
—great hall at Karnac, with plan and
section, 433—rock-hewu tombs at
Beni-Hassan (with engraving), 435—
Kzyptian temples called Mammeisi,
437—faults and merits of Egyptian
sculpture, 438 — perfection of the
Parthenon, 489—Greek architecture
inferior to Gothic in grandeur, 16.—
Vol. 120.—No. 240.

Roman architecture, 440—the Colos-
seum a typical example of the Roman
style, 441—details of the building,
442—plan of the Pantheon at Rome,
445—the vault an especial distinction
of Roman architecture, 446—plan of
Basilica of Maxentius. t°6.—architec-
ture of St. Sophia at Constantinople,
449—absurdity of the spiral bas-
relief round Trajan's column, 451—
Roman tombs, 452—Christian basi-
licas, 453—view of the interior of
St. Paul's, at Rome, before the fire,
454 — for 500 years the annals of
Western architecture a blank, 456—
characteristics of Gothic architecture,
459—relation of ethnology to archi-
tecture, ib.—vice of modern architec-
ture, 460.
Arian civilization in Central Asia,

Armstrong's (Sir W.) arguments against

patent rights, 85.

Asia (Central), geography of, 463—
fatality to English explorers, 465—
great trigonometrical survey of
India, 467—Russian travellers, 469
—English explorers, 471—anecdotes
of explorations by disguised Euro-
peans, 473—MS. journal of a German
traveller, 474—its alleged discoveries
adopted in Russian government maps,
ib.—summary of its contents, 475—
arguments against its authenticity,
476—Russian arguments in reply,
478—contributions by Native agents
to the geography of Central Asia,
481—general description of Central
Asia and its inhabitants, 483—four
great river systems, 484 — physical
geography of Central Asia, 4S7—two
systems of ancient Asiatic civiliza-
tion, 489—the ancient Iranians the
founders of Central Asian civiliza-
tion, 490—Arian civilization, 491—
stages of transformation in the popu-
2 Q

lation of Central Asia, 493 — its
political condition, 495 — the six
cities of Chinese Turkestan, 496—
British interests in Central Asia, 497
—survey of recent events, 499—Rus-
sian designs on Bokhara, 500—the
Kusso-Indian question, 502.
Assaye, battle of, 22.

Babylon in old romances = Cairo, 300.
Badham's (Dr.) editions of parts of
Plato, 324—exponent of the Dutch
school of criticism, 349—samples of
his emendations, 351—errors, 353—
his reputation as the first living
scholar in England, 354.
Baker's discovery of the Albert Nyanza,
155—devotion of Mrs. Baker to the
enterprise, 156 — Haker's meeting
with Speke and Grant, 158—residence
in Latooka, 162—reaches the Somerset
river, 163—discovers the Albert Ny-
anza, 166—interview with the king
of Unyoro, 169—his work the most
picturesque description of the centre
of Africa, 170—his qualities as an
explorer, ill.

Baptist missionaries in Jamaica, 247.

Barry's virulence against Sir J. Rey-
nolds, 137—contemptuous contrast
between portrait and historical paint-
ing, 138.

Basilicas (Christian), architecture of,

Beauty, theories of, 115.

Beaver (the), a most skilful engineer,

Bentley's 'Phalaris,' vast information
contained in, 327.

Bertha, mother of Charlemagne, her
statues distinguish, d by large feet,
31. See 'French Literature.'

Bessemer'* conversion of pig-iron into
steel, 87—history of the invention,
90—difficulty of determining certain
stages of the process, 96.

Blakesley's ' Herodotus,' 349.

Blanc's (Louis) 'Lettres snr 1'Angle-
terre,' 536—noble requital of English
hospitality, ib.

Brialmont's 'Campaigns of Welling-
ton,' 1.

Caddis-worms, experiments with, 382—
mode of constructing their houses,

Cfrsarism favoured by manhood suffrage,


Cambridge, distinguished Greek scho-
lars of Trinity College, 349.
Caryatides, origin of, 436.
Chancel, origin of the term, 453.
Charlemagne, the gigantic part he plays
in history, 318—his stern look, &.—
creator and founder of a new order
of civilization, 319—represented the
spirit of order against the antagonists
of civilization, ib.—eagle-like rapidity
of his campaigns, 320—-myths substi-
tuting him for Odin (Woden), ft., note
—his pursuit of learning with Alc-
wyn, 321—description of his person
and manners, 322 — romances about
Charlemagne anathematized by Pope
Calixtus II., 323.

Chcsney's (C'apt.) history of the late
Virginia and Maryland campaigns,

Christianity, attacks on, 389—Strauss's
'Life of Jesus,' 389—character of
his thoughts, 390—his three great
principles, 392—dates of the Gospels,
395—purpose of St. John's Gospel,
397—analysis of it, 398—contro-
versies on the succession of the
Gospels, 400 — Strauss's theory of
myths, 401—reduction to a myth of
the career of Bonaparte, 402—of the
American Declaration of Independ-
ence, 403—examination of the theory
of the mythical origin of the Gospels,
404—alleged feud between the Pe-
trine and Pauline elements in the
early Church, 407 — guess-work of
the critical school, 409—the Gospels
not a product of the circumstances
and ideas of their age, 410—popular
error as to the Pharisees, 412—sup-
posed influence of their doctrines on
the human development of our Lord,
'6. — relations of the Baptist with
Jesus, -ii.'!— recent investigations
give stronger assurance of the origin-
ality of Christ's teaching, 415 —
character of the system proclaimed
by Him, 416—Guizot'g interpretation
of the two principles on which
Christ's kingdom is founded, 418—
Catholicity of that kingdom, ft.—
Christ's abolition of privilege in the
relations of God and man, and di--
tinction between man's religious and
civil life, 420—the title of the Son
of Man, 16. —the Gospel's double
character of austerity and love, 421
—ideal of Christ's kingdom, 422-
the person of Christ the miracle of

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