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the fame of Grecian liberty, which had | lent Scipio some books, and the explana. burned with such fitful splendour, and tions which these required led to various which now, throughout the nation, was conversations between them. So much well nigh extinct, was sending forth a few was this intercourse valued, that on one flickering rays, before expiring in its socket. occasion when the father of Scipio was The period thus indicated will fall pretty about to take Polybius with him on a nearly about a century and a half. before journey, the youthful pupil earnestly begged Christ. Polybius was a citizen of Mega that his tutor might be allowed to remain. lopolis, in Arcadia, like the celebrated Such an application could have but one Philopoemen, of whom he was an ardent reply, and henceforth the tutor and pupil admirer, of which he was able to give a became almost inseparable: the respect and very gratifying proof in his later life. His regard of the latter in no degree diminishfather, whose name was Lycortas, appears ing when he became, as afterwards he did, to have been much respected by his fellow one of the most distinguished men in th citizens, having been appointed by them to state (See Lib. xxxii. 15). more than one important embassy (See The residence of Polybius with his felLib. xxiii. c. 1 ; xxv. c. 7). In the very low.hostages in Italy extended over sevencritical times in which he lived, and when teen years. Through the influence of Scipio, his countrymen, with few exceptions, were after many fruitless previous endeavours, becoming either violent partisans or violent Polybius at length obtained the senate's enemies of Rome, his counsels were on the permission for such as survived to return side of moderation, and displayed a pru to their country. This permission was, dence much to his credit. He wished his however, owing quite as much to a feeling country generally to take independent ac of contempt on the part of the senators tion. vet without doing anything which . for the exiles as to a sense of justice, as ? could be offensive to the Romans. Un. was evident from the remark of Cato's happily, as is too often the case, the more which decided it, “ Are you not ashamed," + vehement opinions prevailed, and eventu be asked, “to be debating whether a few *ally the nation was precipitated into a col old men shall die in Greece or Italy » lision with the Romans, the disastrous issue Polybius, having gained thus much, would of which is but too well known. It bad have gone on to press for the restoration or rather promoted than the contrary this re honours, but here he was promptly met sult, that, a few years previously, on the in and stopped by the significant enquiry of stigation of the so-called friends of Rome, the same Cato, “Are you not afraid a secondo some of the noblest Achæans had been sent time to venture into the Cyclop's den ?" into Italy, to be detained there as hostages On his return to Achaia, he most laudably : for the nation. Polybius was one of these employed the influence he had acquired in exiles, and the change which thus took mitigating the misfortunes of bis countryplace in his circumstances and prospects men. He had the courage to resist a prowas the turning point in his whole career. posal which was made to throw down the * It put him into a position to observe the statues of Philopoemen, and even went so workings of the Roman constitution, made far as to beg back from the Roman general: him familiar with Roman usages and man. some statues of that bero add Aratus, which ners, gave him access to various public had been already removed. Although documents, and thus supplied him with allowed by the Roman commissioners to both the means and motives for composing select for himself whatever he wished from the history which he has left us. He had the confiscated property, he would not avail already, while in Greece, become known to himself of the liberty, and dissuaded others the celebrated Paulus Emilius, and his from doing the same (See Lib. xl. c. 8,9). subsequent intimacy with one of his sons, So much were his countrymen pleased with the younger Scipio, probably conduced as these proofs of his patriotism, that they much as anything else to the success of his erected a stone statue to himself. His after life. Their friendship was brought public life did not cease with his restoration about, in the first instance, by their com to bis native land; but it is not necessary mon love for the chase, but it was after to pursue it further. That be was a man wards much confirmed and deepened by of observing and ingenious mind is evident the common interest which they took in not only from his historical narrative, but the pursuits of literature. Polybius had | from a work which he composed on tactice,
and from the improvements which he in- | thing" may simply mean, be united or har. troduced into fire signals (See Lib. ix. c. monious, for, speaking (Lib. ii. c. 62) in 20.; X. C. 45). He had travelled in dif reference to nations, he says: ferent parts of Italy, and in Egypt bad at "All speaking one and the same thing seem to least visited the city of Alexandria (See reap the greatest prosperity." Lib. xii. c. 2, 5; xxxiv. c. 14).
(2.) Polybius is almost our only authority
for the meaning of the word which in 1 Cor. The history to which we have made allu
xiii. 5, we render “vaunteth not itself." sion was composed originally in forty books,
His history does not indeed contain this comprising the time from the invasion of
identical word, but he has two passages Pyrrhus till the capture of Carthage, and
containing the shorter word, which is its from the 'Night of Cleomenes, the Spartan,
root, and which is an adjective signifying till the dissensions which arose between
“vainglorious,” “boastful.” (See Lib. the Romans and Achæans, and the battle
xxxii. c. 6; Lib. xl. c. 6.) which followed at the Isthmus (See Lib.
(3.) We have good authority in Polybius iii. c. 32). But of these only the first five have come down to us entire. The special
for the use of "lightness" (See 2 Cor. i. 17) object of Polybius in this work was to ex.
in the sense of fickleness or caprice. He
says (Lib. vi. c. 56): plain the growth of the Roman supremacy
“Every multitude is light." and dominion. He undertakes to trace by what arts and virtues, whether military or
(4.) The somewhat bold phrase, “having political, the republic rose to such gigantic
in a readiness" (2 Cor. x. 6), which is a too dimensions, and expresses his purpose and
literal translation from the Greek, is vinhope thus to make his work a storehouse
dicated, as to its classic purity, by the of political wisdom. It is his constant
occurrence of almost precisely the liko Keration of this purpose, with the some
phrase in the second book of Polybius. what prosy reflections which, in fulfilment
(See Lib. ii. c. 34.) of it, he is everywhere inserting, which (5.) Lastly, we gather from our author render his history, notwithstanding several that in 2 Cor. xii, 15, first clause, the latter prime merits, rather hard reading. The verb is rather feebly rendered “ will be Secret of historical instruction is to inter spent.” 'Three passages in Polybius shew Meave the moral with the tale, or rather go that either "out,” or some other intensive to construct the tale that the moral shall particle, should have been added to the rise out of it; but anything more set a
English verb. The idea is that of an lormal than this, whatever pretensions it “exhaustion of resources." may make to combine philosophy with history, is likely to fail of the ends of both. It now only remains to produce the ex. Polybius plumes himself much on the inter tracts from our author which contain the dependence of the events in his narrative, word baptizo. These are five in number, and on his care to refer events back to and after our previous excerpts from other welr causes; but he might safely have left authors, none of them will present anyhis superiority in this and other respects thing to call for critical comment. over ordinary narrators, especially over those of detached passages of history, to the The first extract bas reference to an
attempt of Publius, the Roman general, to Although the Greek diction of Polybius
surprise the Carthaginian feet when sta
tioned at Drepana in Sicily, which attempt is not so largely that of the New Testament as the Greek of Josephus or Plutarch, it is
ended, however, in his own discomfiture.
Speaking of the advantages which the Jet enriched with many New Testament Words but rarely met with in other authors.
Carthaginians possessed for a naval fight
the historian says, e may form some idea of the kind of serTice to be derived from
“If any were hard pressed by the enemy, they it to New Testa
withdrew safely back, on account of their fastbent interpretation from the following sailing, into the opcu sca, and then turning round specimens of reference to it in Meyer, and falling on those of their pursuers who were in in bis commentary recently published on
advance they, gave them frequent blows, and bap.
tized many of their vessels.-Lib. i. c. 51. (1.) In 1 Cor. i. 10, a passage in Polybius
11. aines that 'the phrase "speak the same Is Our next extract places us on the
the two Corinthians.
very threshold of the engagement which took
IV. place between Hannibal and the Roman We have in the next extract but general, Tiberius, on the banks of the another account by a different hand of the river Trebia. The historian is describing mischief done to the ships of the Romans, the somewhat unfavourable circumstances when at anchor before Syracuse, (viz., by under which the Romans commenced the the mechanical contrivances of Archimedes,) engagement. He says,
which we have already seen described by “At first there was eagerness and zeal among
Plutarch. Polybius says, the soldiers, but when the passage of the river
"Owing to these contrivances some of the vesTrebia came on, which had risen above its usual
sels fell slantwise, some were even upset, but the eurrent on account of the rain which had fallen,
greater number, their prow being thrown down the foot with difficulty crossed over, being baptized
from a height, were baptized and became full of sca ap to the chest."-Lib.iii. c. 72,
and confusiou."--Lib. viii. c. 8. III. The scene in our next extract is that
Our last is another scene from a ser of a party of horsemen in higher Asia, who
fight, viz., that between the kings Attalus had been sent to intercept a number of the
and Philip. of the former the historian enemy, who either had crossed, or were
says, then crossing, a river. This purpose they
“ Observing one of his own five-oared vessels failed to effect, from the swampy nature of
wounded and baptized by a vessel of the enemy, het the ground between ; for, says Polybius, hastened to its assistance with two four-oars."
“When they approached Xenetas and his | Lib. xvi. c. 6. company, owing to their ignorance of the places,
I am, dear Sirs, no need of enemies to defeat them; themselves
Very truly yours, baptized by themselves, and sinking in the swamps, they became of no use whatever, and many of them
J. T, GRAY. even lost their lives."-Lib. v. c. 47.
| Stepney College.
A Page for the Young.
ADALINE GREEN, THE PRAYING 1 tion might be of use to him, and, perhaps, GIRL.
assist me in the lessons of industry and CHAPTER III.
economy I wish to teach him.” So she “ Why don't you have a servant ?" said told him they had no one to earn money Joseph Green, as his mother sat down to for them since father was sick, and, therethe table, and pressed her hands to her fore, they must learn to help themselves, throbbing temple.
and not expend money in hiring servants. She had been washing all the morning, As she said this, she glanced timidly at the and as Ada was stationed beside the sick door of her husband's room, to see that it bed (her father was much worse), her son was closed. Ada did not hear her mother's had sometimes been told to perform little remarks, being still with her father ; but labours suited to his years and strength. 'when she spread the cloth for supper, He had got off by being as little useful as Joseph said, possible, and now, as he saw how tired “I suppose we shall have to live on and feverish she looked, it must be confessed crusts the rest of our days, for mother says he felt he was not the boy he should be. we are poor, and have no one to work for But Joseph was not penitent enough to
us.” forget himself.
“ Still, we need not live on crusts, Josey," . “I say, mother,” continued he, “why said she, laughing, “ for we will eat the don't you hire a girl to do the work? I crust with the soft, and then we shall always don't like to pump water, and pick up chips,
have soft to our crust." and all that.”
(A good idea, don't you think so, little Mrs. Green hesitated. “How can I tell reader ?) the poor child that poverty is coming upon After tea, Joseph went to see a water. us like an armed man, and that-no, I wheel that one of the neighbour's boys hac cannot, and he would not comprehend it, I fixed in the brook. Mrs. Green went to but,” said she, musing, “a slight explana her husband's room, and Adaline to her
chamber to lay some wonderful plans for each other? They were nurtured alike; the future. What they were can be gleaned their father, an exemplary moralist, had from her conversation to her doll.
taught them what was proper to make them “Now, Miss Doll, you must be put away
dignified and respectable in the opinion of upon the shelf of the closet, and learn to the world. Their mother had given them entertain yourself, for Ada can play baby higher and holier motives for right doing, house no more. She is tall and strong, and daily praying that grace, mercy, and peace, her hands were made to work, doing what might dwell with them for ever. What ever they can find to do, and not handling then made them to differ? Let me tell such as you. Here they go, the whole you. I have said that the children were furniture, packed nicely away for some little each in the habit of praying; their mother girl that cannot do her part in this busy taught them to pray. But while Joseph world. Adaline Green is now housemaid,
merely repeated the prayer which he had or anything else she can learn to be, so learned, Adaline prayed with her heart to that she is useful to mother and the rest of God who heareth prayer. Think you that the family."
her sincere, humble, trusting petitions were Children can do a great deal if they rejected because they were simple and choose. One half of the time that they
childlike ? Ah, no! spend in useless play would earn their
“ The weakest lamb within his fold bread, so that they need not be such weary
Shall be the Shepherd's care." burdens to toil-worn parents. Besides, Adaline prayed for grace, and it was much of the labour of this busy world, when given her, every day, in proportion to her performed by little hands, " is almost as faith. She asked to be led aright, and the good as play." Ada found on trial that she path of duty became plain and easy. It is had not overrated her capabilities; after a true she had many hard lessons to learn of few weeks' practice, she was astonished to her own weakness, but these lessons once see, on looking back, how much she bad learned were a great help, they led her to learned.
trust more entirely in her Saviour, and "Look here, Josey," said she, one day prepared her for the trials that awaited when she had been very successful in her
her. experiments, “ see my bars of ironed At length her quiet, cheerful demeanour, clothes; mother used to think it wonderful attracted the attention of her father. if I smoothed the towels. I fancy she'll “ That is a very amiable child,” said he think I've improved now."
one day to his wife, as she brought in a cup But Joseph had not improved; he had of gruel, and enquiring kindly after his made no effort to be useful, even though health, returned to her labour. he knew the sad reason that had first nerved “ She is indeed,” said she, “ and the his sister to diligence. Not even did he most industrious clever little girl I ever try to lighten her tasks; once or twice had saw.” she asked him to assist her in keeping the “I wish Joseph were like her," said the irons heated, but he had either refused or father; "she really makes those coarse affected not to hear. Of course, he didn't features and that brown complexion quite feel pleasant and agreeable; children never
pleasing. That boy, it seems to me, is getdo when they have done wrong. Besides,
ting more peevish and sullen every day. I jealousy had crept into the heart of the wish his disposition were like hers. But," poor boy, just as his mother had told him. added he, with a sigh, “ it requires con
"I dare say,” said he, mentally,“ mother siderable philosophy to get along cheerfully will think she has done wonders, and will
with the trials of this life.” K188 and praise her ; nobody would praise
“Mere philosophy, my dear husband," me if I worked all day-might as well not
said Mrs. Green, “has no power to sustain do anything," and Joseph felt a satisfaction
the mind under affliction; nothing but rein thinkiog he was ill-used.
ligion Thus was the heart of that beautiful boy, 'Can Jay the rough paths of peevish nature even, which should have been the home of all
And open in the breast a little heaven.'" gentle feelings and virtues, made the recep
“How, then, do you account for Adaline's tacle of dark wicked thoughts and passions. patierce and gentleness?" said Mr. Green ; Why was it that two children so nearly 1"you don't imagine she is actuated by that connected and so intimate, were so unlike mysterious influence you call religion ?”
: “ Why not?" replied his wife with great solemnity; "these things have ever been hidden from the wise and prudent, and revealed unto babes. Oh, husband, could you have heard that child as I did last evening, praying in her chamber for her sick father, you would have believed in the power of divine grace.”
Mr. Green looked up in surprise.
“ Adaline pray; that little girl! why, wife, what kind of a prayer could she make ?" . “One, I have no doubt,” said she, “that was acceptable to God, since it was evi. dently dictated by his Spirit.”
“And she prayed for me?” said the sick man, turning away his head and burying himself in the bed-clothes.
“ Earnestly and fervently,” said his wife ; “the burden of her petition was that poor father might be brought to love the Saviour,
and from my inmost soul, dear husband, I responded. Amen.'”
Mrs. Green laid down her sewing and left the room. Up to this time she had never made any personal remark to her husband on the subject of religion; she had let her calm, consistent life, speak of the doctrine she professed. Her patience and gentleness, too, when he had been peevish and fault-finding, had spoken volumes to the now thoughtful man.
“Well,” said he, after having revolved the subject in his mind for some time," I don't know but they are right. There should be something to which the soul can cling in its hour of trial. That child, pray.. ing for her father, a father she never heard pray in her life_how wonderful-I should like to hear what she would say about such things."
(To be continued.)
ANECDOTR OP MR. PBARCE.-It will he remembered, that at the period of the first French Revolution, party spirit ran very high in England, and the High Church party so strongly opposed the Dissenters, on account of their love of freedom, as to encourage the mob to burn down several of their meeting-houses. One of these was a Baptist chapel, in Guilsborough, about ten miles from Northampton, which was set fire to, and burnt to the ground, December 25th, 1792. Both the congregation and the government offered large rewards for the apprehension of the offenders, but without effect. The loss of their meeting-house was a sore affliction to the members of this poor church, one of whom, on going to her door, and seeing the chapel on fire, fell down, and instantly died. A new chapel was, however, built, and the seraphic Pearce, the energetic Fuller, and the mild and cautious Sutcliffe, preached on the happy occasion of its dedication. The morning sermon, by Mr. Pearce, was from the text, Psalm 1xxvi. 10,-“ Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee; the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain.” At the frugal repast at the close of the sermon, the persons assembled were privately expressing to each other their pleasure in listening to Mr. Pearce's discourse, when a gentleman rose at the table, and made a public request to him to preach again the next morning, at an early hour. With equal simplicity and Zeal Pearce replied, “ If you will find a congregation, I will find a sermon." The hour fixed on was five o'clock, in order to accommodate the country people. At the breakfast table, after this early and well attended service,
Mr. Fuller said, “Brother Pearce, I was gratified with your discourse this morning, and hope it will do much good; but I know you will excuse my freedom if I say, that I thought you did not seem to close when you had really finished. I wondered that, contrary to what is usual with you, you seemed, as it were, to begin again at the end-how was it ?" Pearce replied, “It was so; but I had my reason.” “Well, then," said Fuller, in a jocular manner, which he could occasionally assume, "come, let us have it." Mr. Pearce paused, and a little hesitated; but on being once more entreated, said, “ Well, my brother, you shall have the secret, if it must be so. Just at the moment I was about to resume my seat, thinking I had finished, the door opened, and I saw a poor man enter, of the working class; and from the sweat on his brow, and the symptoms of his fatigue, I conjectured that he had walked some miles to this early service, but that he had been unable to reach the place will the close. A momentary thought glanced through my mind, - here may be a man who never heard the gospel, or, it may be, he is one who regards it as a feast of fat things; in either case, the effort on his part demands one on mine. So, with the hope of doing him good, I resolved at once to forget all else, and, in despite of criticism, and the apprehension of being thought tedious, to give him a quarter of an hour." The impression produced by this simple explanation, which unveiled 80 much love to souls, in connection with the self-sacrificing spirit of the true minister of Christ, may be better imagined than described.