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The necessity of a scientifick medicines; for with what propriepharmacopeia, which should fix ty could be introduced any of those the language and regulate the pre: works, in most of which may be paration and combination of the found combinations of no active various articles of the materia virtues, and in all peculiar prepamedica, has long been experienced rations, inapplicable to the estabby the physicians, and acknowledg- lished modes of practice in our own ed by
the apothecaries of the country ? From the consideration New England states. From the of these difficulties, and the conwant of such a standard, the for- viction of the necessity of a work mer, in their prescriptions, have of this nature, the Massachusetts been governed by no determinate Medical Society determined to rules of pharmacy, and assisted by assume the most correct of them no certain principles of medico- as a basis, on which should be conchemical nomenclature ; and the structed a pharmacopæia, similar latter, in their preparations, guid- in form and arrangement of the ed, perhaps, more by names than articles, but differing in some dethe laws of pharmaceutical combi- gree, in the nature of the subnation, have afforded medicines of stances, the proportions of ingredifferent ingredients, and of varied dients and the modes of combinadegrees of strength, from the sy. tion. Its execution, it seems, was nonimes of the medical colleges of referred to a committee, * who were London, Edinburgh, and Dublin. empowered to collate the different The result of this confusion in the works on pharmacy, published by terms, and this uncertainty in the the European colleges of physicomposition of medicinal prepara. cians, to embody them in a scientions is often mortitying to the tifick manner, and to publish the physician, embarrassing to the a- result of their labours, sanctioned pothecary, and even sometimes by the name of the corporation. dangerous to the patient. The evils, The objects of the society are therefore, necessarily resulting completed in the volume before from this unsystematick and unscientifick mode of practice called The principle, as it appears in loudly for reform, but in what way the preface, upon which the comor by whom was the innovation to mittee proceeded in the execution be effected ? It is obvious, that of their task, was the naturalizathis important revolution depend- tion of a foreign pharmacopaia, ed not on the will of any persons, and, in taking that of Edinburgh considered as simple individuals; as a standard, they could not have for who among us would feel him- made a more judicious selection self obliged, independent of a con. for propriety of arrangement, corviction of his immediate interest, rectness of medico-chemical noto submit to the requisitions of an menclature, or accuracy of pharauthority gratuitously assumed, maceutical combination. In the and unsanctioned by prescriptive prosecution of their designs, were right ? nor on the adoption in its we to form a judgment of their fullest extent of any European labours by the useful alterations pharmacopæia as the only stand. and valuable additions they have ard, by which physicians were to be governed in the prescription, and
* Doctors James Jackson and John apothecaries in the composition of C. Warren.
introduced, they must have ad- that it n.ight be regarded as the vanced with slow and cautious repository of all the medicines of steps. Their ends were not ac- domestick origin, whose activity complished without a long series had been demonstrated by experiof laborious investigation, unaided ment, or whose virtues were too by the faculty at large, and unas- positive to be mistaken. sisted by the members of that as long series of attentive observasociation, whose interest and re- tion and of patient investigation is putation were necessarily involved requisite to fix the character and in the character of the work. The determine the powers of any artiplan on which they proceeded in cle of the materia medica. The the execution is detailed in the medicines of our own country, unpreface, and is contained in the fortunately, have, in few instances, four following inquiries.
been submitted to a course of ex1. Respecting the virtues of periments, the results of which each article in the list of the ma- would place them beyond dispute teria medica, in the Edinburgh in their appropriate station. Were Pharmacopæia.
all the medicines to be admitted, 2. Respecting articles admitted which are daily used by the phyinto other pharinacopæias, or em- sicians of this country, particularployed in this country, which are ly of the interiour, whose materia not found in the Edinburgh Phar. medica is derived more from the macopæia. . •
objects of botany than of chemis. 3. Respecting the merit of the try, the catalogue of simples' preparations and compositions in would be swelled to an almost the Edinburgh Pharmacopæia, immeasurable extent, and the compared with those, which are work itself be degraded, from a similar in other pharmaceutical regular pharmacopæia, to the charworks.
acter of a mere popular herbal. 4. Respecting the merit of such Hence the catalogue of American preparations and compounds as medicines is short, and this partial are not admitted into the Edin- notice is founded on the correct burgh Pharmacopæia, but are principle, that the history of most found either in similar works, or of them is very imperfect, and in common use in this country. that only such articles as have an
Proceeding, therefore, on these established reputation are entitled principles, their objects could not to admission into a work of this be attained without much time, sort.'* much accurate experiment, cau- The contents of the volume unrious examination, and laborious der review, are comprehended in and long continued research. In the three following divisions. 1. consequence of this investigation, Materia Medica. 2. Preparations we observe, with much satisfac- and compositions. 3. Tables, tion, the omission of several com- the first of which indicates the binations of doubtful efficacy, and proportions of opium, antimony, the insertion of others of superioúr and quicksilver, in some importactivity and greater simplicity of ant combinations ; the second, a composition.
posological and prosodial table, One principal object undoubted- denotes the quantities to be exhibly in the promotion of this pharmacopzia was the consideration, * Preface
ited of the various articles of the diminished by no important omismateria medica, either in their sion; its size is sufficiently exsimple form, or in a state of com- tended to present to the practitionbination, and their established er a complete body of medicinal modes of pronunciation ; and the agents, while it is sufficientiy contwo last are appropriated as gener- tracted to exclude a long catalogue al indices of ancient and syste- of ineffective medicines, whose onmatick names.
These tables are ly office is lo, obstruct the physivaluable additions to the work, and cian in his practice, and embarrass are well calculated to facilitate the the apothecary in his pharmaceu. acquisition of the principles of tical compositions. If then our the new medical nomenclaturę, view of the merits of this work be founded on the discoveries of mo
correct, we may be indulged in the dern chemistry, and happily ap- hope, that, in future, its nomenclaplied to the elucidation of the ture will be adopted by the physicomplex operations of pharmaceu- cians not only of the society, and tical combination. On opening of the town, but by those of the the leaves of this book, the first country, and its directions most circumstance, which would attract strictly followed by the apothecathe notice, and perhaps excite the ries. We may be allowed to ansurprise of a foreign physician is ticipate the period, when the conits English dress, which by the fused and imperfect nomenclature, pedantick correctness of European which now disgraces the medical colleges might be considered as profession, shall have given way heterodox in medicine. But it to the scientifick principles of must be remembered that the regular pharmacopæias, and one umodes of education in our coun- niform standard be adopted try render this necessary. To be throughout New England, and useful it must of course be intelli- perhaps the United States. We gible, and this is to be effected on- stop for a moment to award the ly by writing in plain English, for tribute of praise to its mechanical unfortunately for the mysticism execution. Its very correct typoof the medical profession, the Latin graphy, and clean impression do and Greek, to our apothecaries, much credit to the printers, and are truly dead languages. The demonstrates, that with care and directions, therefore, for the pre- assiduity that branch of the meparations and compositions of the chanick art will rapidly approach various articles of the materia the style of execution, by which the medica are given in English, the objects of the typographick art in technical terms being super added the old world are characterised. with their translations. By this mode all ambiguity is avoided, and the compounder of medicine will
ART. 3. hereafter never have occasion to
Sentiments on resignation. screen his ignorance of his art un
Rosewell Messinger, pastor of der the wilful misinterpretation of
the first church in York, Maine. a Latin direction.
Shall not the judge of all the earth do right?" In short, the character of the pharmacopæia of the M. M. S.
Portsmoath, W. Treadwell, for may be delineated in a sentence.
the author. 12mo. pp. 225. It is encumbered by no superflu- WHOEVER opens this book with ous compounds, and its utility is an expectation of seeing an elegant
tract on practical religion, will be and of communing with spirits disappointed. The subject is good, and angels with the greatest familbut it is treated with such diffuse- iarity.' Enemies, however, as we ness, that almost any other title are, to controversial divinity, we would as well suit the book, as the should not quarrel with Mr. Mesone which it bears. The form of singer, respecting his creed, promethod, however, is given to the vided he had written with discrimwork, which is divided into ‘nine ination and arrangement. We chapters, of which the following would have pardoned the peculiarare the contents :
ity of his thoughts, or his attach
ment to a favourite reformer, if he Chap. 1. General observations on the had clothed the first with neatimportance of resignation. 2. Resignation considered as it regards the reness, and vindicated the last with
But his nunciation of objects. 3. Resignation strength and clearness. considered, as it regards the exercises repetitions weary, his obscurity of the heart and mind in meeting the perplexes, and his affectation disevents of divine providence. 4. A se. gusts us. He borrows much of rious question concerning resignation his eloquence from texts in the examined. 5. Counterfeit resignation exposed. 6. The influence of resig- sacred writings, of all others the nation upon the passions. 7. The in- most difficult of interpretation ; he fluence of resignation on disposition sometimes attempts to bring into and character. *8. The influence of re- affinity the most heterogeneous obsignation on devotion. fluence of resignation on the sentić jects, and he often composes the ments of mortality.
same sentence of both obsolete
and new-fangled terms. When These chapters contain indeed he speaks of the aged peasant,' some excellent thoughts on piety vigils of philosophy,' slumberand morals ; but they are nearly ous nostrums of self-righteous lost in verbosity and metaphor. Dess,' perspectives of the dying,' We have never seen a book of this translucent tears,' o sullen modevotional cast composed in so rosity,' &c. &c., and when he uses figurative a style. It tends to be such words as transiency,''praywilder the serious christian, whilst erful, and very often the Diviniit excites a smile in the literary ty' for God, we cannot but lament, lounger.
that Mr. Messinger had not either What particular system of the been early made acquainted with ology our author espouses, it is Campbell and Blair, or confided his difficult and perhaps not important «Sentiments for correction to a to ascertain. His third chapter, judicious friend. Of the almost which is the best, having some innumerable errours of the press thing in it like reasoning, professes we say nothing. to refute a doctrine, which is said Yet it must be acknowledged, to be orthodox ; whilst, in every that Mr. Messinger has a claim to part of his book, he uses Trinita- the benignity of the publick, which rian and Calvinistick phrases with no living author, in this country, apparent complacency. Else- can present. Whilst we are just where he seems to be a disciple of in the cause of letters, we bow to Swedenborg ; for he says, sexual the dispensations of providence, attachments often originate in and would cherish a sacred respect mystery,' and talks of persons for inevitable sufferings. His prebeing visited by celestial spirits, face, addressed to the patrons of
Vol. V. No. 1. G
the work,' will be read with a live- bold and beautiful allusions, and ly sensibility and a generous com- here and there a just and elevated passion.
idea of God's moral government. *For more than two years the Author So that although we cannot praise has been deprived of sight, and left to the learning or judgment of our the awful and sublime perception of to- author, we do not deny that he tal darkness. Through the vicissitudes possesses imagination and talents; of excruciating pain, and tiresome de: and if we have no respect for his bility, and through repeated scenes of alarming sickness in his family, he has
taste, we have much for his piety. personally supplied the pulpit, and pro- As a specimen of Mr. Messinduced by the aid of an amanuensis the ger's manner, we select a passage following work. The greatest part of from the part of the work, in which it has been studied when the springs of its author is inquiring “if resignalife were so far eshausted, that he had tion implies a willingness to rereason to apprehend a speedy removal to that world, where the hope of the
ceive the sentence of condemnahypocrite shall perish, but the resign- tion in any possible case.' ed soul shall enjoy with rapture the pure effulgence of eternal day.
• But whence are we to know that it The generous patronage, which the is the will of God, that any christian work has received, is gratefully ac
will ever receive sentence of condemknowledged. Should it's merit be in- nation, or that he must be willing to sufficient to remunerate the liberality of meet that dreadful destiny ? In what the patrons, they will resort to the con
alcove of celestial records has he depossciousness of being promptly disposed ited such counsel and purpose ? On to encourage industry, and to befriend what mountain of Zion has be made the honest exertions of a fellow mortal. proclamation, that some of the trophies The author is forbidden to aspire after of the Redeemer's blood must be ban. scientifick distinction. While Homer, ished forever from his presence ; and Milton, and Saunderson, inherit thé that all, who are purchased at so great heights of fame, his greatest desire is a price, and whose knowledge of Christ to be found in a humble attitude at the is life eternal, must be willing to meet feet of Jesus. Should be ever be as the event ? Hath it not been declared, sured that his labours have been in that the will of God determines the strumental in dissolving the dream of perseverance of the saint ? My sheep security, in diminishing the empire of hear my voice. I know them and they despondency, and in planting the smile follow me ; and I give unto them eterof resignation amidst the tears of the nal life, and they shall never perish.' orphan and bereaved pilgrim, he will Hence it is undeniable, that the chris. obtain a rich reward.
tian's willingness to receive sentence « Thus with the year
of condemnation has no agreement Seasons return; but not to me returns
with the divine will. It will not fa. Day, or the sweet approach of ey'n or morn, Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose,
cilitate an escape from this difficulty te Or flocks, or herds, or human face divine ; say, we are willing on supposition it But clouds instead, and ever during dark
should be God's will and for bis glory: Surrounds me, from the cheerful ways of men Cut off, and for the book of knowledge fair
This amounts to no more, than a con.
jecture of what we should do, preOf nature's works, to me expung'd and ras'd, And wisdcın at one entrance quite shut out.
sumptuously supposing a case that imSo much the rather thou, celestial light, plied mutability of the divine purpose. Shine inward, and the mind thro' all her powers
And it is no more an exercise of resig: Irradiate, there plant eyes, all mist from thence Purge and disperse, that I may see and tell nation, than Peter's peremptory avowal of things invisible to mortal sight."
of unabating attachment to the Re
deemer was an actual adherence to him, It gives us pleasure to add, that, when accosted by the damsel. The admidst all the excentricity and exercise is less than a dream. For, do extravagance of the book, we find we dream of conquest, of rearing cities, many a fine sentiment tenderly the actual realization of these things is
and of swaying the sceptre of empire ; and handsomely expressed, some possible.
possible. Whereas by asserting that
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