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that the tabernacle of the congregation, and the temple of Jerusalem, were situated in the same way: and the Hutchinsonians consider it as not unlikely, that the preservation of, and regard for, those sacred symbols, were the characteristics of the worshippers of the true God in the primitive ages; and that the neglect of them, and the adoption of others in their stead, was the origin of all that wickedness, which in the end destroyed the antediluvian world. “I do not pretend to determine,” says Parkhurst, who is one of the defenders of this hypothesis, 66 whether this same sacred tabernacle was preserved by Noah in the ark, and remained in the family of Eber, till the descent of the Israelites into Egypt, and was brought up by them from thence, when they were called upon to take possession of the promised land; but it is certain, from Exod. xxxiii. 7, 8, 9. compared with Exod. xvi. 33, 34, and 1 Sam. iv. 8, that the Israelites had a tabernacle sacred to Jehovah before that which was erected by Moses.”

Such was the original meaning of the cherubim, according to this interpretation. They were representations of the Trinity in the parts they took in the plan of redemption, and making the works of creation and providence evidently subservient to that great end. Whereever, therefore, these cherubim appear in the Old Testament, the espousers of this opinion endeavour to shew, , that they are uniformly applied to the sacred Trinity, with the single exception of the case of Tyre, which, on account of the protection it gave to commerce, is termed

a Exod. xxvii. 13,

b Ezek, xlvii. 1. · See farther on this subject in Hutchinson's Works; President Forbes's Thoughts on Religion ; Spearman's Inquiry after Philosophy and Theology; Bates's Inquiry into the occasional and standing Similitudes of the Lord; Jones's Essay on the first Principles of Natural Philosophy; and Parkhurst's Lexicon on the word 2172.

in Ezekiel xxviii. 14. “ the anointed cherub that covereth."

The second opinion concerning the cherubim is, that they were intended to describe the character and office of the ministers of religion; who, being possessed of delegated power, are commissioned by the Trinity to beseech men, in their stead, to be reconciled to God. Hence, as there was one placed at either end of the mercy seat, so do prophets and apostles, the priests under the law, and ministers of religion under the gospel, all unite in this great and important work; looking down, like the sherubim, to the mercy seat, as the ground of their own acceptance with God, and the place to which they are commanded to direct their hearers. Nor are they represented as destitute of qualifications for their important office as ambassadors of Christ: for they are said to have the face of a lion, to denote their boldness in the cause of the gospel; the face of an ox, to denote their patience and perseverance; the face of a man, to express their wisdom, prudence, and compassion; and the face of an eagle, to point out their penetration into Divine things, their elevated sentiments, and heavenly deportment. They are full of eyes before, to look to the throne for direction and assistance; behind, to feed and defend the flocks, over which the Holy Ghost hath made them overseers; and within, to attend to the motions of their own hearts. In the book of Revelations, especially, they are said to have six wings, two of which cover their faces in token of their humility; two cover their feet, that the imperfection of their services may not appear; and two to fly with cheerfulness and alacrity on their Master's service. In short, they are said to rest neither day nor night, but to celebrate perpetually the praises of God, to shew that their hearts are in their work; and that they delight to practise what they are commissioned to teach Such is the interpretation of the cherubic figures when applied to the ministers of religion.

The third and last opinion which we shall mention, is, that which considers them, when spoken of in the New Testament, as a description of the church from the coming of Christ till the end of the world. Thus, the face of a lion is supposed to describe the boldness and courage of the apostles, and other teachers of Christianity in the first century. The face of an ox, their patience and perseverance, from the beginning of the second century, till the time of the Reformation in the sixteenth century; the face of a man, that general knowledge, and acuteness of reasoning, which would characterize the defenders of Christianity between the Reformation and the Millennium; and the face of an eagle, that clear perception, elevated affection, and active spirit, which should eminently distinguish the friends of religion in that happy age.

Thus have we seen the most generally-received opinions concerning the cherubim. The subject is confesscdly intricate : but one leading idea runs through all the interpretations ; namely, that they have evident reference to the plan of redemption ; for they are allowed to be descriptive either of its Divine authors, its divinelycommissioned human instruments, or its general history.

But, leaving here the subject of the cherubim, and with them the interior of the sacred tent, let us return to the court of the tabernacle, to notice, that the ticular place in that court, in which the tabernacle was situated, seems to have been not in the middle, but considerably toward the west end of the court. For, in the first place, the altar of burnt offering, and the space required for the priests and the sacrifices, would seem to countenance such an opinion: and, secondly, the like position was afterwards observed with respect to the tem


ple. In this manner have we attended to every thing that is remarkable in the structure and furniture of the tabernacle and its court. It was erected in the wilderness of Sinai, on the first day of the first month, of the second year after the Israelites came out of Egypt, or eleven months and a half after that important event;' and, when erected, the tabernacle, and all that was therein, were anointed with an oil compounded of the following ingredients; viz. pure myrrh five hundred shekels weight, sweet cinnamon two hundred and fifty, sweet calamus two hundred and fifty, cassia five hundred, and a hin of olive oil. And it was particularly enjoined, that none should be made like it, nor was any individual to put it upon his body: but whether this injunction meant, that no second quantity should be made, or that none should be made for ordinary purposes, is uncertain. One is led to suppose, from the receipt for making it being so minutely described, and from the specific declaration, that it should be a holy anointing oil unto the Lord, throughout their generations, that the prohibition was intended rather to prevent it from being applied to common purposes, than to prevent it from being made, as occasion required, for the service of the sanctuary. But, besides the anointing with oil, every part also was sanctified by blood ;' and the altar of burnt offering especially, was sanctified by sacrifices of seven days, while rich donations were given by the princes of the tribes, for the service of the sanctuary.'

But, since the whole of the court, the tabernacle and its furniture were then completed, it may be proper to notice the quantities of gold, silver, and brass, which were used in the formation of it. The gold that was em

a Ex. xl. 17.
d 21.
Vol. I.

b Ex. xl. 9-11.
Ex. xxix. 37.


• Ex. xxx. 22–33.

Numb. vü. 1-88.


ployed weighed twenty-nine talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, or eighty-seven thousand seven hundred and thirty shekels, allowing three thousand shekels to the talent; which at 41. the ounce, was equal to £175,460 sterling. This was used in finishing the holy and most holy places.—The silver was one hundred talents, and one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels, being a bekah or half shekel for all the males of Israel, above twenty years of age, when they came out of Egypt; amounting to six hundred and three thousand five hundred and fifty;' and its destination was as follows: the hundred talents were employed for the ninetysix sockets round the foundation of the tabernacle, and the four sockets of the pillars which separated between the holy and most holy places. And the one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels that remained, were employed for hooks for the pillars, overlaying the chapiters, and filletting them. The whole value of which silver, at 5s. the ounce, and three thousand shekels to the talent, would be equal to 37,7211.173. 6d. sterling:The brass, or rather copper, which was used, (for brass is a modern factitious metal, composed of copper, zinc, and lapis calaminaris) was seventy talents, and twentyfour thousand shekels, with which were made the sixty sockets for the pillars round the court of the tabernacle, the brazen altar of burnt offering, with all its vessels, the sockets for the five pillars at the door of the tabernacle, and all the pins of the tabernacle of the court;e for it will be recollected, that the laver and its foot, were not made of this brass, but of the polished brazen mirrors of the women. Now, these seventy talents, and twenty-four thousand shekels of brass or copper, making two hundred


• Ex xxxvii. 24.
¢ Ex. xxxviii, 27.

• Ex. xxx, 11-16; xxxviii. 25, 26.
d Ex, xxxviii, 28. e Ex, xxxviii. 29–31.

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