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around it; the thickness of the wall; the vestibule of the Porch; the marble

and golden tables ; the golden vine and candlestick; the two pillars, Jachin

and Boaz : inquiry into their appearance and probable use. The apartments

on either side of the vestibule. The chambers of the butchering instru.

ments; and the apartment above the door, where the crowns of the con.

quered kings were kept.

157

SECT. XI. The Holy Place. The thickness of the wall between it and the

two doors in the wall; singular manner of opening and shutting them

daily;

the particular time when opened ; a remarkable marble stone between

the two doors ; the veil that hung between them; total of veils in the Temple,

and where hung. Description of the Holy Place; its dimensions, beauty, and

richness; the palm trees, and cherubims. The windows of the Holy Place;

its furniture-viz. Ist. The candlestick, its height, materials, form, position,

and fate after the destruction of Jerusalem. 2nd. The table of shew bread;

its size, situation; the manner of making the shew bread, taking away the

old and placing the new; the frankincense and wine that stood beside it; and

the fate of the table after the destruction of Jerusalem. 3d. The golden altar,

its size, materials, situation

170

SECT. XII. The Most Holy Place. The partition which divided the Holy

from the Most Holy Place : the veils, their materials, colour, great strength,

yet rent at Christ's crucifixion ;-reflections on that event. Dimensions of

the Most Holy Place during the tabernacle, first and second Temples, and

Temple by Herod. Its exceeding beauty and richness; had no windows, and

why. Its furniture :—1st. The ark, with the mercy-seat; their size, what

made of: tables of the law: golden pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that

budded. 2dly. The cherubim of glory: a description of them. 184

SECT. XII. Buildings attached to the Temple.-The fifteen chambers on the

north side; the fifteen on the south side; the eight at the west end ; their size

and uses. The gallery before these chambers; the wall before the gallery;

the large chamber over the Holy and Most Holy Places; the veils that di-

vided it; and the stair that communicated from it to the top of the Temple.

Josephus's plan of the Courts of the Temple shewn to be not at variance with

the foregoing accounts. The different degrees of sanctity attached to the

Temple. The punishments inflicted on those who violated it:- 1. Death

by the hand of Heaven; 2. Cutting off; 3. Whipping; 4. Rebels,

beating

191

PART III.

THE MINISTERS OF THE TEMPLE.

SECT. I. The High Priest.—The manner of installation under the tabernacle

and first Temple. The garments of office particularly described. The urim

and thummim, and beth-kel. His dress on the day of atonement. Garments

under the second Temple. The phylacteries and anointing of. How in-

stalled under the second Temple. His several duties; duration in office ;

and certain things of a civil nature, in which he differed from other Israel-

"ites. The succession of high priests from their first appointment till the

-- building of the Temple; from thence till the carrying away to Babylon; no

account of them during the Captivity; the account continued, from their

return till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. Average lives of the

high priests during each of these periods

207

SECT. II. The Superior Officers of the Temple.—The sagan: kethulikin, or

overseers of the treasuries : amercelin, or overseers of the gates : the gezbe-

rin, or deputy collectors: the chief priests of every course: the heads of the

houses of their fathers : overseers of the times, doors, guards, singers, cymbal

music, lots, birds, tickets, drink-offerings, sick, waters, shew bread, incense,

veils, and priests' garments. Particular account of the duties of each of

these

245

SECT. III. The Priests. Their courses during the first Temple; the way in

which these were revived after the Captivity. The three ranks into which

each course was subdivided, Their manner of attendance at the Temple;

the day of the week on which they entered upon, and left off attendance.

How the unofficiating priests were employed at home: the age at which they

began to serve, and were excused from serving. The form of consecration

at different periods of the Jewish economy: the dress they wore while on

duty: how procured-how applied when old: their ordinary dress when at

home: their duties in the Temple : their employment at home. The general

utility of the priesthood. The manses and glebes of the Jewish clergy. The

nine items which composed their stipends. How the half shekel for every

Israelite was applied. The marriages and numbers of the priesthood 251

SECT. IV. The Levites. The reason why they were chosen; nature of their

employment during the Tabernacle. The twenty-four courses during the

T'emple; three catalogues of these. Their employments while at the Temple,

threefold. 1st. As porters and servants through the day. 2nd. As guards along

with the priests during the night. The man of the Mountain of the House,

who? 3d. As musicians. The temple Music, either vocal or instrumental.

The instrumental music, three kinds. 1st. Wind instruments, as the trum.

pet, flute, timbrel, tabret, and organ. 2d. Instruments with strings, as the

psaltery and harp. 3d. Those that sounded by concussion, as the cymbals.

A particular account of all these. The maximum and minimum of the Tem.

ple band. Account of the music during divine service. The psalms sung on

the different days of the week. Every psalm divided into three parts: the 24th

Psalm given as an example. The meaning of Selah, and the number of times

it occurs in Scripture. How the Levites were employed at home. The age

when they might serve, and could retire from service; the form of their con-

secration; their distinctive dress. The thirty-five Levitical cities : the Cities

of Refuge described ; the other funds for their support; their numbers 276

SECT. V. The Stationary Men and Nethinim.-The twenty-four courses of the

former;

the reasons for their appointment; their duties at the Temple :

the duty of that part of the course that staid at home. The Nethinim-who

they were ; their employment; their numbers

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THE SERVICE OF THE TEMPLE.

SECT. I. The Vessels of Service.-Very many; provided partly by the public,

and partly by the piety of individuals ; some of them mentioned. The fate

of the sacred vessels after the destruction of Jerusalem

320

SECT. II: The Animal Sacrifice.—The kinds of animals used; and vegetable;

and minerals. Burnt-offerings ; the occasion of them ; way of devoting them;

killing; sprinkling the blood; salting; laying on the altar. Manner of offer-

ing turtle-doves and young pigeons. Burnt-offerings prior to the Mosaic

dispensation. Sin-offerings; the occasion of them ; persons by whom they

might be offered; the whole congregation ; individuals under three supposed

cases. Trespass-offerings ; how they differed from sin-offerings; commonly

divided into certain and doubtful; the doubtful explained; the five certain

cases specified; the place where the priest's portion of them was eaten, and

the time: the probable origin of the Agapæ, or love-feasts, among the first

Christians. Peace-offerings ; comprehending thank-offerings, free-will-offer-

ings, and vows. The animals used; how devoted by the ofterer, and slain by

the priests; the portion of them that belonged to the priests, and that

which was eaten by the offerer; the meat-offering that accompanied them;

the additions made to the law concerning them under the second Temple;

the persons who could offer them

325

SECT. III. Meat and Drink-offerings : Wave and Heave-offering8.-Meat-offer-

ings Thirteen kinds of them; rules for managing them : the proportion of

meat offerings for the different kinds of sacrifices under the Tabernacle and

first Temple; why honey forbidden. The alterations introduced under the

second temple. The manner of offering them in our Saviour's days. Drink-of-

ferings-what; the quantity required for the different animals; the sacri.

fices that had both meat and drink-offerings. The drink-offering of the daily

sacrifice was the signal for the music to begin. Heuve and Wave-offerings-

their nature; the property of the priests. An equitable regulation about the

dead and of spoil founded on them. Two questions answered ; 1st. How the

persons liable for offerings were induced to pay them? 2d, At what time the

offerings which they owed became due ?

343

SECT. IV. The Daily Service of the Temple.—Manner of conducting it. The

priests on duty prepared for the coming of the president of the lots. They

went with him round the Court of Israel: got the high priest's meat-offer.

ing: retired to the chamber of lots : cast the first lot for him who should

begin to remove the ashes from the altar: returned to the chamber of lots to

cast for thirteen different pieces of service : sent for the lamb for the morning

sacrifice : opened the seven doors of the Court of Israel: trumpets sounded

to collect the musicians and stationary men : lamb killed ; lamps of the golden

candlestick trimmed : ashes on the altar of incense removed: retired to the

chamber of lots to pray, repeat the commandments and phylacteries : cast

lots a third time for offering incense on the golden altar, and laying the morn-

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ing sacrifice on the altar: the way in which these were done. Four of the

prayers which the people uttered while the incense was burning. The priest

who offered the incense, and his three associates bless the people from the

steps of the porch. The meat-offering of the daily sacrifice, and the sacrifice

of the high priest presented: the drink-offering poured out: the morning

service concluded by the musicians singing the psalm for the day. The em-

ployment of the priests during the middle of the day. The manner of conduct.

ing the evening service. Four reflections-1. The regularity and order with

which every thing was conducted. 2. The many circumstances which tended

to give solemnity to the service. 3. The light which it throws on the history

of Zacharias in Luke i. 9, &c. 4. The tendency it had to lead men to Christ.

The standing regulations of the Sanbedrin to preserve order and decency;

and their similarity to the instructions which Christ gave his disciples in

Matt, x. 9, 10

353

SECT. V. Occasional Duties of the Priesthood.1. The method of burning the

red heifer, and using its ashes; ceremonies used in our Saviour's days: their

great care about the person who burnt, and the person who purified: the

number of red heifers slain from the time of Moses, till the destruction of Je-

rusalem. The probable reason of their appointment.-2. The mode of admi-

nistering the waters of jealousy; much burdened with traditions. . 373

PART V.

THE THREE GREAT FESTIVALS.

SECT. I. The Passover-Fixed by the appearance of the new moon in March ;

the way the Sanhedrin took to know this; the times when the couriers went

through the land; all the males bound to appear, with a few exceptions; the

fifteen days of preparation; three reasons assigned as the origin of the passover ;

manner of observing it under the Tabernacle and first Temple; lessons it

taught the spiritual-minded Jews. The manner of observing it in our Saviour's

days; the choice of the lambs; searching for leaven; the evening sacrifice,

when killed to make room for the passover ; the paschal societies, and regula-

tions of the Sanhedrin concerning; hour at which they brought the lambs to

the Temple to be killed; the three companies they formed; their manner of

killing them ; the part of the lesser Hallel that was sung ; manner of singing

it; the eighteen days of the year on which it was sung. Probable number of

paschal lambs; the number of blasts of the silver trumpets during the kill-

ing of them; the Court of the Priests washed when done ; regulations when

the passover happened to fall on the sabbath. The paschal lambs how roast.

ed; when and how eaten. The first cup of wine and water; prayer over it;

· size of the cup; the first washing of hands ; manner of doing it; form of

prayer during the operation. The five disbes that were brought to the table ;

the bitter herbs and sauce tasted; the dishes removed, and why; the dishes

brought back; with the prayers on their return. The second cup of wine and

water, and second washing of hands ; the unleavened bread and bitter herbs

dipped in the sauce and eaten ; the prayer pronounced on the occasion; the

meat and peace-offerings eaten, with the prayer before. The paschal lamb

eaten, with the prayer before it. The Apicumen, or last piece. The third

washing of hands, and third cup of wine and water. The fourth cup, and the

:

382

- rest of the Hallel. The president's concluding prayer. A fifth cup sometimes

taken but seldom. Then the great Hallel sung; what it consisted of. Pass-

over of the second month described. Paschal feast lasted eight days; the

first seen already. The duties of the second day, or first of the passover

week. On that day Christ was crucified; the circumstances attending that

event considered. The duties of the second day of the passover week; manner

of cutting down and presenting the first-fruits of the barley harvest; Christ

lay in the grave the whole of this day. Duties of the third day of the pass-

over week: on this day Christ rose. The duties of the remaining days. The

way in which the modern Jews observe the passover

SECT, 11. The Feast of Pentecost.-Divine ordinance concerning; way of

counting the weeks ; time of the year it fell to be observed : the eight duties

on the day of Pentecost: the impressive manner in which the tribes went to

Jerusalem. Reasons for the appointing of Pentecost. This feast the time when

the Spirit descended on the apostles: the time of the day, and the day of the

week inquired into. Way in which the modern Jews observe Pentecost 429

SECT. III. The Feast of Tabernacles.-- Reasons of its appointment threefold :

the time of the year when kept; way it was observed during the Taberna-

cle; first and second Temples; in the days of our Saviour. The lulebs

and pomecitrons which they carried in their hands. Routine of service

during the first day. The ceremony of fetching the water from the Pool of

Siloam; singing the Hallel; the peculiar sacrifices for that day; way in

which the courses divided the work among them; their encircling the altar;

attendance on the divinity schools in the afternoon; manner of teaching,

and subjects taught; the evening sacrifice; the nightly rejoicing; the

fifteen Psalms of Degrees that were sung; the persons who danced; and

manner in which the assembly was dismissed : reasons assigned for this

singular rejoicing; manner of disposing of their lulebs when parting. The

routine of the second day; third; fourth; fifth ; sixth ; seventh, when they

encompassed the altar seven times ; eighth, when the solemnity closed. The

way in which they were lodged and supported while at Jerusalem. The won-

derful promise of divine protection while attending the three yearly festivals.

The three great festivals honoured with three remarkable events 446

PART VI.

ON THE OTHER FEASTS AND FASTS OF THE JEWS.

SECT. I. New Moons.-Feast of Trumpets.—The appointed offerings at the

Feast of New-Moons; reason of its institution; way in which the modern

Jews observe it. Feast of trumpets; time of its observance; peculiar sacri.

fices; additions made under the second Temple; way the modern Jews ob.

serve the new year. The three Books of Fate that are then supposed to be

opened

471

SECT. II. Fast of annual Expiation.-Reason of its appointment; day when

observed; the previous training of the high priest for seven days; care of

the Pharisees to prevent innovation, and to keep him awake the night before.

The ten washings and five bathings of the high priest; the preparatory sa-

crifices; those for himself and the priests; the casting of the lots for the

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