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scapegoat; the sacrifices for the people; his four entrances into the holy of

bolies; his sanctifying the holy place; the court of the priests and the altar.

The scape goat sent into the wilderness ; sections of the law that were read

by the high priest in the court of the women ; burnt offerings appointed for

the Israelites; way in which the modern Jews observe this fast. Practical



SECT. III. The Sabbath-Its original observance. The manner of doing it in

the days of our Saviour. The length of a Sabbath day's journey. The Sab.

batical calender for the Jews at Amsterdam

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SECT. IV. The Saobatical Year. The six regulations concerning it; these

both singular and charitable. The king's reading of the law described, with

the seven prayers then offered up. The neglect of the sabbatical year ascribed

as one cause of the seventy years' captivity: the probable time when it ceased

to be observed. Two questions solved ; viz. In what year, after the Israelites

entered Canaan, it began to be be observed? And, at what season of the

year they began to count?—The Sabbatical year again observed after the



SECT. V. The Year of Jubilee. On what year and day of the month it was ob-

served; the divine blessing promised on the preceding harvest. The six things

for which it was remarkable. Inquiry whether the year of Christ's birth or

death was in the year of jubilee. Some recent information concerning some

of the jubilee trumpets

SECT. VI. The Feast of Purim or Lots-Its origin ; lasted three days ; way it

was observed formerly; way it is observed now. Singular conduct of the

Jews while in the synagogue


SECT. VII. The Feast of Dedication.—History of its origin; time of the year

when kept; manner of observing it; lasted eight days; nightly illumination;

alterations afterwards arising from necessity

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SECT. VII. Lesser Feasts and Fasts of the Jews.— Private and public manner

of vowing a private fast : some forbidden to fast privately; men and

women fasted apart




SECT. I. The Synagogue.-The other modes of instruction hinted at; proseu-

chas explained; their utility; places where situated; usual form. Syna.


gogues the chief

SECT. II. Office-bearers of the Synagogue.-Places of erection, and form of the

building --Stated office-bearers-their general duties


SECT. III, The Service of the Synagogue.-1. Their manner of sitting. 2. The

public prayers. A translation of the She-menè Oshrè, or eighteen prayers;

the summary, the great stress laid on them. 3. The repeating their phy.

lacteries. 4. The reading of the law and the prophets; the portions of both

that were read throughout the year; times when read; manner of reading


and interpreting. 5. Preaching from them to the people



SECT. I. The false Deities known among the Jews. —Ahad, Adrammelech,

Ammon, Anamelech, Ashima, Ashtaroth, Baal, Baalim, Baal-berith, Baal-

hazor, Baal-peor, Baal-tamar, Baal-zebub, Baal-zephon, Bel, Bethshemesh,

the Brazen Serpent, Biththepuh, Chemosh, Chiun, Dagon, Gad, the Gamma-

dims, the Golden Calf, the Golden Calves, the Grove, the Hemenim, the host

of Heaven, Light and darkness, Malcham, Meni, Mepletzeth, Merodach, the

image of stone or Mesheith, Milcom, Moloch, the Moon, Nebo, Nehushtan,

Nergal, Nibhaz, Nisroc, On, Pi-beseth, the Planets, the Queen of heaven,

Remphan, Rimmon, Shedim, Semel, Shen, Shoirim, Succoth-benoth, the Sun,

Tartak, the Teraphim, Thammuz


SECT. II. The Places where they were worshipped, and the Manner of worship-

ping them.-Behind their doors; on the roofs of their houses; in the gates of

their cities ; in gardens; high places; groves. The houses of their gods;

their altars : of exquisite workmanship; generally high. Reasons why their

altars were high; why they worshipped in high places. Why high places

were forbidden by Moses; and yet tolerated under the first temple.-Idols

worshipped by adorning them; kissing the hand; dancing before them;

crying aloud; cutting themselves; feasting and obscenity

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SECT. III. The various kinds of Divination. By the cup; by magic; applying

to wise men; sorcery, male and female; the flight of birds ; motions of ser-

pents; observing the clouds; consulting Aub; palmistry; divination; charm-

ing; necromancy; consulting those who peeped and muttered ; conjuration ;

star-gazing; applying to monthly prognosticators, and dreamers; rhabdo-

mancy; consulting teraphim; and soothsayers


SECT. IV. Jewish Sects, and lesser Distinctions, in our Saviour's Days.-En-

mity between Jews and Samaritans accounted for. Sadducees, their origin

and tenets : Pharisees, their origin and tenets; this sect the most numerous

and popular.—The Essenes, practical and contemplative. The Herodians.--

Chief priests; Scribes, their office, and how our Lord's teaching differed

from theirs. The elders, lawyers, and publicans


SECT, V. Jewish Proselytes.--Ist. Slaves embracing Judaism without obtain.

ing their liberty. 2nd. Proselytes of the gate: the seven precepts of Noah;

their conformity to the apostolic rescript in Acts xv. 20, 29. 3d. Proselytes

of righteousness; their privileges ; how initiated; their instruction, circum-

cision, and baptism. Children of these proselytes entitled to their privileges.

Proselytes of righteousness on their admission offered a sacrifice, and

changed their name. The Jews divide the history of Proselytism into six pe-

riods ; these mentioned


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There has always been, in every age, some family or nation which has been the repository of religion for the time; but the most remarkable instance with which we are acquainted, is that of the family of Abraham. They were evidently under a particular providence, and highly distin. guished by the Divine Being; for, besides the miracles which were wrought in their behalf, “ to them,” as the apostle speaks, “pertained the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises; and of them, as concerning the flesh, Christ came.”* Thus were they a lamp, set up by Jehovah, to enlighten mankind; in or. der that, from Judea, as from a centre, his knowledge and his fear might extend through the earth. Small

, indeed, was that spot which the Jews inhabited, but it was admirably situated for the intentions of Providence. It was in the neighbourhood of Egypt and Phænicia, the great trading nations : and it touched upon, or had connection with Arabia, Assyria, and Persia, the key to the whole of the eastern world. If the classical scholar, therefore, surveys with delight the states of Greece and the territory of Rome, as the cradle of the arts, and the places where genius and valour shone with peculiar lustre ; with much more pleasure ought the mind of the Christian to contemplate Judea as the land of revelation, and the birth-place of the Saviour. Let us employ ourselves, then, in considering the antiquities and usages of these singular people: and begin with the tabernacle, as the foundation of that ritual for which they were so distinguished.

* Rom, is. 4, 5.





The court of the congregation, the tabernacle, and all

, the vessels connected with it, having been ordered to be constructed after a Divine model, which was shewn to Moses on the Mount;a the Lord commanded him to inform the Israelites that they were at liberty to give whatever was needed for that important work ;' and accordingly we are told, that multitudes, both of men and women, were so anxious to contribute, that Moses was obliged to restrain their liberality. But when God intends a work, he also provides persons qualified to execute it: hence Bezaleel, the son of Uri, of the tribe of Judah, and Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, are mentioned as having been eminently skilled to devise cunning work, and works in gold, in silver, and in brass ; in cutting stones to set them, carving of wood, weaving and embroidery; and as well qualified to teach and superintend others in these departments :d for we may easily suppose, that a number of persons of both sexes would be requisite for preparing the materials, and making them up into the different articles.

Let us proceed, then, to consider the various parts of this divinely-contrived tabernacle in their order.


2 Ex. xx. 40; xxvi. 30.

b Ex. xxv, 1-8; XXXV. 49. c Ex. XXXY. 20

_29; xxxvi. 4-7. d Ex. xxxi. 1-6; xxxv. 30-35; xxxvi. 1--3; xxxviii. 22, 23. e Ex, xxxv, 10-19, VOL. I.


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