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Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon;Godwin's Moses and Aaron; Owen's Exercitations on the Hebrews; the Latin translation of several treatises of Maimonides, which are mentioned where they are used ; Buxtorff De Synagoga Judaicâ ; and Basnage's History and Religion of the Jews.
The account of the synagogue and its service has been carefully collected from the works of Lightfoot
, Buxtorff, and others. On the laws of the Jews, the author derived much information from the large and learned work of Spencer “ De Legibus Hebræorum ritualibus ;" and on the wide field of Jewish customs, climate, productions, &c. besides his own collection of facts, which are given to these authors in
proper places; it would be injustice done to Harmer and Parkhurst, not to acknowledge the many facts and illustrations, with which they have enriched his volumes, although they have not been always distinctly acknowledged.
The ground plans of the temple and its courts have been constructed from the descriptions of these places with the strictest accuracy ; 'and in part ii. sect. 13, it is attempted to be shown (contrary to what is commonly understood) that the descriptions of Josephus and the Talmud are not only not at variance, but that they perfectly agree.
Perhaps it may be thought by some that the Hebrew words and phrases which appear in the following pages might have been better omitted; but those who are conversant with the Hebrew language, and know the uncertainty of its pro
nunciation, will not only pardon their insertion, but be gratified by them. It gives a certainty and satisfaction to the Hebrew scholar, which the mere spelling them in English can never produce.
Should any take the trouble to compare this publication with Godwin's Moses and Aaron, and Dr. Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, (the books which are usually consulted,) they will find the line of research widely different. For while the plan of Godwin, which is very systematic and
condensed, did not allow of that diversity of subject and illustration, and Dr. Jennings, who commented on a part only of Godwin's plan, professes to despise Rabbinical learning; the author of the present publication has taken a wider range; he has accepted, with gratitude, the labours of the Talmudical writers, in the absence of more authentic information; and has endeavoured to make the discoveries of science, and the information of travellers, subservient to the elucidation of his subject.
It is more than probable, that amidst such a variety of materials, he may have sometimes been mistaken as to the use he has made of them; but he can honestly say, that no pains have been spared to ascertain the truth, and to render the subject generally interesting to the Christian inquirer. Nay, he even indulges the hope, that it may be an acceptable present to the posterity of Abraham, to whom the religion and usages of their fathers must ever be an interesting subject of inquiry.
THE TEMPLE DESCRIBED.
SECT. I. The Mountain of the Lord's House.--Its enclosing wall, and the sur.
rounding objects. Mount Moriah, its situation, meaning of the name, dimen-
sions of that part of it which belonged to the temple, in cubits and English
acres: a traveller's account of it. The wall that surrounded the Mountain
of the Lord's House; its height; the gates in it, viz.-Shushan or the King's
gate, the gates of Huldah, Asuppim, Parbar, the gate Coponius, the gate
Tedi : the origin of their names; their size and situation; the number of por-
ters stationed at each. The tower Antonia, its situation, size, and use. The
principal objects that were seen from each of these gates, viz.:-The valley
and brook Kidron, Mount of Olives, (a Sabbath day's journey ascertained,)
Bethany, the valley of Tophet, its execrable worship, Bethphage, Gethsemane,
the city of Jerusalem, pool of Siloam or Bethesda, the Potter's Field, Millo.
The king's gardens, Mount Zion, the royal buildings, the causeway from
SECT, V. The Court of Israel.-Height of the wall between it and the Court
of the Women; relative heights of the two courts; steps which led from the
one into the other ; for what they were remarkable; Psalms of Degrees ex-
plained; chamber under them for the musical instruments. The gate Nica.
nor; its height, beauty, the names it has in Scripture ; various things ap-
pointed to be done in it (the three remarkable things that happened forty
years before the destruction of Jerusalem.) Size of the Court of Israel. Ob.
jects on the east side of it:-a room for the Council of Twenty-three. The
place where Solomon's brazen scaffold stood; the king's pillar ; the Levites'
ward; the chamber of Phineas ; pastry-man's chamber; the place where the
stationary men stood. Objects on the south side :-the chamber of lots; Ge-
zith, where the Sanhedrin sat; their number, qualifications for office, manner
of sitting, hours of attendance, causes that came before them, punishments
they inflicted. The names of their presidents, and places to which they re-
moved on leaving Gezith. The draw-well chamber; the Water gate; the
chamber of incense; receipt for making and using it; the room where the
high priest first bathed on the day of expiation ; the wood room; Peredrin,
or the vestry of the temple; the Levites' ward; the Gate of Firstlings ; ano-
ther Levites' ward; the Gate of Kindling; the common-hall of the Levites
while on guard; the distance of the gates on this side of the Court from
each other. Objects on the west side ; none. Objects on the north side :---the