Imágenes de páginas

from the analogy of vegetation, and of the Phoenix, 243

rotted, springs up in verdure; and that which was cast small, springs up most beautiful. Now wheat was made for us; for wheat and all seeds were not created for themselves, but for our use; are things which were made for us quickened when they die, and do we for whom they were made, not spring up again after our death?

7. The season is now winter, as thou seest; the trees now stand as if they were dead: where are the leaves of the figtree? where are the clusters of the vine? These in winter time are dead, but in the spring green, and when the season is come, there is given them as it were a quickening from state of death. For God, knowing thine unbelief, works a resurrection year by year in these visible things; that, beholding what happens to things inanimate, thou mayest believe concerning things animate and intelligent. Further, flies and bees are often drowned in water, yet after a while revive; and dormice, after remaining motionless during the winter, are re- μvožāv stored in the summer, (for to thy low thoughts like ex- γένη. amples are offered,) and shall He who to irrational and despised creatures grants a supernatural life, not vouchsafe it to us, for whose sake He made them?

8. But the Greeks ask for a yet more evident resurrection, (4.) and say, that even if these creatures are raised, yet that they have not utterly mouldered away; and they require to see distinctly some creature rising again after complete decay. God knew men's unbelief, and provided for this purpose a bird, called a Phoenix. This bird, as Clement writes, and as Clem. many more relate, the only one of its race, going to the land of the Rom. Ep. 1. Egyptians at revolutions of five hundred years, shews forth c. 25. the Resurrection; and this, not in desert places, lest the mystery which comes to pass should remain unknown, but in a notable city, that men might even handle what they disbelieve. For it makes itself a nest of frankincense and myrrh and other spices, and entering into this when its years are fulfilled, it evidently dies and moulders away. Then from the mouldering flesh of the dead a worm springs, and this

round the earth. In like manner the ex-
istence of megatheria and ichthyosauri
were not known till lately, nor the con-
nection of magnetism and electricity.
b Heliopolis.

The existence of the Phoenix is believed by Tertullian, Epiphanius, &c. as well as by Clement; as was till a comparatively late date the doctrine of four elements, or of the motion of the sun

244 from the analogy of man's formation and of the heavenly bodies,


LECT. Worm when grown large is transformed into a bird;—and do not disbelieve this, for thou seest the offspring of bees also fashioned thus out of worms, and from eggs which are most moist thou hast seen the wings and bones and sinews of birds issue. Afterwards this Phoenix, becoming fledged and a perfect Phoenix, as was the former one, soars up into the air such as it had died, shewing forth to men a most evident resurrection from the dead. The Phoenix indeed is a wondrous bird, yet it is irrational, nor sings psalms to God; it flies abroad through the sky, but it knows not the Only-begotten Son of God. Is then a resurrection from the dead given unto this irrational creature which knows not its Maker, and to us who ascribe glory to God and keep His commandments, shall there no resurrection be granted?


9. But since the sign of the Phoenix is remote and uncommon, and men disbelieve our resurrection still, take again the proof of this from what is seen every day. A hundred or two hundred years ago, we all, speakers and hearers, where were we? Know we not the groundwork of the substance of our bodies? Knowest thou not how from weak and shapeless and simple elements we have our beginning, and that from what is simple and weak is shaped the living man? and how that weak element being made flesh is changed into strong nerves, and bright eyes, and sensitive nose, and hearing ears, and speaking tongue, and beating heart, and busy hands, and swift feet, and into members of all kinds? and how weak elements become a shipwright, and a mason, and a masterbuilder, and a craftsman of various arts, and a soldier, and a ruler, and a lawgiver, and a king? Cannot God then, who has made us of rude materials, raise us up when we have fallen into decay? He who frames a body out of what is vile, cannot He raise it again when destroyed? And does not He who fashions that which is not, raise up that which is and is fallen?

10. Take further a manifest proof of the resurrection of the dead, witnessed month by month in the sky and its luminaries. The face of the moon vanishes completely, so that no part of it is any more seen, yet it fills again, and is restored to its former state; and for the perfect demonstration of the matter, the moon at certain revolutions of years suffering eclipse and

from the law of Moses.

becoming changed into blood, yet recovers its luminous
body: God having provided this, that thou, O man, who art
formed of blood, mightest not refuse credence to the resurrec-
tion of the dead, but mightest believe concerning thyself also
what thou beholdest in respect of the moon.
These argu-
ments therefore use thou against the Greeks; for with them
who receive not what is written, fight thou with unwritten
weapons, by reasonings only and demonstrations, for these
men know not who Moses is, nor Esaias, nor the Gospels, nor



11. Turn now to the Samaritans, who, receiving the Law (6.) only, allow not the Prophets. To them the text just now read from Ezekiel appears of no force, for, as I said, they admit not the Prophets; whence then shall we persuade the Samaritans also? Let us go to the writings of the Law. Now God says to Moses, I am the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and Exod. 3, of Jacob; this must mean of what is and subsists. For ὕφιστηif Abraham be dead, and Isaac, and Jacob, He is the God of xórv. what is nothing. When did a king ever say, that he was the king of soldiers whom he had not? When did any display wealth of which he was not the owner? Therefore Abraham and Isaac and Jacob must truly subsist, that God may be the pioráGod of things which are; for He said not," I was their God," but I am. And that there is a judgment, Abraham shews, saying to the Lord, He who judgeth the earth, shall He not Gen. 18, 25.Sept. execute judgment?

29 VOL.

12. But to this the foolish Samaritans answer by way of objection, that the souls possibly of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob continue, but that it is impossible that their bodies should arise. Was it then possible that the rod of righteous Moses should become a serpent, and is it impossible that the bodies of the righteous should live and rise again? And was that done contrary to its nature, and shall they not be restored according to their nature? Again, the rod of Aaron, though cut off and dead, budded, without the scent of waters, sprouting Job 14, forth into blossoms as in the fields, though under a roof; and 9. though set in dry places, yielding in one night the flowers and fruit of plants watered for many years. Did Aaron's rod, as it were, rise from the dead, and shall not Aaron himself be raised? And did God work wonders in wood, to secure to


Arguments for the Resurrection from the Law.

LECT. him the high-priesthood, and will He not vouchsafe to Aaron
himself a resurrection? A woman also was made salt contrary
to nature; and flesh was turned into salt; and shall not flesh
be restored to flesh? Was Lot's wife made a pillar of salt,
and shall not Abraham's wife be raised again? By what
power was Moses' hand changed, which in one hour became
as snow, and then was restored? Simply by God's command.
Had it force then, has it not force now?

13. And whence in the beginning came man into being at all, O ye Samaritans, most shallow of men? Go to the first Gen. 2, book of the Scripture, which even you receive; And the Lord


God formed man of the dust of the ground. Is dust trans-
formed into flesh, and shall not flesh be again restored to
flesh? You must be asked too, whence the heavens had their
being, and the earth, and the seas? Whence the sun, and the
moon, and the stars? How from the waters were made things
which fly and swim? And how from the earth all beasts?
Were so many thousands brought from nothing into being,
and shall we men, who bear God's image, not be raised up?
Truly this course is mere unbelief, and an ample condemna-
tion of the unbelievers; considering Abraham addresses the
Lord as the Judge of all the earth, and the learners of the Law,
disbelieve when it is written that man is of the earth, and the
readers disbelieve it also.


14. To them therefore, the unbelievers, we say these things; but the words of the Prophets are for us, who believe. But

Job 7,9.

since some who also use the Prophets believe not what is Ps. 1, 5. written, and allege against us that passage, The ungodly shall Sept. not rise up in judgment, and, He that goeth down to the Ps. 115, grave shall come up no more, and, The dead praise not Thee, 17. O Lord,-using ill, what is written well,-it will be well in (Prayer Book.) a cursory manner, as far as is now possible, to meet them. For if it is said, that the ungodly shall not rise up in judgment, this shews that they shall rise, not in judgment, but in condemnation; for God needs not long scrutiny, but close on the resurrection of the ungodly follows their punishment.

And if it is said, The dead praise not Thee, O Lord, this shews, god that since in this life only is the appointed time for repentvid.supr. ance and pardon, for which they who enjoy it shall praise the Introd. Lord, it remains after death for them who have died in sins,


Lect. iv.

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Objections from Scripture answered.


Job 7,


7. &c.

not to give praise as the receivers of a blessing, but to bewail themselves; for praise belongs to them who give thanks, but to them who are under the scourge, lamentation. Therefore the just shall then offer praise; but they who have died in sins will have no further season for acknowledgment. ἐξομολογήσεως 15. And respecting that passage, He that goeth down to supr. ii. the grave shall come up no more, observe what follows, He 15. shall return no more to his house, neither shall his place know him any more. For since the whole world shall pass away, and every house shall be destroyed, how shall he return to his own house, there being henceforth a new earth? But they ought to have heard Job, saying, For there is hope of a tree, Job 14, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease. Though the root thereof wax old in the earth, and the stock thereof die in the ground; yet through the scent of water it will bud, and bring forth boughs like a plant. And man when he dies, departeth; but v. Sept. when mortal man falls, is he no longer? As it were remonstrating and reproving; (for thus ought we to read the dwwwv. words, with an interrogation;) for since a tree falls and revives, he says, shall not man revive, for whom all trees were made? And that thou mayest not suppose that I am forcing the words, read what follows; for after saying by way of question, When mortal man falls, is he no longer? he says, If a man die, he shall live again; and immediately he adds, Ib. Sept. I will wait till my change come; and again elsewhere, Who Job 19, 26. Sept. shall raise up on the earth my skin, which endures these things. And Esaias the Prophet says, Thy dead men shall Is. 26, live, together with my dead body shall they arise. And the Prophet Ezekiel, now before us, says most plainly, Behold, Ezek. I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves. And Daniel says, Many that sleep in the dust of the Dan. 12, earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame2. and everlasting contempt.


37, 12.

16. And many Scriptures are there which testify the Resurrection of the dead; for there are other and many more sayings on this matter. But now, by way of remembrance only, we will make a passing mention of the raising of Lazarus after four days; and just allude, because of the shortness of the time, to the widow's son also who was raised. Now also let

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