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take place it is proposed that two charters be granted, each for some considerable part of the lands west of Pennsyl. vania and the Virginia mountains, to a number of the nobility and gentry of Britain with such Americans as shall join them in contributing to the settlement of those lands." In regard to the government of his proposed colonies, Franklin suggests "that as many and as great privileges and powers of government be granted to the contributors and settlers as his Majesty in his wisdom shall think most fit for their benefit and encouragement, consistent with the general good of the British empire; for extraordinary privileges and liberties, with lands on easy terms, are strong inducements to people to hazard their persons and fortunes in settling new countries. And such powers of government as though suitable to their circumstances and fit to be trusted with an infant colony) might be judged unfit when it becomes populous and powerful, these might be granted for a term only, as the choice of their own governor for 99 years; the support of government in the colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island (which now enjoy that and other like privileges) being much less expensive than in colonies under the immediate government of the crown, and the constitution more inviting." Franklin recurs again to his idea of establishing forts to protect the new colonies. A fort at Buffalo Creek on the Ohio, "and another at the mouth of the Tioga, on the south side of Lake Erie," would protect one colony. This is all the clue he gives us as to its location. He is a little more definite in regard to the other. He says, "The river Scioto is supposed the fittest seat for the other colony, there being for forty miles on each side of it, and quite up to its head, a body of all rich land." 2 We may infer then that Franklin would locate one of his colonies in what is now northwestern Pennsylvania, and northeastern Ohio, and the

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1 For the scheme in full see Franklin's Works, II., 474.

Franklin adds that this is “ the finest spot of its bigness in all North America, and has the particular advantage of sea-coal in plenty."

other on the Ohio river, extending it northwards on both sides of the Scioto. Evidently the exact location of new colonies is a minor question with him at this time. But now, as afterwards, he is quite desirous to have western colonies established and wants to have a part in their establishment himself. In 1756 he wrote to Rev. George Whitfield: "I sometimes wish that you and I were jointly employed by the crown to settle a colony on the Ohio. I imagine that we could do it effectually, and without putting the nation to much expense; but I fear we shall never be called upon for such a service. What a glorious thing it would be to settle in that fine country a large, strong body of religious and industrious people! What a security to the other colonies and advantage to Britain, by increasing her people, territory, strength, and commerce. Might it not greatly facilitate the introduction of pure religion among the heathen, if we could, by such a colony, show them a better sample of Christians than they commonly see in our Indian traders? — the most vicious and abandoned wretches of our nation!”1

But Franklin was not the only prominent man to advocate new colonies at that time. Thomas Pownall had been a member of the Albany Congress, and Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey. By order of the Duke of Cumberland he drew up in 1756, "A Memorial: Stating the nature of the service in North America, and proposing a General plan of operations, as founded thereon." 2 He inserts Franklin's scheme as well as one of his own.

Barrier colonies are advocated by Thomas Pownall. In his memorial he says:

"wherever our settlements have been wisely and completely made, the French, neither by themselves, nor their dogs of war, the Indians, have been able to remove us. It is upon this fact that I found the propriety of the measure of settling a barrier colony in

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1 Franklin's Works, II., 467.
a Pownall, Administration of the Colonies, Appendix, p. 47.

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those parts of our frontiers which are not the immediate residence or hunting grounds of our Indians. This is a measure that will be effectual, and will not only in time pay its expence, but make as great returns as any of our present colonies do; will give a strength and unity to our dominions in North America, and give us possession of the country as well as settlements in it. But above all this the state and circumstances of our settlements render such a measure not only proper and eligible, but absolutely necessary. The English settlements, as they are at present circumstanced, are absolutely at a stand; they are settled up to the mountains, and in the mountains there is nowhere together land sufficient for a settlement large enough to subsist by itself and to defend itself, and preserve a communication with the present settlements. If the English would advance one step further, or cover themselves where they are, it must be at once, by one large step over the mountains with a numerous and military colony. Where such should be settled, I do not now take upon me to say; at present I shall only point out the measure and the nature of it, by inserting two schemes, one of Mr. Franklin's; the other of your memorialist; and if I might indulge myself with scheming, I should imagine that two such were sufficient, and only requisite and proper; one at the back of Virginia, filling up the vacant space between the Five Na. tions and southern confederacy, and connecting into a one system, our barrier. The other somewhere in the Cohass on Connecticut river; or wherever best adapted to cover the four New England Colonies." Further details of Pownall's scheme do not appear. It is noticeable that the location back of Virginia which he advises for one colony was afterwards taken by the Walpole company, of which he was a member. It is noticeable, too, that Pow. nall's scheme, as well as Franklin's, provides for more than one colony, each to cover apparently no very large extent of territory. If one or two small colonies had been established west of the mountains, the establishment of others would easily follow until the whole western country was cut up into colonies. In prominent circles, therefore, back colonies were being considered.

The Albany congress had discussed a plan of union which contemplated the establishment of back colonies; Franklin was exhibiting a great interest in the subject, and was bringing forward more or less definite plans; Thomas Pownall, ready himself with certain propositions for new colonies, was bringing the matter to the attention of the King's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, in a memorial upon colonial'administration prepared by order of his royal highness himself. Nor was there a lack of interest on the part of less prominent people. Samuel Hazard, a merchant of Philadelphia, had projected a scheme for a new colony beyond the mountains, and by the spring of 1755, had en. gaged over 3,500 persons "able to bear arms, to remove to the said new Colony, on the footing of said scheme, and does not in the least doubt of being able to procure 10,000 if it takes effect."? He declared then that "among those

i already engaged are nine Reverend Ministers of the Gospel, a considerable number of persons who are in public offices under the governments of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, as well as great numbers of persons of good estates, of the best characters for sobriety and religion in said provinces, but more especially in the Province of Pennsylvania." Hazard proposed to get "a Grant of so much Land as shall be necessary for the Settlement of an ample colony, to begin at the distance of one hundred miles westward of the Western Boundaries of Pennsylvania, and thence to extend one Hundred Miles to the westward of the River Mississippi, and to be divided from Virginia and Carolina by the Great Chain of Mountains that runs along the Continent from the North Eastern to the South Western Parts of America." 2

i Hazard's petition to the General Assembly of Connecticut, 4 Amer. Archives, I., 863.

? Hazard's whole" Scheme may be found in 4 Amer. Archives, I., 861, and in Christopher Gist's Journal, 261. In the latter, however, no hundred mile interval is proposed west of the limits of Pennsylvania.

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This does not indicate the proposed extent from north to south, unless, indeed, we consider that extent to be indicated by the length of the designated boundary on the east, i. e., from Pennsylvania to Carolina inclusive. That would certainly be "an ample colony" which embraced all the Ohio, and a large part of the Mississippi valleys. Whether it was expected that this colony would be divided and subdivided as it increased in population and diversity of interests we do not know. It is not impossible that the petitioners had little idea of the extent of the territory indicated, as little was commonly known about it at that time.

It was proposed " That humble Application be made to His Majesty for a Charter to erect said Territory into a separate Government, with the same Privileges which the Colony of Connecticut enjoys,” and “That application be made to the Assemblies of the several British Colonies in North America to grant such Supplies of Money and Pro. visions as may enable the Settlers to secure the Friendship of the Indian Natives, and support themselves and Families till they are established."

There is evidence that the design was to establish a Presbyterian colony. Certainly the religious element was to be very prominent. Only Protestants believing in the divine authority of the Old and New Testaments and the trinity of the Godhead, and with lives and conversations free from immorality and profaneness, could hold office. Roman Catholics were debarred from holding land or having arms or ammunition in their possession, "nor shall any Mass Houses or Popish Chappels be allowed in the Province."

1 This view is supported by the fact that in the fall of 1755 he made a journey, proba. bly of investigation, “chiefly on the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina.” Hazard to Pownall, Almon's Remembrancer, III., 133.

? The petition to Connecticut recites that New England, having lands of her own to settle, a new colony would be able to obtain recruits that could be depended upon for fidelity to the king only among members of the Church of England, the Presbyterians, Quakers, and Baptists. The Church of England had shown no disposition to settle colonies in the wilderness. Quakers would not go because “principled against war to remove and defend the country." Baptists were too few. So Presbyterians only remained by whom a new colony could be settled. 4 Amer. Archives, I., 863.

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