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fcience ; nor would do this day, if all that is in earth, whether i: be honour, pleasure, or riches, might be given me. Moreover, I take God to witness to my conscience, that I desire of God to myself in this world, no more than that without which I cannot keep his laws.”

• It appears, however, that the king, in pursuance of his own settled judgment, that a great deal of good might come of people's reading the New Testament with reverence, and fol. lowing of it, commanded the bishops to call to them the best learned of the two universities, and to cause a new translation to be made, that the people should not be ignorant of God's law: but nothing being done, the people still read and studied Tyndal's; therefore, according to the policy of the times, it was determined to get rid of so dangerous an heretick: and the king and council employed one Henry Phillips, who infinuated himself into the acquaintance of Mr. Tyndal, and Mr. I ho. mas Pointz, an English merchant, at whose house he lodged and at a favourable opportunity he got the procurator-general of the emperor's court to seize on Tyndal, by whom he was brought to Vilvorden or Tilforde, about eighteen miles from Antwerp; and after being imprisoned a year and an half, notwithstanding lerters in his favour from fecretary Cromwell and others to the court at Brussels, he was tried, and none of his reasons in his defence being admitted, he was condemned by virtue of the emperor's decree made in the assembly at Augre burgh in the year 1536. His friend Mr. Pointz also was for some time kept in prison, but afterwards made his efcape. Being brought to the place of execution, he was first strangled, calling out in his last moments, “ Lord, open the king of England's eyes !” and then burned. Thus died William Tyndal, with this testimony to his character, given him by the emperor's pro-, curator or attorney-general, though his adversary, that he was “ Homo doctus, pius, et bonus;" which Fox translates, a learned, good, and godly man; and others who conversed with him in the caitle, reported of him, that “if he were not a good Christen man, they could not tell whom to trust."

The foregoing extract, as far as it shews the temper of the king, the laity, and the clergy, in Tyndal's time, is curious, nor are the particulars of his life uninteresting.

Mr. Cruttwell has, in his Preface, given biographical ketches of most of the English translators of the Bible, as well as of many of our most respectable commentators of different persuafions. Thele accounts are very succinct, but written in a manner that gives an advantageous idea of the editor's candour and good sense. . .

We now proceed to take some notice of bishop Wilson's Notes. Our selection on this article must necessarily be inconsiderable, but we will endeavour to make it characteristic. That our readers may know it to be so, we must premise, that his lordship's manner of illustration is always short, and generally decisive, Very few points are discussed, and perhaps none at large. Even the different views and opinions of doubtful points are not often represented ; so that the philosophical critic will meet with little to exercise his reasoning or invite his decisions, and the sceptic less to satisfy his doubts. The bishop's short and confident way of explaining difficult passages seems not, however, to have been ill calculated for the meridian of his own diocese, where the implicity of the people disposes them rather to belief than enquiry; nor can it fail of being useful to persons who have little time for reading, or accurate examination ; and such indeed form the bulk of man. kind.

In Genefis, ch. xxx. v. 14. on the subject of Reuben's going in the days of wheat harvest, and finding mandrakes in the field, which he brought to his mother Leah, the bishop only observes, that mandrakes are fine and beautiful Howers according to fome, and adds, without hesitation or appearance of doubt, where so many commentators have hesitated and doubted, that the mandrake is a plant in the East, having a most delicious fruit growing on the top like cucumbers, in bunches, and therefore called, in Hebrew, brothers.'

On the images which Rachel is related (Gen. xxxi. 19.) to have stolen from her father, the bishop is positive, and means, probably, that Laban was an idolater. « These teraphims, says his lordship, on the place, were little images of the idols which they had in their temples; these they kept in their houses, and called them houshold gods.'

Few commentators appear decided on the nature, or even the reality of that spirit called up, at the instance of Saul, by the Witch of Endor. 1 Sam. ch. xxviii...On v. 14. And the woman said unto Saul, I saw gods ascending out of the earth, &c. the bishop has the following note.- Though it is a vain as well as a wicked thing for people to pretend to call up the fpirits of departed men, yet it is plain, from this and other hiftories, that God may permit spirits to appear, not as a favour, but as a punishment to those that are finfully curious, or seek help from any but from him. And that God sent the fpirit of Samuel is not at all improbable, when we consider that he sent Elijah to meet the messengers of Ahaziah (2 Kings, chap. i.) who were upon as wicked an errand, and in as wicked a way.' On reading the 15th verse, which our venerable commentator has not apparently adverted to, is not some doubt reasonably enough suggested? • And Samuel faid to Saul, why haft thou disquieted me to bring me up?'-If called up of God, was not the propher himself, we might ask, likely



to know it? How could he then express himself with this air of murn uring and disfatisfaction? We think thiscirc umstance throws in the way a difficulty, which none of the critics who take the bithop's fide of the question has sufficiently obviated, and which he appears hardly aware of. But with whatever ease the good prelate may himself be satisfied in his enquiries, we have not the smalleil doubt of their fincerity, or of his being disposed to give constructions on obscure passages, if not such as may be always found the most convincing, at least such as are generally most consistent with piety, and the best wishes of serious men.

We will conclude our specimen of the bishop's Notes, with those on the first chapter of St. John's Gospel. But, not to swell this article heyond our limits, we omit the text, as every reader can easily consult it.

· St. John. This apostle is called The Divine, both before the Revelations, and by St. Origen, because he begins his Gorpel with the divinity of Jesus Christ, as the other evangelifts did theirs with his birch or humanity,

1. Was ñv Erat. Did exiit before all time from eternity. "The word was God; or, God was the word. Wade on the Trinity.

• To suppose God without his word and wisdom would be mott abfurd and blasphemous.

* 3. So that if, as St. Paul faith, [Rom. i. 20.) the eternal power and godhead were understood by the things that were mnade, here is a certain argument of the divinity of Chrift.

67. All men, none excepted.

* 8. He was not the true eflential light; though (ver. 9.) he was a true light.

• 9. i. e. This is that eternal light which took upon him our nature, and by the records of his incarnation, of life, doctrine, miracles, death, resurrection, afcenfion, and million of the Holy Ghost ;-by vircue of these records, he lightech every man, Jew and Gentile, who will attend to the Gospel.

'i. e. He is that light and power which bestows the light of reason and understanding on every man at his coming into the world, viz. at his birth. This essential light, wbich gave being, and life, and light, and reason to men, i: (ver. 14) now come to dwell among us to teach us to know God, since the light of reason hath been so much depraved.

• 10. He made the world, to make himself known ; and yet they would not see him in the works of the divine wisdom. He therefore became incarnate to make himself known.

"11. Deut. xxxii. 9. Ifrael is said to be the Lord's portion, or the inheritance of the God of Israel ; who, therefore, with the Son is God.

• 12. Power; or, a right “ to become the fons of God,” i.e. to have their nature restored to the likeness or image of God,




in which they were created :-Regeneration. This blefling is reserved for those only that believe in him.

13. Born, -of God. This was that life which Adam was deprived of the very day he had sinned, and to which we are rettored by baptifin; and without which we have the life only of natural men of the world,

destitute of the spirit and life of God in us.“Of God, is e. The Holy Ghoft.

14. Fleth. Man. • 16. Grace for grace ; or grace upon grace: One grace added to another.

* For the grace lott in Adam, we have the grace restored by Chritt.

17. The shadow of scheme of God's design came by Moses, but grace and truth [i. e. the substance) came by Jesus Christa

• The Gospel is called Grace, in oppolition to the severity of the law, which required unfinning obedience.

19. Who art thou? For at that time, the whole nation of the Jews expected the Messiah.

• 21. I am not. I am not Elias the Tisbite, whom you expect; but that Elias which was for to come, viz. him prophefied of by Ilaiah xi. 3. and by Malachi iii. i.

27. Whose shoes latchet I am not worthy to unloose. Whore servant I am not worthy to be.

• 28. In Bathabara beyond Jordan. This was the passage of the Ifraelites into Canaan, under Joshua ; and the common passage to Jerusalem, whither the people were going to the paftover.

29. The Lamb of God. The true Paschal Lambo

32. Like a dove, i. e, like as a dove defcends or lights on the ground, viz. leisurely; so that the multicude saw it plainly. -45. Him. That prophet.

47. An Ifraelite indeed, in whom is no guile, i. e. He was' a man of a pure heart, an upright intention, free from hypocrisy, and a lover of truth.'

The editor's industry and general accuracy in his numerous parallels of different readings and different translations throughout this very respectable work, deserve warm commendation.


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I 2mo.

35. Baldwin.

An Abridgement of the New Teftament, in Question and Answer.

The Answer to each Question exactly in the Words of our Lord,

and his Apostles. IN N inculcating the doctrines of revelation, upon young

minds, with that comprehensive brevity necessary in the business of education, where numerous objects of learning necessarily claim attention, the catechetical mode has generally, been preferred, and juilly too, on many accounts. But it cannot be denied that most of the forms hitherto devised are VOL, LXIII, Feb. 1787.

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liable to the objection of adopting the systems and opinions of particular sects and persuasions, without always fufficiently demonstrating their conformity to the holy scriptures. To avoid splitting on the dangerous rock of fancy, conjecture, and human interpretations, the author of the Abridgement judges the method he has taken of answering each question exactly in the words of our Lord and his apostles, as the best and fafest. This plan has, we confess, the appearance of teason in its favour. But great judgment and discretion are requisite in the choice of questions, and in the application of fcripture passages to answer them; or else it will be found, that false and partial notions may as well be conveyed by this method as by any other; and they may obtain the easier admiffion into candid minds, as coming with so unsuspected an appearance.

The little work before us appears to be conducted with prudence, and a fincere regard to truth, and as such we venture to recommend it, with our wishes of its fulfilling the author's intention, expressed in the title-page, viz. that of imprinting on the minds of youth, and reviving in the memories of Christians more advanced in knowlege, the doctrines and pre. cepts, and some of the most remarkable occurrences recorded in the New Testament.

The first section of this Abridgement, the plan of which is obferved throughout, will give our readers some idea of its execution.

• Section I. John the Baptist's Preaching his baptizing Jesus--his Declaration of Jesus being the Messiah.-Our Lord's Reply to Nicodemus.-Well-disposed Minds love Instruction.Our Lord's Conversation with the Woman of Samaria-his Answer to the Disciples, when they desired him to eat.

2. What was the strain of John the Baptist's preaching to the Jews ?

A. Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. Bring forth, therefore, fruits meet for repentance. And think not to say within yourselves, we have Abraham to our father; for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.

Q. What was the testimony which John the Baptist gave to the power and dignity of the expected Meffiah ?

A. I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire.

"Q. When Jesus came to John to be baptized, did not John at first refuse, though he afterwards complied with it?

* A. John forbade him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me? And Jesus answering, said



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