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which, if we add the 100,000l. for paper, which was in the same predicament, it will be obvious, that no just argument can be drawn, from the unfavourable balance in 1675, against a commercial intercourse with France at the present period.
With regard to the prosperous state of our woollen trade, few arguments are receffary ; for though the author of the • View' affected to represent it as in the utmost danger of total ruin, he nevertheless, though perhaps inadvertently, acknowledged, upon the authority of the most intelligent persons, that it is ten times more valuable, taking it generally, than all the foreign trade put together; and that this augmentation of our home trade more than repays all our losses by foreign countries. When to this consideration we add the acknowledged superior quality of the British woollens, is there not the strongest reason to expect that this branch of manufacture will be greatly extended by opening a new channel of commerce ?
The author of the · View' laid much stress upon the difference in the price of labour in France and England; but the writer of the Vindication observes, that, though this difference were greater than it is, the operation of the treaty cannot be affected by it to the disadvantage of Great Britain. He admits that the low price of labour is an advantage in manufacture, but then it affords no temptation to artizans to emigrate; and as the price of labour is always regulated by the degree of demand for it, if the demand increases, which must happen upon the establishment of new, or the extension of old manufactures,; the price of labour rises, and the expected advantage is loft.
It has been strongly inlifted upon in this dispute, that the price of labour, and even the price of the material, are always decisive in establishing the superiority of manufactures; but the author of the Vindication maintains that nothing has less foundation in fa&, experience, or reason. He observes that credit, capital, a quick circulation, knowlege--these form the foul, the vital principle of manufactures ; and that all other circumstances, however beneficial they may be when put in motion, and invigorated by these, are, without them, totally inanimate and useless. Indeed this observation seems to be sufficiently confirmed by experience: for cheapness of labour, and of the material, are advantages which moit other countries have posseffed in a greater degree than England ; but credit, capital, and knowlege must ever flourish molt in a country where property is guarded by wholesome laws, and where the exertions of ikill and industry are favoured by a mild and impartial admi. nistration,
A few other objections of less confequence are noticed by the author of the Vindication, but we presume we have said enough to give our readers an idea of the subject. The more closely we investigate the arguments produced against the treaty, we must candidly acknowledge that they seem to be founded more in misrepresentation or erroneous conception than in fact; and L 4
such being the case, we hou d consider it as criminal to diffem. ble our opinion on a matter so important to the most effential interests of the nation. Historical and Political Remarks upon the Tariff of the Commercial
Treaty. Svo. 25. 6d. Cadell. This pamphlet contains many general observations on commerce, previous as well as posterior to the revolution in the trading system of Europe, which took place at the treaty of Munster. It would neither afford information nor entertainment to our readers, to accompany the author in his detail, in which, though by no means minute, we cannot help thinking him unnecessarily diffuse, and frequently too remote from the particular object of his researches. As he appears, however, to be well informed, and writes with great moderation, we shall select one or two of his most pertinent observations relative to the tariff of the commercial treaty,
He is of opinion that it will admit of a doubt, whether the proposed rate of reduction of the duties on French brandies be sufficient to prevent smuggling; for even the duty of seven Millings the gallon is almost five hundred per cent, on the prime cost; and whether, by such an ineffectual reduction of the duties, the revenue will not fuftain a considerable loss, withoùt any adequate compensation or advantage to the public, That foreign brandies would admit of a yet farther reduction of the duty, to the advantage of the revenue, we cannot entertain any doubt; for there is reason to fear that a duty of seven thillings will continue to afford too great a temptation to smuggling. But this is a measure which may be easily adopted, and that without the assistance of our commercial negociator at Paris.
To those who are apprehensive left the French woollens should supplant the British in our home market, the following information will be acceptable,
Much has been said of the lowness of wages and the cheape ness of materials in this branch of French manufacture, yet it is very demonstrable, ihat both their very fine cloths and their coarse woollens are as dear as in England, The best cloths of Sedan, Louviers, and Abbeville, fell at twenty fhillings the English yard, and they are generally thought to be of a slighter texture and less durable than our fuperäines. At Auxerre, Samur Macon, Grenoble, Vienne, Arles, and many towns in the province of Orleans, coarse woollen ferges are, for their quality, found to be higher priced than the same articles are with us: their second cloths also, which do not excel ours of twelve fhillings the yard, either in the texture or the dresling, are sold at Vervins, Fontaine, Chalons, and other parts of Champagne, and about Poictiers, from fifteen to fixteen livres four sols the yard. At Romantin, indeed, in the generality of Orleans, there is a manufactory of white cloths, made with
equal equal proportions of Spanish and Berry wool, which is in high estimation, and from certain local advantages, sends out its goods better finished, and at a more reafonable price.'
This is followed by a curious instance, related by lord Sheffield, of the preference given to our woollens before those of France. Our own observation authorizes us to attirm, that, at present, the French are unable to rival us in the article of woollen cloth. How long we shall retain this honourable die tinction muit depend on a variety of circumitances. The Neceffity and Policy of the Commercial Treaty with France, &c.
considered. 8vo.' Is. 6d. Richardson. The author of the present pamphlet founds the expediency of the treaty with France upon the diminution of trade which Great Britain has sustained by the separation of America, and the known inability of that country to pay an equivalent for its imports. This is, doubtless, an argument in favour of the project ; but the conclusion of a profitable commercial treaty with so great a nation as France, stands in need of no additional circumdance to recommend its utility. With regard to the treaty in question, this author observes, that an attempt has been made to excite a clamour against that article which allows of the importation of cambrics into England under certain reftrictions. This article, he remarks, only legalizes what is every day committed with impunity, and which cannot be prevented; for that every linen-draper's shop in England abounds with this commodity, imported in defiance of law; and that no more of it will be imported than would have been, had the prohibition continued ; confequently that, without any injury to our own manufactures, the revenue will be benefited.
The author next observes, that an attempt has been made to spread an alarm among the woollen-manufacturers, as if their interests were sacrificed by the present treaty; but he observes with regard to this subject, that the woollen cloths of France, though considerably improved within this century, are yet very much inferior to our's. He admits that their scarlet and black are in high estimation, not for any fuperior excellence in those cloths, but for the beauty and firmness of their respective dyes ; yet, high as they are in the esteem of all the world, that their sale, on account of their excessive dearness, is partial and inconsiderable.
The other parts of this pamphlet are occupied with remarks on the conduct of opposition. The author's observations have generally the appearance of much justice, and are delivered with temper ; but we cannot say that they are distinguished by great force, and still less by elegance of composition. An Answer to the Complete Investigation of Mr. Eden's Treaty.
8vo. Scockdale. The Complete Investigation being so nearly allied to the View of the Treaty of Commerce with France, the principal arguments against that fide of the queltion have already been
anticipated in our account of the “ Short Vindication.' Indeed fo concise is the present Answer, that the author is filent with respect to the greater part of the Investigation. I his neglect is of less consequence, as the investigator betrayed great prejudice, and the subject is otherwise elucidated; though we cannot approve the conduct of the author of the pamphlet under confideration, in laying before the public fo inadequate an Answer to a production which, from its artful plawibility, merited a more full refutation. A Letter from a Manchester Manufacturer 10 the Right Honourable
Charles James Fox, or his Political Opposition to the Commercial Treaty with France. 8vo. Stockdale,
This Letter, which is dated from Manchester, relates to Mr. Fox's opposition to the commercial treaty with France, The manufacturer expresses much indignation at such conduet; and reproaches Mr. Fox by remarking, that the time has been, and very lately too, when he did not consider himself degraded, or his time misapplied, in listening to the suggestions of a commercial man. The Letters of an Englishman; in which the Principles and Conduct
of the Rockingham Party, when in Admini,?ration, and Opposition,
are freely and impartially displayed, dvo. 25. 6d. Stockdale. These Letters were originally printed in the Public Advertifer, and exhibit a view of the principles and conduct of the Rockingham party, when in administration, and opposition. In this epistolary collection, Mr. Hastings forms a principal object, concerning whom, on the itate of India, the author affirms,
' that the party were not right, even by accident, in any one affertion they made.' He certainly adduces fome very strong arguments in support of this proposition, as well as against the political conduct, in general, of those whom he describes; but though he entrenches himself amidst many f'ubborn facts, we cannot consider him as entirely an unprejudiced opponent. The Letters of a Friend to the Rockingham Party, and of an
Englifloman. . 8vo. 25. Stockdale. This collection presents us with strictures on the preceding article, by a Friend to the Rockingham Party, and the End glishman's Reply. We cannot acquit the Friend of partiality, any more than the Englithman of prejudice ; but, of the two, we muft ingenuoufly confess, that the champion last mentioned seems to have the better in point of argument. A Hint to the British Nation on the Violation of their Constitutional
Rigbts. 8vo. Debrett. This pamphlet is occupied with a complaint from fome military gentlemen in the Eat Indies, relative to the fuperiority of rank which is late majeity was plealed to confer on the officers of his own army over those of the East India company.
This circumstance is held forth to be the more humiliating, as the officers of the militia in England, and the provincials in America, have lately been relieved from the same invidious distinction. The True Policy of Great Britain confidered. By Sir Francis
Blake, Bart. 8vo. Debrett. In a former pamphlet *, fir Francis Blake declared himself of opinion, that Mr. Pitt's plan, relative to the discharge of the national debt, allowing for the contingent intervention of wars, can effect nothing better than to establish in this coun. try a perpetuity of payment to the present amount;' and that the greater probability is, that it cannot by any means operate to prevent the ruin of this country. In the present performance, this author propofes the total abolition of customs ; that all the ports in Great Britain be made free'; and that the whole revenye be collected by a pound rate, which will then-raise as much at five, as is now produced at fifteen shillings. But these are not the only admonitions with which we are presented by fir Francis : he now infifts vehemently on maintaining the homage of the British flag, and on distrusting all the advantages expected to result from the commercial treaty, at present so much the object of attention. He compares it to the Trojan horfe, and conjures us to remember the fate of Troy. He likewise declaims very emphatically against corruption in government; but with regard to this subject, we must confess that his ideas seem to be involved in obscurity. One point, however, is sufficiently intelligible, and we have not the smallest inclination to dispute it; we mean the patriotism of the author ; for he folemnly affures us, that, for the good of his country, he would • live upon the thing he hates the most, an onion by the day for years to come, and Nake the noisome thirst which' it would saise with heaven's dew.' One would almost be tempted to irnagine, that this political prophet has caught the mantle of à certain noble earl, who, for several years successively, predi&ted the inevitable destruction of the nation. We pray to heaven that the baronet, with whose principles we are not equally satisfied, may not continue to thunder in our ears this ominous, and, we ardently hope, visionary doctrine. 9 be Neu System of Libelling illustrated, in a Critical Examination
of a late Short Review, &c. 8vo. Is. 6d. Debrett. The Short Review of the Political State of Great Britain,' with all its merits, and all its defects, might soon have been consigned to oblivion ; but it is indebted for a prolongation of fame to the frivolous censures of those who affect to despise it. By what motives those industrious commentators are actuated, we shall not take upon us to determine ; but so much insignificant observation is hardly reconcileable with any other delign than that of deriving a little benefit from a temporary subject. Efficacy of a Sinking Fund of One Million per Annum considered.