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ther than to be swallowed up in the intrigues he was engaged in, and which might have been productive of much mischief.
• On our return to head quarters, we found several general officers and colonels, with whom we dined. I had an opportunity of conversing more particularly with general Waine ; he has served more than any officer of the American army, and his services have been more diftinguished, though he is yet but young. He is fenfible, and his conversation is' agreeable and animated.--The affair of Stoney Point has gained him much honour in the army ; however, he is only a brigadier-general l'
The translator takes care to remove the afperfion of a mean trade from general Knox, by telling us that he dealt in various articles, -one of which happened to be books'; but we are assured, for his credit, that he applied himself more to read. ing than to selling them. Perhaps, if closely questioned, he might tell us, that Sullivan, writing a good hand, sometimes for the service of his friends engrossed law-deeds ; but that he more frequently attended courts for his own amusement ; or that Mr. Morris only lived by privateering, because, happily, he loved the feas ;-yet Arnold must be stigmatized as a horse. dealer.
In pursuing the marquis, as a natural historian, we find him often detective and fometimes erroneous. He remarks, that the Americans diftinguish birds from their colours, or their properties, rather than by scientific names. This evinces the little progress which science has made in that country ; for the same defect occurred in the infancy of this science in other nations. The inhabitants of New England did not Surely design to lessen this inconvenience, by substituting Hebrew for English ; for this, the marquis informs us, was once their intention: these sturdy republicans were not probably aware, that there was a term for a king in that and every other language. It is not in the language only that we discern the deficiency of the Americans in science: the marquis's remarks on different subjects of science, and their professors, vol. i. p. 228, &c. show, that natural knowlege, and particularly natural history, has made hut a small progress in the new world. The French will probably afsift them ; for they have established a botanical garden at New York, as a depôt of the vege:able riches of America. In the fine arts, we have the translator's evidence that they are equally deficient. But to return.
• These hills, heaped confusedly one upon another, oblige you to be contiaually mounting and descending, without your being able to distinguish, in this wild region, the summit, which, rising above the rest, announces to you a conclusion ia your labours. This disorder of Nature reminded me of the lefons of him whom she has chosen for her confidant and intero
preter. The vision of M. de Buffon appeared to me in these ancient deserts. He seemed to be in his proper element, and to point out to me, under a slight cruit formed by the destruction of vegetables, the inequality of a globe of glass, which has cooled after a long fusion. The waters, said he, have done nothing here; look around you, you will not find a single calcareous stone ; every thing is quartz, granite, or fiint. I made experiments on the stones with aqua fortis, and could not help concluding, what has not obtained fufficient credit in Europe, not only that he speaks well, but that he is always in the right.'
The marquis, we are told, is a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences : we would recommend that, at their next feflion, he should be questioned on this subject, and desired to explain how granite and fint can be formed by fire, independ. ent of water. It is M. de Buffon's system ; but it is probably more fanciful than true: in fact, except in the high mountains, the greater part of the midland country consists of lime-stone, We need not remark, how, inefficacious his aqua fortis is, which he constantly employs in the decision of important queftions. In his enquiry into the formation of the natural bridge, he is not very clear or latisfactory; but he gives us an obser. vation of far more importance and more decisive, viz. that the itrata are horizontal. It decides, however, againit M. de Buffon, Perhaps too, he may be informed by the Academy, that an initance of disease ought not to have been styled a lusus naturæ.
We shall conclude this article with a defcription highly finished, and, as the author did not use his aqua fortis, - sufficiently correct. It is that of the Totohaw-Fall.
• Let the reader figure to himself, then, a river running between mountains covered with firs, the dark green of which is in contact with the colours of its waters, and renders it course more majestic ; let him represent to himfelf an immense rock, which would totally close up the passage, had it not by an earthquake; or some other subterraneous revolution, been rent in leveral pieces, from its suminit to its base, by this means forming long crevices perfectly vertical. One of these crevices, the depih of which is unknown, may be twenty-five or thirty feet wide. It is in this cavern that the river having cleared a part of the rock, precipitates itself with violence; but as this rock crosses its whole' bed, it can only escape by that extremity of the two, which offers it an outlet. There a fresh obstacle prefonts itself: another rock opposes its fight, and it is obliged to form a right angle, and turn short to the left. But it is extraordinary, that after this dreadful fall, it neither froths, nor boils up, nor forms whirlpools, but goes off quietly by its channel, and gains, in silence, a profound valley, where it pulues its course to the sea. This perfect calm, after a move.
ment so rapid, can only proceed from the enormous depth of the cavern, into which it is plunged. I did not examine the rock with aqua fortis ; but as there seems to be no calcareous stones in this country, I take it to be hard rock, and of the nature of quartz: but it presents a peculiarity worthy of attention, which is, that its whole surface is hollowed into little squares. Was it in a state of fusion when raised from the bowels of the earth, and it blocked up the passage of the river. These vertical crevices, these laws on the surface, are they the effects of its cooling » These are questions I leave to the discussion of the learn.d: I shall only observe, that there is no volcanic appearance ; nor through this whole country are there the smallest traces of a volcano, of such at leak as are poiterior to the lalt epochas of nature.'
We have not yet finished this very unequal miscellaneous work: we have other circumstances to point out, which deserve both praise and blame; but these we must refer to a future Number.
Remarkable Occurrences in the Life of Jonas Hanway, Esq. By
John Pugh. 8vo. 45. fewed. Cadell. MR:
R, Hanway has been joined with Mr. Howard : the same
active benevolence, the same unwearied perseverance, the same eagerness to do good, seem to have actuated the breasts of both. Çalumny found its dart pointless; and even envy could not fully the tale with its malignant breath. It was pure philanthropy who guided the itep of the one to the loathfome dungeon ; it was mild benevolence which directed the eye of the other, as he passed along, to objects whom he could aslift. Their’s is the praise, with the heartfelt consciousness of having done well: the nation will receive folid benefit from their labours,
Mr. Hanway, in his early life, was an author: to him we are indebted for the firit rational account of Persia, and the Persian monarch ; for the travellers which preceded him were fomewhat too fond of the marvellous. Their geographical veracity has been lately vindicated with apparent reason; but their exaggerated defcriptions must remain. It would be useless to return with Mr. Hanway over the Caspian sea, and to follow his steps, or partake his hardships in Persia. Mr. Pugh has given a judicious abstract of his travels, in this volume. It is equally unnecessary to point out the object which drew our traveller to thele unfrequented spots, viz. the eitablishment of a trade with Persia. The end will be now attained by the more gradual and effectual means of our connections with Indostan. N3
From the period of his return, the life of Mr. Hanway.confifts of the history of the various charities in which he took an active part, or of the national institutions in the establishment of which he aslifted.
His first appearance as a public man was in the contest on the famous bill for naturalizing the Jews. At that period it was an improper measure; and while this people are more distinguished as a commercial than a manufacturing race; while they are rather itinerant artizans than induftrious citizens ; and while they are bound by ceremonies injurious to fociety, perhaps the measure will fill be considered as impolitic. Mr. Cumberland has lately brought the cause of this unfortunate, this oppressed race, again under confideration; and, when we reflect on their various fates, on their general diffusion and rejection from all civil communions, we almost, with our biographer, see a divine interposition fulfilling its own denunciation. Let no one pronounce this judgment to be harsh till he has fuliy confidered the facts: we wish them well as men ; but, with all our toleration, cannot desire to associate with them as brethren.
His next public engagement was in the plan for the uniform paving the itreets; a measure long finçe completed, so as not only to add to the health, but to the convenience of the people, It was a noble encomium on the English conftitution, which fell from a Frenchman, to whom a friend was giving fome ace count of these improvements ;-Ah, c’est en Angleterre, que le peuple font rois. It is in England that the people are kings. Mr. Pugh gives an account of the origin and progress of this salutary measure.
His next attempt was to calm the minds of the nation, who, in 1755, were apprehensive of an invafion. Lord Chatham succeeded in this attempt better than Mr. Hanway ;-for, in a few years, he alarmed the whole coast of France contiguous to the Channel. The objects of the Marine Society, the Mari. time School, the Foundling and Magdalen hospitals, are well known : of these institutions, he was either an original insti: tutor, or an early promoter.
In a little sketch, Travels in a humble style, viz. from Portf. mouth to Kingston, he attacked Dr. Johnson's favourite beverage, tea, and brought on himself the vengeance of the literary colossus; but this foon disappeared, without bad consequences.
His reasons for employing twelve thousand additional feamen in time of peace, are very strong, and deserve, at this moment, the attention of the legislature. His assistance to the Stepney Society, for apprenticing out orphans and the children
of the poor to marine trades, added to its credit and its finances. The subscription which he promoted for furnishing the Britith troops in Germany with useful articles of cloathing, was very advantageoufly employed. His plan for preserving the poor infants of the metropolis, by procaring an act of parliament to oblige the parishes to rear them in the country, was of very great importance.
We can only mention his promoting the subscription for the relief of the sufferers by fire in Montreal ; bis benevolent endeavours to alleviate the misfortunes of the little chimneysweepers ; his attempt to introduce the common, instead of fine bread, which he considered as more nutritive, and less injurious in other respects. These, with some lesser matters, we do not pass over as of less importance in his useful life, but because we cannot enlarge on every thing useful which he promoted.
This Life is drawn up with modesty and propriety. Mr. Pugh was intimately acquainted with Mr. Hanway, and has conveyed a very lively resemblance of him. The features of his mind appear in his works: we shall select those of his person.
• His features were small, but without the insignificance which commonly attends small features. His countenance was interesting, sensible, and calculated to inspire reverence. His blue eyes had never been brilliant; but they expressed the utmolt humanity and benevolence; and when he spoke, the animation of his countenance and the tone of his voice were such as seemed to carry conviction with them even to the mind of a tranger. When he endeavoured to foothe distress, or point out to any wretch who had ftrayed, the comforts of a virtuous life, he was peculiarly impreslive ; and every thing that he said had an air of confideration and Gncerity.
• In his dress, as far as was consistent with his ideas of health and ease, he accommodated himself to the prevailing fashion, As it was frequently necessary for him to appear in polite circles, on unexpected occagons, he usually wore dress cloths, with a large French bag: his hat, ornamented with a gold button, was of a fize and fashion to be worn as well under the arm as on the head. When it rained, a small parapluie de. fended his face and wig. Thus he was always prepared to en: ter into any company, without impropriety, or the appearance of negligence. His dress for set public occasions was a fuit of rich dark brown ; the coat and waistcoat lined throughout with ermine, which just appeared at the edges ; and a small gold-hilted sword. As he was extremely susceptible of cold, he wore flannel under the linings of all his cloaths, and usually three pair of stockings. He was the first man who ventured to walk the streets of London with an umbrella over his head : N4