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(Continued from p. 145.) THERE

HERE is a Society on the continent, which, from their

particular connections, are better known in England than some others of greater note, and whose objects are of greater importance. We mean the Theological Society at Harlem, called, from its institutor and principal benefactor, Teyler's. We mention it, to give an account of the prize-differtations, published some time lince, on a question relating to the Itate of Chriftianity, particularly in the eastern churches, about the time of Mahomet, in order to ascertain the influence which that state had on the progress of his religion. The volume, published by the Society, contains four Differtations : the first in order is written Michel Paps Szathmari, profeffor in theology and ecelefiaftical history in the Proteftant college of Claufen. burg, in Tranfylvania. It is preferred by the judges to the others; but from a punctilio, needless to explain, it did not receive the gold medal. It is full of information ; but the au. thor's learning appears to be fuperior to his judgment, and to his liberality. The “odious Arian herely,' he considers as the chief aflistance to the progress of Mahometanism; and he seems very apprehensive that we shall fall from Arianism into Sociniana ism, and from thence into deism. We must leave Dr. Priestley to settle this account with the professor, for it is not within the province of our short explanation. The popular doctrines of Mahomet, the allowance of polygamy, and a little less severity than was exercised by the Christians against unbelievers, are considered by the professor as the great inducements which led people to the mosque. Fatigued with disputes about religions they were glad to embrace that which not only allowed them rest, but indulged them in sensuality,

The next Dissertation is a very able one, by M. Jerome de Bosch; but it is full of digressions, and well contracted by the third, which is designedly concise, though sufficiently clear. The great aid which Mahomet received, in M. Hugenholtz's opinion, was the divisions of the Christian church, and the rea billions in the state.

The last Differtation is written by M. Slothouwer, triaster of the grammar school of Leuwaarden: it is á clear, methodical, masterly performances and Mahometanising in his opiniong is founded on the corruptions of Christianity. A religion, whole origin is divine, may, he thinks, be equally injurious with a fyften derived either from enthufiafm, folly, or knavery, if the divine religion is fo far corrupted, that it is not indisputahly clear from what source the knowlege of it is to be derived : fecondly, if its professors piety and goodness are estimated only by their violence in defence of speculative do&rines, or by their intolerance : thirdly, when fpeculative doctrines, in themselves unintelligible, are erected into articles of faith : fourthly, wheck Vol. LXIII. Marthg 1787



persecutions are excited between members of the same communion, on account of trifling and accidental differences of opinion. This was the state of the Christian church in the time of Mahomet; and from these divisions, that of Mahomet flou'rished. These Differtations are printed in the Dutch language ; but the first was originally written in Latin, and fince translated.

We must not leave Harlem, without also mentioning the twenty-second volume of the Memoirs published by the Philosophical Society in that city. The molt interesting effay is that written by M. Castillon, professor at Berlin, on a question pro. posed by the Society : What are the Principles and Characters of Analogy, and how should the Philosopher apply it in the invęstigation of physical and moral truths' On the characters and principles of analogy, we perceive nothing new. It is founded by our author on mathematical ratios. Its use is faid to be, to correct our own judgment on intelle&ual subjects by the assistance of our senses, and then the judgment of others; fecondly, to deduce general truths from particular ones; thirdly, to prove the truth or faldhood of propofitions which cannot be otherwise demonstrated; fourthly, to discover new truths in na. tural or moral philofophy.

This Dissertation is followed by another, of profeffor J. Paps de Fagaras de Vasarhely, on the same subject, which contains good observations, but not very clearly digested. In our opinion, either affords a very imperfect and inadequate answer to the question. The next two hundred pages are taken up by a Theological Differtation of M. Lambert Meyer, on the Moral State of Infants after this Life; and the volume is concluded by a Dissertation on the Panicum crus Galli, by professor de Gorter;. and Meteorological Observations, made in the Years 1782, *1783, and 1784, by M. Bruyninps.

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At Paris, the publication of a new work, by the abbé Ray, is daily expected. It is entitled Universal Zoology, in a portable -Form, arranged in alphabetical Order, and each Animal referred to its Place in the best Systems. Though called portable, it is to make a volume of seven or eight hundred pages; and the publication is chiefly carried on by subscription. The author's fituation, as keeper of the chemical and physical cabi nets of the Lyceum, together with his general character, will probably render this work very valuable. It is eagerly wished for by some of the best naturalists. The system we have mentioned naturally directed our attention to the same subject; and

we have recurred to the various discoveries with which we have làtely been presented in that part of natural history. On the continent they have had many miscellaneous assistants, but few

great works. Linnæus and Buffon described, comparatively, byt few fpccies; and M. Erxleben, in his History, published in the year. 1782, enumerated. 342. The number described by Mr. Pennant we have not counted; we suppose them to be more



than those of Buffon, and less than M. Erxleben's collection. Later obfervations have not only added to the number, but to our more intimate acquaintance with the forms and manners of those before described. We shall mention a few of the new kinds

i and must begin with one which humbles the pride of man by its fimilitude.

The apes have generally flat noses; and the perfection of Grecian forms was most unlike, in this respect, to that disgusting animal, which approaches so near us in others. There has, however, a species of simia been presented to the king's cabinet at Paris, which has a long well-formed nose, resembling that feature in the human race, except that it is lightly flattened, The feptum narium, which, in this kind, is generally thick, in the new fpecies is as thin as in man. M. Daubenton has named it fimia nafalis.

M. Desfontaines has brought, from the coast of Barbary, the true wibnxos of Aristotle : every naturalift knows how many diso putes the doubts about the real animal, which the Grecian na. turalift described, have occafioned. This ape is of a moderate fize: it has twenty-eight teeth, of which four are canine, very like those of man. He lives in society, in the woods ; is easily tamed; lives upon fruits, and even herbs ; and attaches himself to his master. It is, however, remarkable, that, in their dome. fticared ftate, they never produce young. The fame naturalist has brought from Barbary, a tiger, a little larger than the ounce, but effentially different from it: fecondly, a new variety, if not a new species of fox ; it is larger than our's'; its hair is yellow, and ears black : thirdly, a new variety of otter, larger and of a lighter colour than our's; fourthly, two new species of rats. We shall not dwell on these subjects, because our author has promised us a particular account of his travels very soon.

M. Vaillant has discovered a new fpecies of mole; and, to the collections of this kingdom there have been four or five fpecies lately added, of which it is not our present business to give any description.

The disputes which have arisen between Dr. Girtanner and M. Van Berchen, concerning the Alpine goat, the wild goat of Pennant, and the capra iþex of Linnæus, have greatly illustrated the natural history of this animal. Dr. Girtannei's remarks were made in a journey through Switzerland, the Grifons, and part of Italy : they contain alto-fome observations on the marmotte, which we have already had occasion to mention. M. Vad Berchen confounded the animal named by Pallas the Siberian goat with the Alpine goat, from which it differs very materia:ly. From this dispute, the difference is more clearly ascerrained; and there are at present, in the Brtish Museum, the horns of both {pecies. The Siberian goat is that which is said to come from the isle of Cyprus. It Thould, however, be owned, that Van Berchen has translated a valuable memoir, by M. Guildenstädt, froin the twentieth volume of the New Peterburgh Commen



taries, on the jackal, with success ; and added to it some very. valuable notes. In this Memoir there is a very accurate and judicious description of the animal ; and, in the notes, an entertaiving account of its manners, taken from the Russian Travels into Persia. The great object of the annotator is to render the opinion of Pallas, that the jackal is the origin of the race of dogs, improbable. In its habits, appearance, and manners, it is not unlike the wild dogs, which greatly resemble the cominon. Theep dog.

M. Van Berehen proposes to publish a very useful work on zoology, as a guide to travellers. Their vague, uncertain, contradictory, and sometimes false accounts, have given great trouble to naturalists, and have led them into error ; therefore this author proposes to enable them to distinguish the known species of animals, wịthout a deep knowlege of the systems of zoology. In his system, the different parts of animals are examined, and they are to be classed according to their resemblances. The figures to illustrate it are to be very exact. By this method travellers, he thinks, can first recognize any animal, or determine whether it is unknown ; secondly, distinguish its manners, and ascertain how far they have been already understood by naturalists ; thirdly, determine its place in the order of resemblances, that is, its resemblance to, or its difference from, other known animals. The work is to contain many more animals than the system of Buffon, and to be printed very soon. The author spcaks with much confidence, but we cannot decide till we have feen the system. He feems to promise too much.

One of the most respectable provincial societies in France is that of Lyons : we shall abridge their last programına, which we have just received.

The question relating to hichens, was the following: What are the different Species of Lichens useful in Medicine and the Aris?' It was expected, that the authors should determine the properties of these plants, by new enquiries and experiments. Threc Memoirs were distinguished on this occasion. The best was written by M. G. Francois Hoffman, doctor of phyfic in the university of Erlang; the vext, by M. Amoreux, junior, M.D. of Montpelier; and the third, by M. Willemet, senior, botanical demonstrator at Nancy, who formerly received the prize for a Memoir on indigenous remedies from the vegetable kingdom. Dr. Hoffman is well known in Germany, for various works in botany and medicine, particularly one, entitled Enumeratio Lichenum.' These Memoirs, we hear, are to be printed, and we shall then give some farther account of them : the lichens are used chietly in dying; and we have much reason to think, that very useful medicines may be drawn from this family of plants.

The prize given by the duke de Villeroy was likewise allotted at this leffion, viz, in August of last year: it was on the


following question. Are the Experiments, on which Newton established the different Refrangibility of heterogeneous Rays, decisive or délufive?' The examination of the question was expected to be deep, and the affertions to be founded on fimple experiments, whose results were uniform and conllant. The event was singular ; there were eight Memoirs; four on each side. Two of each, however, on either side, were of inferior merit, so that they were laid alide; and the Academy, with becoming care, repeated the experiments of the other four, to which new ones were added. The victory was decidedly in favour of Newton; and his two advocates were distinguished. The author who received the first prize, was M. Flaugergues, junior, of Viviers, in Vivarais, member of many focieties; the second was M. Antony Brugman's, of Groningen. The authors are desired also to publish these two Memoirs. M. Brugman's Memoir was second only because it was less extensive, not that it was less valuable.

The mathematical fubjects, proposed for 1787, are, 1. To explain the advantages and inconveniencies of particular vaulis (des voutes sur-baisseès) in different buildings, either pubļic or private, where they are commonly employed. 2. To determine where they are preferable to vaults à plein-centre. 3. Ta determine, geometrically, what degree of curvature will give the least elevation, with the neccffary folidity. The prize consists of two medals, of 200 livres each.

A patriotic and benevolent citizen has offered a prize of 609 livres for the best essay on the following question : Can travelling be considered as a Means of perfecting Education? A prize, founded by the abbé Raynal, will be distributed also this year. It confiits of 1200 livres, for an aniwer to the following questions.

• Has the discovery of America been useful or injurious to Mankind ? if it has been useful, what are the Means of preserving and increasing the Advantages ? If injurious, what are the proper Remedies ?' Those who have already sent dissertations may make any additions to them; but it is hinted, that a new copy would be more agreeable.

As the Academy has allotted a prize to a Memoir which pointed out the dangers of diffolving alum in wine, they now propose a prize for additional information on the lubjeét. "What is the most simple, easy, and accurate manner of discovering alum, and its quantity, when diffolved in wine, particularly red wine, of a deep colour?' The experiments muft be uniform in their result, simple, and easy. The prize is 600 livres, to be distributed in their usual session in 1788.

In the department of Natural History, the now question is, • What are the different Insects of France reputed poisonous ? The Nature of their Poison and its Remedies ?' The genera and species of the in:ects are to be mentioned ; and the enquiries and experiments are expected to be new. The prize iş a medal

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