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of surfaces increased in quantity, and mixed with pus; and the curdled matter is the coagulable lymph very constantly found on inflamed surfaces.'
The Second Part contains a description of the lymphatic glands, and the distribution of the lymphatics in different parts. The author informs us that it is essentially the same as has been read during the last twelve years in WindmillItreet : the additions are chiefly the varieties which occurred in the diffections of different bodies. The descriptions are sometimes illustrated with cases, where the organs mentioned were diseased. Our author has discovered no glands in the brain. The pituitary gland consists, according to his obfervations, of a cortical and medullary part : it seems to resemble the relt of the brain, and, in no respect, the glands of the absorbents. He does not, however, deny the existence of lymphatics in the brain. In the mesocolon, the glands are few and small, which leads Mr. Cruikshank to suspect that some change is produced in the chyle, during its retention in these organs. It adds strongly to the force of the opinion which we have suggested, since the fluids in that portion of the intestine must be sufficiently animalized to require no farther dilation. Our author never knew perfons supported by clyfters longer than three weeks.
The particular distribution of the absorbents affords little that we can extract. Our author has seen them on the heart, in the pancreas, and some other parts, in which they have not been yet described, in the human body. He denies that there are lacteals in the stomach. There are undoubtedly absorbents ; but as chyle seems to be formed by the secreted Auids in the duodenum, the dispute is almost about words. The relief on taking food, when much exhausted, may undoubtedly arise, in a great degree, from the stimulus on the nerves of the ftomach; it is equally certain, that somthing either of the Auids taken in, already animalized, or even of a watery nature, is also absorbed. The feelings of nurses, who eat after they have been exhausted by the sucking of a strong child, or even when they only drink; the feelings of every one in the fame fituation, in consequence of fatigue, seem to support this opinion.
In the lymphatics of the lungs, our author tells us that there are valves ; the injection runs in different directions, in consequence of the frequent anastomoses. He has known pulmonary consumption produced by breathing putrid air ; and he seems to think that this disease may be infectious. It is not easy to prove negatives; but, if the facts were well founded,
they they would have long since been established on indubitable evidence. We have known putrid air produce cachexy and fever; we have never known it produce a pulmonary complaint. Our author's remarks on the absorbents of the brain we shall select.
• There is the appearance of absorbents on the surface of the brain, between the tunica arachnoides and pia mater. Ruysch was the first who observed this; he has given an engraving of them, inflated with air, and calls them vasa pfeuda lymphatica. I have repeatedly injected them with quicksilver ; but, as they appear to me to be deftitute of valves, the great characteristic of absorbent vessels, and as I have not yet traced them to the glands, I have not yet determined what they are.
They may be absorbents without valves, as the fluids, coming from the brain, have the allistance of their own gravity in descending, and the valves would have been of no use in vessels not exposed to the contraction of surrounding muscles. That the brain has absorbents, I am perfectly certain ; for I have seen absorbent glands in the foramen caroticum, which, from this situation, could not belong to any vessels but such as were coming down from the brain. From these glands the deep-seated absorbents of the head go into other glands, in the course of the internal jugular veins and carotid arteries ; and, having been joined by those from the outside of the head, they form larger and larger trunks as they come nearer the angle between the jugular and fubclavian veins, and are blended with the absorbents of the neck.'
Of the thoracic duct our author gives a very particular description. The valves at its termination, he thinks, occafionally oppose the retrograde motion of the blood through it from the subclavian; while, in general, the force of the lymph is greater than that of the blood in the veins. This is partly true ; though our author does not make allowance for the direction of the course of the fluids. The blood in the veins descends by its gravity, and, like all descending bodies, preffes forward in a strait line. The lymph, from the curve of the terminating branches of the duct, acquires nearly the same direction; besides, the lymph has received an impulse from the action of the heart and aorta : the force of the heart was long before lost in the convoluted vessels of the head; so that the. motion of the blood in the subclavian vein receives little aslift
ance from it.
We cannot leave Mr. Cruikshank without our sincere commendations of his very accurate and useful work, which will be a lasting monument of his skill, address, and attention.
Two Discourses delivered at Public Meetings of the Royal Aca
demy of Sciences and Belles Lettres, at Berlin, in the Years 1785, and 1786. 1. On the Population of States in general, and that of the Prussian Dominions in particular. 11. On the True Riches of States and Nations, the Balance of Commerce, and that of Power. By the Baron de Hertzberg. 8vo. 25, 6d.
E have lately viewed with astonishment the decline of an
excentric planet, which has assumed various and uncommon appearances, has been the harbinger of violent commotions, rode in a whirlwind, and directed the storm, yet has at last fet in peace, and left, in its west, a mild, but steady and attractive radiance. We speak of the late king of Prussia, whom pofterity will look up to with wonder, and who only appeared of less importance, because he was not beheld at a greater distance. His vigorous and comprehensive mind could grasp the most remote, and combine the most improbable events, while it could pursue the dull routine of office; and the more minute detail of political economy. A genius which could at times shine with such brilliancy, can seldom look so near as to comprehend little objects. The event was as might be expected, when we add, that, with abilities fo enterprising, a mind so clear, and a comprehension so intuitive, a series of the most fortunate accidents, a concurrence of the most unexpected circumstances, were combined. Few kings were ever so able, and none, cqually able, were so fortunate as Frederick. The historian inay find his parallel as a warrior; may compare him with men of equal ingenuity and wit ; with ftatesmen of equal penetration and steadiness; but they will search in vain for an union of these qualities, in a degree which will bring the object of their panegyric near to Frederick. But it is not our present bufiness to write an culogium ; if it were, we should imitate the address of our author, who, in the king of Prussia's capital, in an academy fostered and supported by him, scarcely says a word but what his sovee reign might have heard without a blush. We would not, however, be understood to fhade his faults by the dazzling juffre of his virtues: he had great ones; but they belong to him as a man, and we have spoken of him as a king. Peace to his manes ! May future princes equal him as the father of his people, and rise above him as the father of a family!
The baron de Hertzberg, minister of state, and the first object of the new king's munisicence, as a member of the academy of Berlin, pronounced, on the late king's birth day, Dilcourses on Political Economy, particularly relating to Pruflia. From these Discourses we have collected much curious inforVOL. LXIII. Jan. 1787
mation ; but the two before us have only appeared in an English dress; and to these our present account must be confined. The first is on the Population of States in general, and that of Prussia in particular. The baron appears, in these discussions, to be an able politician, an enlightened historian, and a clear, intelligent philosopher. His essays are cool and dispassionate, without affected refinement of sentiment, a misplaced brilliancy of thought, or an unsuitable ornament of language. We may add, that his translator has executed his office with propriety and judgment.
On the subject of population in general, our author agrees with Montesquieu, in thinking the world lefs populous at present than in ancient times, but does not suppofe the difference to be so great as that writer has alleged. We think some considerations, which baron Hertzberg has omitted, would still farther lessen that disproportion.
The measures which the king of Prussia has adopted to increase the population of his kingdom are judicious, spirited, and decisive : they have been consequently successful. The population of his hereditary dominions has been doubled ; and, by the increase of his territories, it has been trebled. All this has been effected in spite of the long and bloody wars in which he has been engaged. The means by which it has been effected are: the encouragement of agriculture ; draining marshes ; building farms and villages ; receiving industrious refugees, and assisting the poor with money on the most advantageous conditions ; alienating his own demesnes; purchafing rights of common, in order to enclose and render them more generally useful; and laying up magazines, to prevent the bad consequences of failing crops, which, in a country so poor as Prussia, would be fatal to a population, stretched, in this manner, seemingly to its utmost bent. Though these methods be the best foundation for a numerous population, yet the king did not neglect manufactures : we see in the list of expences allowed from the king's purse, among other things, machines for the Manchester manufacture. He encourages manufacturers by rewards, by bounties, by lending advantageous capitals, by removing the burthen of the foldiery from the poorest and most industrious spots. The Pruffians, at this moment, clothe their own common people, and export many coarse woollens : their filk manufactures are very flourishing: their linens are a great source of external wealth ; and, in the last year, we saw the number of Prussian vessels that passed the Sound to be not much less numerous than the Dutch and the English. Even the army is not detrimental to population. Its constitution is now known to be, in a great
degree, degree, a national militia ; for the fixed garrisons are chiefly composed of foreigners. Frederick was first able to make an army of 200,000 men actually useful to the kingdom that maintains them. The baron does not affert so much, but he does more; he gives us facts, by which we think it may be easily proved. On the whole, the population of Prussia is estimated at 6 millions, or 1667 persons to each square mile. France, our author observes, has 2500; the Austrian monarchy foould have 1900 ; England and Ireland 1800 ; Spain 1200 ; Poland 700 ; Denmark 210 ; Sweden 117; Russia only 80. What would be the power of this unwieldy kingdom, if her inhabitants could be brought within a space adapted for their general exertion? The population of Pruffia is, however, said to be so unequal, that some provinces have 3100 people on cach square mile.
In the second Discourse the baron begins with depreciating an affectation of secrecy, the conduct of little minds, or of those who fear the light. This disregard of narrow policy is a noble principle, worthy of the enlightened minister of an able sovereign. He then proceeds to his real subject, viz. to ascertain the true riches of a nation, the balance of com. merce, and of power. The power of a state consists in that degree of population which we have just described ; and the basis of that population is agriculture, industry, and com
The state of agriculture and commerce best adapted to this full, but nervous and active population, has not been properly ascertained in all its branches ; but, as the baron Hertzberg does not lead us to these researches, we muft wait for another opportunity of explaining this subject.
The balance of commerce influences that of power. The baron gives a short and comprehensive history of the latter subject, which we cannot abridge. In this history, when our author approaches modern times, he talks like a dexterous politician. • The king, he says, obtained the duchy of Silesia in consequence of a particular claim, grounded on lawful titles.' Again,
• The Poles having given occasion by a civil war to three neighbouring powers, to make good certain claims which they had upon some provinces of Poland, the partition of those provinces was made in 1772, according to the principles of a balance of power, of which the three potentates were to agree among themselves.'
The following passage affords us some new light.
• The war which broke out in 1776, between Great Britain and the colonies of North America, gave occafion to the court of France to declare for those colonies, and to afford them