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M. Oedman has given a dissertation on the phoca vitulina. He Ands that this genus comprehends many species; and, to characterize them, he advises us to attend to the colour and manner of living. He mentions five species or varierits found on the coasts of Sweden, as well as many particularities of their manners,

In the second trimestre there are nine arcicles only, of no less value, which we Mall mention in their order. T first, by M. Edelfeldt, contains various mineralogical observations on the mountains, towards the coasts of Henfingland, of Medelpadia, and Angermania: these it is impossible to abridge.

To the former article M. Marelius has added calculations of the elevation of many of the higheit points of these mountains above the level of the sea, and proposes methods of rendering them more just.

M. Scheele, in the third article, gives an account of his method of crystallizing the acid of lemons. This paper was originally publihed by M. Crell, in his Chemical Annals, and it has been since tranflated into Englis. The fale commonly sold as that of lemons, is in reality falt of wood-forrel, flavoured flightly with lemon. True falt of lemons cannot be procured in England, in the best circumstances, under two shillings an ounce, without allowing for labour and profit. It may therefore be easily sup. posed, that the small boxes cannot contain this falt, though they feldom exceed of an ounce. But, if the profit appear too little, fuppofing it real falt of lemons, it is surely exorbitant, as falt of wood forrel.

M. Bergman, in the following article, gives an analyfis of some new species of stones, sent to him from different places. Among the rest is some heavy earth, from Leadhills in Scotland, The Ipath barré of Freybourg is barytes faturated with vitriolic acid: the marmor metallicum of Cronstedt. The singular fossil of Altemburg, which resembles crystal, is a clay deprived of iron, mixed with quartz and water; of course, a particular fpecies of argillaceous earth. M. Bergman gives a supplement to the history of zcolithes, in consequence of some new species found in Sweden. The kind of marle found near London, which the English gardeners employ in their stoves, to hasten the vegetation of plants, is a sort of earthy land, mixed with clay, containing a little iron. Our author finds the Derbyshire wad much' like the manganese, with only a little lead ore. The acid earth in the heavy stone, he thinks, on the authority of M. Elhouyar, is of a metallic nature.

M. Gueyer gives an account of his progress, in the fusion of precious stones, and other kinds of earth and itone, after having explained the difficulty attending these forts of experiments. He has employed, for this purpose, the air separated from burning nitre, and of nitrous acid, passed through hot porcelain tubes. He used this air, with a particular kind of blow-pipe, where it was iin pelled by the pressure of water. Diamonds of of a carrat foon lose their brilliancy and polish, with so much of their weight

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in a few minutes, that the current of air blows them from their support. The ruby preserves its colour in fusion almost unaltered, bui fuses with so much difficulty as never to form a mass per-'; fectly round. The emerald melts easily, and forms an opake body of a milky whiteness. The pierre lardaire (a lapis ollaris, the iteatite of ihe ancients, the specksein of the Germans) and the lapis ferpentinus melt easily, and change into an opal glass. The transparent (par changes into opake milky scoriæ.

In the fixth arıicle M. Bergius gives his observations on the last epidemic of the years 1783 and 1784. The small pox was of a putrid nature, hut what was extraordinary, came on with tymptoms violenıly inflammatory. The pusg from a confluent , Imall pox, in inoculation, produced a mild disease. Those who had used mercury had a very malignant kind. Free air was useful; but it made the eruptions flow in advancing, and the later ones dried away without coming to suppuratin. When the cruptions were riling to maturity, M. Bergius kept his patients in bed; and he speaks of methods of preserving those who visit them from infection. The fever cominonly appears on the tifth, fixth, or seventh day after a communication; by means of a blifter the progress is haftened. The ulcers formed by the deposition of pus, our author tells us, may be avoided by means of oil of camphor, or a preparation of lead, mixed with a common liniment, after leeches have been applied. No person, in his opinion, has been infected the second time ; but a watery kind of false small pox (perhaps the chicken pox) he says, appears like, them, and in bad babits form ulcers. 1043 died of this epidemic: Bergius laments the little use made of inoculation, and thinks it nould be encouraged by the interpofition of govern

The baron Clas Alstroemer has invented an instrument, by which a person can vilit the bottom of the sea, and other lands concealed by water. The object was to discover, whether the matters remaining after the oil of suhes was extracted, had not formed thallows in the neighbouring feas. The water was indeed somewhat Mallow, and the bottom was covered with a fatty earth.

The eighth article, by M. Nils Landerbeck, explains the me. thod of. finding the exponents in a variation of the curvature of curved lines.

in the ninth M. Sparrman describes and delineates the lacerta spurator, a new species, found at St. Eustatia. Its name is taker. from its property of throwing from the mouth a kind of black faliva on the person who approaches him, which raises the skin on the part where it falls. The complaint is removed by rubbing the part affected with spirit of wiųe and camphor, or even with rum. This little animal has a tail of a moderate size, covered below with scales; it is of an ash colour, with streaks across of a white and brown. The two next parts must be the subject of a future article.



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An Union of England and Ireland proved to be practicabile and

equally beneficial to each Kingdom. By John Williams, Ef?.
8vo. 15. 6d. Kearsley.
N our last Review we gave an account of a pamphlet, en-

titled, • Confiderations on the Political and Commercial Circumstances of Great Britain and Ireland,' in which the author pointed out some great ditliculties relative to a union of the iwo kingdoms. Mr. Williams, the author now before us, deems to overlook the difficulties amidst the great advantages which would result from the completion of that measure ; but his observations are rather fuperficial and declamatory than founded on such solid and determinate principles as can recommend, without mature deliberation, the prosecution of so arduous an attempt. She Crisis of the Colonies. By John Williams, Esq. 8vo.

15. 6d. Stockdale. This is the third edition of a pamphlet, considered in our Sixtieth Volume, p. 227. The additional observations low that the author is well acquainted with his subject, but rather too eager to comprehend, at once, the whole.

The im portance of free ports is now, however, better underítood and their utility will be ultimately evinced by a proper trial: in some respects we cannot allow that his arguments are very convincing, though we must acknowledge that the distinction between the Irish and English flag, is injudicious and impolitic. It is now time to draw the ties of friendship more closely, nos to loosen them. Cursory Remarks on the Rev. Dr. Priestley's Letter to tihe Chancellor

of the Exchequer. By a Layman.' 8vo. 15. Denis. This Layman, as he styles himself, makes several pertinent observations on the Letter of Dr. Priestley, whom he accuses of arguing in contradiction to principles maintained by him in other parts of his writings. But whatever difference of opinion fubfits between the two parties, on some particular subjects, unconnected with the doctrines of religion, we find that they perfectly coincide in sentiment, in rejecting a prime article of the Christian faith. The doctor had before, unreservedly, declared himself a Unitarian; and the remarker, with equal openness, fhakes hands with him cordially on this acknowledge ment. We shall take our leave of them in this friendly attitude, with only recommending a little more reverence for the public opinion, in the propagation of their own doctrines, than they have shewn by the public, and, in some measure, trie amphant avowal of them.




Tbe Marriage Law of Scotland stated. By John Martin, of Lson's

Inn.' 8vo. Is. Jamefon. From fome late crials with respect to marriages in Scotland, it seems as if the circumstances necessary to constitute a legal matrimonial contract were not accurately known to all the parties. To ascertain with precision, therefore, the law on a fubject of such importance to civil society, is the design of this pamphler. By fome, the consent of parties, followed by mue taal acknowledgment, and reputation for a length of time, has been deemed of sufficient validity to give a union thus contracted the sanction of marriage ; but the author before us produces the authority of statutes, to prove that the only marriage recognized to be lawful, is that which is constituted by folemnization and sacerdotal benediction ; and that every intercourse of the fexes, whether in consequence of promises 4 priori, or confent de præfenti, made in jert or earneft, though followed by acknowledgment and reputation for any length of time, or other circumstances which may be regarded as suficient evidence of the intention of the parties to constitute a marriage, cannot supply the breach of the lawa Speech of the French King 10 the Asembly of Notables, beld at

Versailles, February 22, 1787, 8vo. Is. Robinsons. The king makes a very good speech; that is, for a French king, who seldom is accultomed to say more than . such is our pleasure. His minister's amplification of it is not very con. fiftent. In the first place, he lays he will not speak of himself, but he speaks of little else; secondly, he tells the assembly of all the glories of the late war; of how much the nation was jo debt, and how the debts have been paid ; but concludes by hinting, that it is still more in debt than ever, In short, this chancellor of the exchequer has paid the national debts with one hand, and borrowed with the other. • The French have a great way of doing things.' It is like Steele's fatirical letter from a French general.- Sire! your truops have gained immortal honour. Broglio did wonders ; Contades did wonders ; but at last your army was totally defeated. The notables bave fince been dismissed; whether they were not fufficiently complaisant, or the disease was desperate, time only can discover,

POETRY The Final Farewell, a Poem; curitten on retiring from London,

4to. 25. 6d. Debrett. The principal design of this poem appears to be the delineation of characters that are well known in the great or gay world. The author, like Juvenal's Umbritius, takes leave of she town, with which he seems well acquainted, in great indignation; and treats peers and players, authors and opera9

dancers, dancers, with equal freedom. He praises fome, however, with the same warmth and spirit he condemas others; and professes that if in some instances he has widely differed from the public opinion, he can only say that, regardless of the means by which public opinion is usually biaffed, he speaks as he feels, and as his own judgment dire&s bim.' The means by which public opinion is often misled in regard to our theatrical heroes, is thus humoroudly pointed out.

• Yet read the papers !--there these actors thine And speak with force and energy divine! For our stage critics can do wond'rous things, Kings they make gods, and meaner creatures kings !". Bestow nice judgment on the * ftrutting elves,". Just to convince us they have none themselves. 'Tis true, by favours” they may be milled, And daily critics must have daily bread; Like learned counsel they for actors plead, And they, like learned counsel, must be fee'd ; Their potent voice is sometimes cheaply fold, Or ftrangely alter'd by more potent gold! Ye fapient critics 1 who with “muckle speed," Like flocks of wild-geese, cross the frozen Tweed, And ye, ftill wilder! who from Dublin throng; Ye self-elected kings of right and wrong! 'Tis your's the cant of critics to dispense, Half French ; half English! any thing-but conse ; Still to diffeminate ia foppish parase, Your ill-tim'd censure, and your ill-judg'd praise !'

Neither the author's judgment nor fatiric talents will suffer by this extract; nor will his descriptive powers appear contemptible from the following

• I seek not Cytherea's fancied bowers,
Where zephyrs kiss the ever-blooming flowers ;
Nor yet Arcadian dells and perfum'd groves,
Where youthful Fancy courts Idalian loves;
But near some ancient foreX's woody fide,
May I, with sweet Simplicity, reside!
In a lone house, with ivy overspread,
Where, in old times, the pilgrim found a bed.
Before my bowery door let jes’mine twine,
With dewy rose-bude and the eglantine ;
While in my little garden there appear
The ofeful products of the various year.
Beyond, let murmuring streams their courses keep
To the broad bosom of the general deep:
Ambitious streams, from diftant mountains hurld,
That quit, like me, the madly-foaming world,
Far to the right, let flocks the hills adorn,
Sweet-scented clover, and the waving corn.


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