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within it houses for themselves and hovels for their cattle."-Lib. iv. But Cymbeline was one of the most wealthy and powerful of the ancient British kings. His capital was Camulodunum, supposed to be Maldon or Colchester. It was the first Roman colony in this island, and a place of great magnificence. We have not therefore to assume that ornament would be misplaced in it. Though the walls of Imogen's chamber, still subjecting the poetical to the exact, might by some be considered as proper to be of rude stone or wood, it may very fairly be supposed that it was decorated with the rich hangings and the other tasteful appendages described by Iachimo *-the presents of the Roman emperors, with whom Cymbeline and his ancestors had been in amity, or procured from the Greek and Phoenician merchants, who were constantly in commercial intercourse with Britain. (See, for fuller information on this subject, The Costume of the Original Inhabitants of the British Isles,' by S. R. Meyrick, LL.D., and Chas. Hamilton Smith, Esq.; fol. Lond. 1821.) But, after all, a play such as Cymbeline, is not to be viewed through the medium only of the literal and the probable. In its poetical aspect it essentially disregards the few facts respecting the condition of the Britons delivered down by the classic historians. Shakspere in this followed the practice of every writer of the romantic school. The costume (including scenery) had better want conformity with Strabo, than be out of harmony with Shakspere.

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• The "andirons" and "chimney piece" belong to the age of Elizabeth. But Shakspere, when he commits what we call anachronisms, uses what is familiar to render intelligible what would otherwise be cbscure and remote.

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thus:

"You do not meet a man but frowns.
Our bloods no more obey the heavens
Then our courtiers:

Still seem, as do's the king's."

In several editions courtiers is sometimes printed as the genitive case; sometimes is cut off from the verb seem by a semicolon, and the king's is retained as the genitive case. This we have ventured to alter to king, as Tyrwhitt suggested. As we have punctuated the passage, we think it presents no difficulty. Blood is used by Shakspere for natural disposition, as in All's Well that Ends Well

Now his important blood will nought deny
That she'll demand."

The meaning of the passage then is-You do not meet a man but frowns: our bloods do not more obey the heavens than our courtiers still seem as the king seems. As is afterwards expressed

-"they wear their faces to the bent Of the king's looks."

1 Gent. His daughter, and the heir of his kingdom, whom

He purpos'd to his wife's sole son, (a widow,
That late he married,) hath referr'd herself
Unto a poor but worthy gentleman: She's
wedded;

Her husband banish'd; she imprison'd: all
Is outward sorrow; though, I think, the king
Be touch'd at very heart.

2 Gent,

None but the king?

1 Gent. He that hath lost her, too: so is the

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You speak him far." 1 Gent. I do extend him, sir, within himself; Crush him together, rather than unfold His measure duly.

2 Gent.

What's his name, and birth?

1 Gent. I cannot delve him to the root: His father

Was call'd Sicilius, who did join his honour,
Against the Romans, with Cassibelan;
But had his titles by Tenantius, whom
He serv'd with glory and admir'd success:
So gain'd the sur-addition, Leonatus :
And had, besides this gentleman in question,
Two other sons, who, in the wars o' the time,
Died with their swords in hand; for which, their
father

(Then old and fond of issue,) took such sorrow
That he quit being; and his gentle lady,
Big of this gentleman, our theme, deceas'd
As he was born. The king, he takes the babe
To his protection; calls him Posthumus Leo-

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a You carry your praise far.

Extend is here used in the same sense as in the fifth Scene of this Act: "His banishment, and the approbation of those that weep this lamentable divorce are wonderfully to extend him." The Gentleman says-I do extend himappreciate his good qualities-but only within the real limits of what they are: instead of unfolding his measure duly, I crush him together-compress his excellence. Malone thinks that the term extend is originally legal. An extent, according to Blackstone, is an order to the sheriff to appraise lands or goods to their full extended value. It is a well-known term in old Scotch law, meaning nearly the same as a census or valuation.

So the folio. The variorum editors rejected the second name, reading

"To his protection; calls him Posthumus."

To make a line of ten syllables-as if dramatic rhythm had no irregularities-they have destroyed the sense. The name of Posthumus Leonatus was given to connect the child with the memory of his father, and to mark the circumstance of his being born after his father's death.

d Puts to him is the original reading, which has been sometimes corrupted into puts him to.

e We arrange these two lines, as in the folio. Some modern editors read

"As we do air, fast as 't was minister'd, and
In his spring becaine a harvest."

f Feated. Johnson says, "a glass that formed them." But feat is used by Shakspere for nice, exact, with propriety-as in The Tempest

"And look how well my garments sit upon me
Much feater than before;

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Howsoe'er 't is strange, Or that the negligence may well be laugh'd at, Yet is it true, sir. 2 Gent.

I do well believe you.

1 Gent. We must forbear: Here comes the gentleman, The queen, and princess.

a

SCENE II.-The same.

[Exeunt.

Enter the QUEEN, POSTHUMUS, and IMOGEN. Queen. No, be assur'd, you shall not find me, daughter,

After the slander of most step-mothers,
Evil-ey'd unto you: you are my prisoner, but
Your gaoler shall deliver you the keys
That lock up your restraint. For you, Posthúmus,
So soon as I can win the offended king,
I will be known your advocate: marry, yet
The fire of rage is in him; and 't were good,
You lean'd unto his sentence, with what patience
Your wisdom may inform you.

Post.

I will from hence to-day.

Queen.

Please your highness,

You know the peril :I'll fetch a turn about the garden, pitying The pangs of barr'd affections; though the king

and, consequently, the glass which feats the mature who look upon Posthumus, is "the mark and glass, copy and book," which renders their appearance and deportment as proper as his own.

a The most important person (with reference to this conversation) who was coming is Posthumus-"the gentle man." The editors, however, quietly drop him, reading"We must forbear: here comes the queen, and princess." What can justify such capricious alterations of the text?

Hath charg'd you should not speak together. [Exit QUEEN. Imo. O dissembling courtesy! How fine this tyrant

Can tickle where she wounds! - My dearest husband,

I something fear my father's wrath; but nothing (Always reserv'd my holy duty,) what

His rage can do on me: You must be gone;
And I shall here abide the hourly shot
Of angry eyes; not comforted to live,
But that there is this jewel in the world,
That I may see again.

Post. My queen! my mistress!

O, lady, weep no more; lest I give cause
To be suspected of more tenderness
Than doth become a man! I will remain
The loyal'st husband that did e'er plight troth.
My residence in Rome, at one Philario's ;
Who to my father was a friend, to me
Known but by letter: thither write, my queen,
And with mine eyes I'll drink the words you send,
Though ink be made of gall.

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To walk this way: I never do him wrong,
But he does buy my injuries to be friends;
Pays dear for my offences.
Post.

a

[Exit.
Should we be taking leave
As long a term as yet we have to live,
The loathness to depart would grow: Adieu!
Ino. Nay, stay a little :

Were you but riding forth to air yourself,
Such parting were too petty. Look here, love;
This diamond was my mother's: take it, heart;
But keep it till you woo another wife,
When Imogen is dead.

Post. How how! another ?-
You gentle gods, give me but this I have,
And sear up my embracements from a next
With bonds of death!-Remain thou here

[Putting on the ring. While sense can keep it on! And sweetest, fairest,

As I my poor self did exchange for you,
To your so infinite loss; so, in our trifles
I still win of you: For my sake wear this;

*This sentence is obscure; but the meaning of the crafty Queen appears to be, that the kindness of her hsband, even when she is doing him wrong, purchases injuries as if they were benefits.

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Harm not yourself with your vexation; I

Am senseless of your wrath; a touch more rare' Subdues all pangs, all fears.

а

Cym.
Past grace? obedience?
Imo. Past hope, and in despair; that way,

past grace.

Cym. That might'st have had the sole son of my queen!

Imo. O bless'd, that I might not! I chose an eagle, And did avoid a puttock.b

Cym. Thou took'st a beggar; would'st have made my throne

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