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few antiquities, a denomination which may fairly be given, as our Author says, to the petroleum-wells, of which the appear
ance corresponds well to the description of Herodotus.' Few tracts of the earth are more subject to earthquakes, 'it being • not a rare occurrence,' says Dr. H. to have two or three in
the month; and I am informed that in the summer of 1811, ' for thirty or forty successive days it was usual to experience
several shocks each day.' Of course they are not often violent, or the isle would be uninhabitable. In many of the instances it suffers only as if by a smart shock of electricity, into the operations of which power, indeed, Dr. II. suggests the possibility of resolving the phenomena of earthquakes. The chief natural production and export of the island, is currants, of which, on an average of years, upwards of 7,000,000 lbs. are gathered in in the beginning of September, nearly two thirds of the cultivated portion of the island being covered with the vines producing this fruit.
The moral character and social state of the population of this and the other islands, are a corrupt compost of the Greek and Venetian qualities, consequent on the long domination exercised over them in the most depraved and mischievous form of administration by the government of Venice. The state of both morals and government, may be imagined from the fact, as stated by our Author on what he pronounces unquestionable authority, that sometimes the number of assassinations in the course of a year, in Zante alone, has equalled the number of the days. The English occupation appeared to have considerably mended the matter, in the short spice of time during which its effect had been tried, previously to the period of Dr. H.'s visit. But the ignorance of the barbarous ages, remaining almost entire among the mass of the people, will allow but a miserably small progress to any manner of beneficial alteration, excepting what the mere force of the government can accomplish, --sliould even that force be always exactly so directed.
As to religion, it is very remarkable that the superstitions of the Greek Church should have retained a decided ascendency, in defiance of all the power, and all other influences, so long exerted, of a government bigoted to an inimical superstition.
The Author visited Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Santa Maura, the first of which is the largest of the Seven Isles. Its inhabitants are less wealthy than those of Zante, and more enterprising: they have acquired an acknowledged superiority over the other people of the Levant, by their quickness and activity.
• The young men of the island, wherever means can be afforded, are sent to Italy, generally with the view of stu lying law or physic, the professions to which they principally attach themselves. Only a certain number return to settle in Cephalonia; the remainder either pro
curing situations in Italy, or migrating to various parts of the Levant for the purpose of seeking employment. Medicine is on the whole the favourite object of pursuit; and it is probable that from no equal amount of population in the world, are so many physicians produced as from that upon the small isle of Cephalonia. There is scarcely a large town in European Turkey, where one or more Cephaloniotes may not be found engaged in medical practice, and pursuing their fortunes with an assiduity which is generally successful, as far as circumstances render it possible.'
Ithaca, (so denominated by the natives at this day,) has the most of what retains hold of the reader's, and perhaps the actual inspector's observation, in the rugged and peculiar aspect of its little territory, in the ruins and tombs indicating the site of an ancient city, and in that force of association it possesses in virtue of Homer and Ulysses.
It must, as the Traveller says, have been curious and striking to a literary stranger from the west of Europe, to hear the Greek language, even in its modern deteriorated form, sounding about him in the streets.
• I was interested, in walking through the streets of Vathi, by the spectacle of an Ithacan school; the preceptor, or Didaskalos, a venerable old man, with a long beard, who sat before the door, giving instruction to a circle of fifteen or twenty boys, each with a modern Greek version of the New Testament in his hand. It was amusing to hear sounds familiar to the ear from the Greek of Homer and Thucydides, shouted out by ragged striplings, many of them not more than seven or eight years of age. The old schoolmaster was pleased with the attention given to himself and his scholars.'
Dr. H. bears testimony to the accuracy and completeness of Sir W. Gell's work on the topography of this island.
At Prevesa, on the strait which opens into the Ambracian Gulf, now the Gulf of Arta, he first touched the dominions of the redoubtable Vizier of Albania, Ali Pasha, the desire of seeing whom had prevailed to change the original plan of the Grecian tour. A recently built, and very large palace or seraglio, shewed how absolute that tyrant considered his appropriation of the territory to be; and the systematic cruelty with which he had oppressed and almost extirpated the formerly very numerous and industrious Greek population of the town, substituting for them his own favoured race, the Albanian savages, evinced how very lightly he estimated the right to live, in any kind of human beings not the most precisely available for his purposes.
After describing the costume and martial appearance of the Albanians, Dr. /. notices the powerful novelty of impression on a stranger, on entering the territory of the True Believers, Vol. VII. N. S.
though in a town like Prevesa, where some Greek and Venetian traces may still be recognised.
• The appearance of the Turk on his native soil, was another new circumstance in the streets of Prevesa.' • Elsewhere you do but see the various forms of one species ; a difference indeed of language; but only small and progressive varieties of figure, custom, and dress. But entering upon these regions the scene is suddenly shifted, and you have before your eyes a new species of beings, with all those gaudy appendages of oriental character and scenery which have so long delighted the imagination in the tales of the East. The uniform habits of the Turk, derived from his religion and other circumstances, render this change almost as remarkable in the first Turkish town you may enter, as in those much further removed from the vicinity of the European nations.'- I looked upon many things as a sort of magiclanthorn scenery; or as something intermediate between the pictures of fancy and the realities passing before me. As an instance of this, my memory refers me to the first sight of a Turkish mosque, lately erected at Prevesa; to the cry of the Muzzein from the top of the minaret, announcing the hour of prayer; and to the spectacle of the turbaned Turk, graceful and dignified in his dress, and with a certain majestic sedateness of movement, putting aside his slippers, and slowly entering the place of religious worship. For a moment you might forget the ignorance and prejudice of this man, and fancy him worthy and born to command.'
Observations respecting the precise locality of the battle of Actium, and an examination of the extensive ruins of Nicopolis, built by Augustus in commemoration of his victory, preceded the expedition to Ioannina, the capital of the Vizier. On the road the traveller met ' a community of migrating shepherds, a ' wandering people of the mountains of Albania, who in the
summer feed their flocks in these hilly regions, and in the ' winter spread themselves over the plains' on the coast. The description of these summer frequenters of the sides and heights of Pindus, affords a wild and striking picture, little as it may tend to recall any of the beautiful images of the classical witcheries. The females, with little pretensions to any thing characteristic of the Muses, displayed, however, a kind of decoration of the head, which might, in a great majority of judgements, in any country, be confidently matched for attraction, against the tresses of any of those ethereal nymphs.
• Almost all the young women and children wore upon the head a sort of chaplet, composed of piastres, paras, and other silver coins, strung together, and often suspended in successive rows, so as to form something like a cap. The same coins were attached to other parts of the garments, and occasionally with some degree of taste.'
It was not till an approach to within little more than two miles of the spot where one strong, dark, remorseless spirit was holding, humanly speaking, within its own secret will, the fate of each one of all the human beings over an extensive region, that the city, with the most romantic tract in which it stands, opened suddenly to the traveller's view ; 'a magnificent scene,' he says, ' and one that is still almost single in my recollection.' . Both
the reality and the fancy combine in giving to the scenery the character of a vast and beautiful picture spread out before the
sight.' The description is excellent, but too long to be trauscribed. As contrasted, however, with this magnificence of the comprehensive view, the appearance of the town, to the person actually entering the streets, was much like coming up and finding merely the smoking ashes and embers of what has been seen at a distance as a splendid fire.
The traveller was very soon well lodged in the house of Michael Metzrou, one of the wealthiest and most respectable ? Greek inhabitants of Ioannina.' « The custom of the East, says Dr. H. "excludes the Frank from entering as a guest the
house of a disciple of Mahomet. All the direct offices of hospitality in Turkey devolve, either from inclination or necessity,
upon the Greek inhabitants of the country.' And these offices are generally performed with civility, and often with kindness. It is not to be made a serious complaint that they are apt to shew an inconvenient degree of curiosity. At a Greek house at Arta, where the Author lodged on the way to the capital, and where the good family did their best to render their habitation as commodious to the visitants as possible, they not only,' says he,
were determined to satisfy their own eyes, but also to fulfil the duties of friendship, in bringing all their acquaintance to wit
ness the spectacle of our sitting, eating, writing, and going to 6 bed. The Turk would be too haughty, or too indolent, to
shew this species of curiosity. The family of Metzrou, however, was of a much higher style of cultivation and manners.
We dare say no novelties of the place beguiled for an instant from our Author's inind the consciousness of how near he now was to a person of whom it was not permitted to any one so near him to think without emotion. Nor would even the loquacity of the Greeks much tend to such a beguilement; for it would not be long before the stranger entertained by them, would perceive something of that of which, he says, there were many striking instances among the Greek families, - a sort of undefined terror
ever hanging over them, a perpetual sense of insecurity, and
a fearfulness of committing even to the walls the sound of the (voice, on any subject connected with their despotic master.'
Even to his subjects in general he is described as being in
dividually an object of alınost mysterious dread :"every class of themregarded his name and mandate with a mysterious awe.'
Our Author employs the policy of conducting us to the den and the sight of this extraordinary animal, through a long
avenue,-that is, by a previous geographical and historical detail, through which we might have advanced with a slight degree of impatience, if Mr. Hobhouse had not already made us considerably acquainted with the Vizier of Albania. It is acknowledged, however, to be quite impossible to make out any thing the most distantly approaching to a complete historical elucidation of his progress to a state of power which, had he been at this time twenty years younger, there would be nothing extravagant in anticipating that he might extend to the usurpation or overthrow of that Empire of which he is nominally, and only nominally, a vassal.
« Few written records exist of these events, and the tales and songs of the country are at present almost the only sources from which to obtain a knowledge of his early life and fortunes. His vengeance has indeed affixed melancholy memorials to some incidents of his past history, but the connexion of occurrences is obscure, and his own policy has probably led to the concealment of many of the means which have most aided his progress. The only narrative, as far as I know, which has been composed of his history, is a poem of eight cantos, written by an Albanian in rude and untutored Romaic verse. which professes the Epic style, is yet in manuscript; but it has received the approbation and license of the Vizier, and directions have been given for its publication at the press of Vienna.
• His dominion has been derived, not from any transient effort of revolution, but from a slow and persevering system of aggrandizement, and a policy compounded of caution and enterprize, which has given pretence to usurpation, and permanence to conquest. While preserving, without any serious interruption, the appearances of amity with the Porte, while subsidising her armies with his warlike Albanians, and her coffers with his treasures; he has by degrees become more formidable to the integrity of the Turkish empire than those who have insulted the gates of Constantinople with their armies, or hurled the reigning Sultan from his throne.
The nature and relative situation of the country where he has raised his independent power, were highly favourable to his design; and still more to the character of the people by means of whom he has achieved it; a race, indeed, far more efficient for such a purpose than any other nation within the Turkish empire. The Albanians Dr. H. considers as unquestionably the genuine descendants of the ancient Illyrians, and
with fewer changes perhaps in their situation and habits of life ' than almost any other community in Europe.' They constitute the central, the niost favoured, and the most energetic portion of the Vizier's subjects. In point of ferocity they are themselves worthy of such a master, and their courage readily, and vigorously abets his ambition to subject the population of other tracts to his yoke. Our Author recounts the most memorable of the perils, exploits and successes iņ his career from his childhood;