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and endeavours to trace the outline of his dominion, which comprises a territory of about the dimensions of Scotland, and containing, according to a confessedly very loose and uncertain computation, about a corresponding number of people, or 2,000,000. His system of taxation is of, an irregular structure, and operates in somewhat different modes, and with different force, in different parts of his dominions; but nowhere is it idle; it is kept in action as constantly as any power of nature; and, worked by so strong a hand under so keen an eye, it has results which the best-schooled financiers on this side of Europe may very well envy; for, besides supplying the wherewithal for just and 'necessary wars, and for subsidies to the Grand Turk, and for a great deal of secret service into the bargain, at Constantinople, it is known to have enabled this active spender to amass ponderous hoards of treasure in his strong castles. For enjoying the full value of his revenue, he has a grand advantage in the unqualified absoluteness of his power, as he is not obliged to spend a material portion of it in corrupting to a subserviency to his will and schemes any political institutions or depositaries of power in the same country appointed to control him. He has, it is true, to expend considerable sums in management at the imperial court of Constantinople; but this, instead of being the purchase of the obsequiousness of a rival lawful authority within his country, is the price of a kind of practical independence for the country itself, with all it contains, on what is now, in fact, a foreign state, though maintaining the claim of supreme authority in Albania. And of this secret service money it is confidently believed that not an ounce is lavished; the appropriation is accurately apportioned and exquisitely applied to the grand objects; all the entrusted agents know the value and tenure of their own heads, and the capacity of that of their Chief. Under such a positive and relative state of heads, it is marvellous to think how far money will go. We wish the Vizier would have shewn our Author the accounts of what it costs him to maintain such a system of intelligence that, says Dr. H. it may, I believe, be s'affirmed as a fact, that not a single event of importance can

occur at Constantinople, even in the most secret recesses of the

Divan, which is not known within eight days at the Seraglio 6 of loannina.'

• His agents or spies are to be found everywhere in the Turkish empire, doing the work of their master with a degree of zeal which testifies at once his own talent in their selection, and the commanding influence of his powers over the minds of all that surround him. His political information derived from these sources, and from the arple use of bribery, is of the best kind.'

Intelligent and inquisitive Greeks, several of whom spoke various continental languages, were instantly at the Englishmen's

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levee ;* among them Colovo, the secretary of Ali Pasha, who came to signify that his master would expect them'next morning. White horses superbly caparisoned, and with Albanian attendants, were sent for them, and in great style they proceeded to the Seraglio, an extensive irregular wooden superstructure upon high massive stone walls; with a profusion of painting on the outside, as it appears, of some of the buildings; and with a great area occupied by soldiers and horses, and exhibiting a highly picturesque scene of what our Author rightly denominates

almost savage pomp.' Through galleries and apartments of superb decoration they were conducted into the saloon of the Master of this and every other house in Albania.

• The interior decorations of the apartment exhibited much of gaudy profusion. The prevailing colours, as well of the painted walls and ceiling, as of the furniture, were crimson, blue, and yellow; the latter colour chiefly derived from the massy and profuse gilding, which was spread over every part of the room. The ceiling was divided into squares by wood-work very curiously and delicately carved; the interior of each square was of crimson colour, the borders of gold, pilastres, at equal distances, and richly ornamented, but without any regular order of architecture, gave variety to the walls of the apartment. On these pilastres, and in niches intermediate to them, were hung sabres, daggers, and pistols; all of the finest workmanship, and profusely adorned with gold and jewels.'

And the description proceeds some length further. But the observation of all these matters was not, as might well have been guessed even if the Author had not expressly said so, thus minutely made at the first visit to this apartment: for there was presented to their sight Ali,

sitting in the Turkish manner, with his legs crossed under him, on a couch immediately before the fire. On his head he wore a high round cap, the colour of the deepest mazareen blue, and bordered with gold lace. His exterior robe was of yellow cloth, likewise richly embroidered, two inner garments striped of various colours, and flowing down loosely from the neck to the feet; confined only about the waist by an embroidered belt, in which were fixed a pistol and dagger of beautiful and delicate workmanship. The hilts of these arms were covered with diamonds and pearls, and emeralds of great size and beauty were set in the head of each. On his fingers the Vizier wore many large diamond rings, and the mouth-piece of his long and flexible pipe was equally decorated with various kinds of jewellery 16 Yet more than his dress, however, the countenance of Ali Pasha engaged at this time our earnest observation. It is difficult to describe features, either in their detail or general effect, so as to convey any distinct impression to the mind of the reader. Were I to attempt a

* The Author was accompanied through a great part of his travels by J. Ramsay, Esq. of Messina.

description of those of Ali, I should speak of his face as large and full ; the forehead remarkably broad and open, and traced by many deep furrows; the eye penetrating, yet not expressive of ferocity; the nose handsome and well formed; the mouth and lower part of the face concealed, except when speaking, by his mustachoes and the long beard which flows over his breast. His complexion is somewhat lighter than that usual among the Turks, and his general appearance does not indicate more than his actual age, of sixty, or sixty-one years, except perhaps that his beard is whiter than is customary at this time of life. The neck is short and thick, the figure corpulent and unwieldy; the stature I had afterwards the means of ascertaining to be about five feet nine inches. The general character and expression of the countenance are unquestionably fine, and the forehead especially is a striking and majestic feature. Much of the talent of the man may be inferred from his exterior; the moral qualities, however, may not equally be determined in this way; and to the casual observation of a stranger, I can conceive from my own experience, that nothing may appear but what is open, placid, and alluring. Opportunities were afterwards afforded me of looking beneath this exterior of expression; it is the fire of a stove, burning fiercely under a smooth and polished surface.'

Dr. H. had so many interviews as to become in a considerable degree easy and familiar with the formidable autocrat. Several conversations are related, in which the man of power displayed his inquisitiveness, and evinced his sagacity. In his inquiries he appears to have been above the petty pride of a man solicitous not to betray bis ignorance. He felt, probably, that he could afford to betray whatever ignorance was inseparable from the condition of such a life, in such a part of the world, as his had been; and that this deficiency, the result of circumstances, could detract little from the commanding effect of the talents of which every thing around him and in the country gave so palpable and practical a manifestation. Besides, when the state of nations and the policy and projects of governments were the subject, he had the gratification of being perfectly aware that with respect to the eastern side of Europe he was incomparably better informed than the most accomplished strangers from the west. Nor does it appear, from any thing related, that he felt it at all necessary, to the complacency of his pride, to prove that he possessed such knowledge by communicating it. At least our Author has not repeated any particulars of the secret history of the eastern cabinets, from his privileged converse with this most knowing politician, who judges with the utmost precision how much it is proper for any one that approaches him to know of what he himself knows, and can for the most part prevent their learning any more than that apportioned quantum.

More, however, of some kinds of information than perhaps he could bave wished he was compelled to confide to Dr. H., whom he consulted largely, minutely, and repeatedly, in bis capacity of physician; but the reader will in this affair approve the Doctor's having maintained the silent proprieties of the professional character; as he also does in a later part of the book, respecting the nature of his medical services to Veli Pasha, the Vizier's son

A very high estimate of his skill, and of the importance of his advice, was evidently entertained by both these personages ; Ali repeatedly and urgently pressed him to accept the high trust and honour of permanent guardian of his health. With regard to the fees and emoluments also, the Doctor is so silent, that we have strong suspicions be bad perhaps some little cause to make unfavourable comparisons between the professional rewards enjoyed at the Albanian and at some other courts. We say this, however, as a mere surmise, somewhat strengthened, indeed, by our finding avarice among the enumerated qualities of Ali's character. But it is proper to observe that the traveller received what was to him equivalent to a very considerable remuneration, though it cost but little to the givers, in those facilities and that security which the exerted will and authority of Ali and his son, especially the former, afforded to the djowr in his extensive traverse of tracts under the tyranny of the Moslems. It may be noticed too, that a very large reward was promised if the Englishman would stay but one year in attendance on the Vizier; which proposal was declined, though it was pressed in strong terms, with an assurance that every thing should be done during this period to render the residence agreeable.

• All this,' says Dr. H. was expressed with a courteous and winning manner, which he has an eminent faculty in employing, whenever he thinks it needful for the attainment of his object. As I continued steady in declining his proposal, he expressed some surprise, and said he supposed I must have much money in England, that I cared so liitle about any offers he could make me. His manner giving me the idea that he was hurt by my refusal, I qualified it by promising that I would return to Ioannina, if he desired it, after I had visited Athens, and certain other parts of Greece. He caught hold of this proposal at once; adding, that at present he was satisfied with obtaining this, and that he should depend on my truth for the fulfilment of the promise.'

Toward the conclusion of our Author's sojourn, his attendance was invited almost every day at the Seraglio, sometimes for medical consultation, sometimes to satisfy the Vizier on whatever subject his curiosity might prompt his inquiries. What he said was translated by the confidential and accomplished Greek secretary, Colovo, into Italian, in which the Doctor spoke, not having a colloquial command of the Romaic, though he could tolerably understand what he heard in it. The inquiries comprehended various matters of European politics, and reached as far

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as America. Ali asked respecting the then not terminated Russian campaign of Bounaparte; but from his manner the respondent could perceive that he did not want information, and that the triumphant progress of the French, as apparently evinced by their entrance into Moscow, caused him very serious disquietude. But there were topics, one especially, which seemed to act upon him with a nearer interest than even that of politics. It was apparent that he had not been able to escape the hunting of that spectre which points more to the limits of their favourite pursuits. His inquiries respecting America touched pointedly on the length of human life there, to which point,' says Dr. H. “I observed him always to attach a peculiar interest.'

• He remarked that the Indians and Chinese live to a great age, and asked whether I knew this to be the case, or was acquainted with any particular means they used for the purpose. Seeing him inclined to follow this topic, I stated the remarkable instances of longevity in our own countrymen, Parr and Jenkins, at which he expressed surprise, and much desire to know if there were any means in nature by which this end might be obtained. It was evident that in this question he had reference to himself; and I took the opportunity of enforcing upon him some of the me sical advice I had before given assent to what I said; but at the same time pursued the question, whether there were not some more direct means of procuring long life. I mentioned to him generally the attempts which had been made some centuries ago, to discover the Elixir Vitæ ; and stated that this was a project which had been abandoned by all men of reflection. Alluding accidentally, at the same time, to the search after the philosopher's stone, he eagerly followed this subject, and wished to know whether there were not some secret methods of discovering gold, which gave their possessor the power of procuring any amount of this metal. There was a strong and significant interest in his manner of asking this question, which greatly struck me; and it was accompanied by a look towards myself, seeming to search into the truth of my reply. I answered, of course, that there were no means of making gold or silver ; that these metals were obtained only from the earth; and that the advantage of philosophy was in being able to employ the best means of raising them from the mines, &c. &c. I doubt whether he was satisfied with this reply, or did not still believe in mysteries of the alchemic art.'

A comparative freedom from Turkish prejudices is an obvious distinction of this barbarian. I have seldom,' says our Author,

known a Turk allow superiority to Europeans, even in points

in which the national deficiency on his own side was most no'torious. This temper I never observed in Ali Pasha; but on

the other hand, a sense and concession of inferiority, with a ' constant seeking after information which might enable him to

remedy the deficiencies under which he laboured. He allows,


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