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« ple, had furnished him with the means of being perfectly < well acquainted with the customs and manners of the inhacbitants:' he has therefore enlarged his plan, and instead of confining himself to such objects as were sufficient for the purpose of his profession, he presents his readers with a partiçular account of such things as seemed most to merit attention.
Our Author is pleased to make an apology for his stile, which, whether necessary or not, our readers will determine from such extracts as we shall lay before them. 6 When it is confidered, that the Author resided
many years abroad, and conversed daily in other languages more 6 than in his own, which he had but little leisure to cultivate,
the defects in his ftile, it is hoped, will be forgiven.'
And again, at the end of his advertisement to the Reader, we have another specimen of the Author's diffidence and modesty, which should not only bespeak our candour, but give us aflurance of his fidelity in what he relates. - How far the
Author's abilities have been equal to the task he has under« taken, the public will judge, and he entreats their candour. . That he has had fair opportunities of observing, that he has
given a faithful narrative of facts, and that he has used no s false colouring in his representation, he presumes to appeal « to his cotemporaries and acquaintance; who, in visiting
these places again in his description, may, perhaps, call to s mind many agreeable hours they have spent in these scenes, • so far distant from their native country.'
The description our Author gives of Aleppo is as follows: • This city and suburbs ftand on eight small hills, or emi
nences, none of them considerable, except that in the middle o of the place, on which the castle is erected. This mount is 6 of a conic form, and seems, in a great measure, to be arti« ficial, and raised with the earth thrown up out of a broad deep • ditch that surrounds it. The suburbs, called Sheih il Arab, “ to the N. N. E. are next in height to this, and those to the 6 W.S. W. are much lower than the parts adjacent, and than
any other parts of the city. • An old wall, not a little decayed, and a broad ditch,
now in most places turned into gardens, surround the city, " the circumference of which is about three miles and an half; 6 but, including the suburbs, which are chiefly to the north6 east, the whole may be about seven miles *.
- Two hours and four minutes on horseback, in the usual way of riding for pleasure, which, I am apt to believe, is nearer four miles, than three and a half jer hour.
« The houses are composed of apartments, on each of the 6 sides of a square court all of stone, and consist of a ground
floor, which is generally arched, and an upper story, which <is flat on the top, and either terraced with hard plaifter, or • paved with stone. Their ceilings are of wood, neatly paint• ed, and sometimes gilded, as are also the window-shutters,
the pannels of some of their rooms, and the cupboard-doors, 6 of which they have a great number: these taken together,
have a very agreeable effect. Over the doors and windows ( within the houses of the Turks, are inscribed passages out 6 of the Koran, or verses, either of their own composition, or • taken from some of their most celebrated poets. The Chriftians generally borrow theirs from Scripture.
• In all their houses the court-yard is neatly paved, and, for, " the most part, has a bason with a jet d'eau in the middle, on
one or both sides of which, a small spot is left unpaved for
a sort of garden, which often does not exceed a yard or two 6 square; the verdure, however, which is here produced, to
gether with the addition of a few flowers in pots, and the « fountains playing, would be a very agreeable sight to the
passenger, if there were openings to the street, through which
these might be discovered; but they are entirely shut up with « double doors, fo contrived, as that, when open, one cannot
look into the court-yard : and there are no windows to the • street, except a very few in their upper rooms; so that no< thing is to be seen but dead walls, which make their streets appear very disagreeable to Europeans.
Most of the better fort of houses have an arched alcove within this court, open to the north, and opposite to the • fountain ; the pavement of this alcove is raised above a foot " and an half above that of the yard, to serve for a divan *. « Between this and the fountain the pavement is generally laid • out in Mosaic work, with various coloured marble; as is • also the floor of a large hall, with a cupola-roof, which
commonly has a fountain in the middle, and is almost the only tolerably cool room in their houses during the summer.
* 'Divan is a part of the room raised above the floor, as is said ' in the text : this is spread with a carpet in winter, in summer with ' fine inatts; along the sides are thick matrasses, about three feet
wide, covered commonly with scarlet-cloth, and large bolters of
brocade, hard stuffed with cotton, are set against the walls, (or rails, • when so situated as not to touch the wall) for the conveniency of
leaning. As they use no chairs, it is upon these they fit, and all * their rooms are so furnished. The word divan is also used to fignify a number of people affembled in council.
• The people of falhion have in the outer court, but one or two rooms below stairs for themselves, the rest are for « fervants and stabling; the pavement of this is but rough, as < their horses stand there all the summer, except a few hours " in the middle of the day. Above stairs is a colonade, if
not round the whole .court, at least fronting the west, off
from which are their rooms and kiosks; these latter are a « sort of wooden divans, that project a little way from the s other part of the building, and hang over the street; they ( are raised about one foot and an half higher than the floor • of the room, to which they are quite open, and by having ( windows in front, and on each side, there is a great draught o of air, which makes them cool in the summer, the advan
tage chiefly intended by them. Beyond this court is ano
ther, containing the womens apartments, built much in the < same manner that I have described the other houses ; some ( few of them have a tolerable garden, in which, as well as in o the outer yard, there is generally a tall cypress-tree.
« The mosques in Aleppo are numerous, and some few of ( them magnificent; before each is a square area, in the mid« dle of which is a fountain for the appointed ablutions before
prayers, and behind some of the larger mosques there is a little garden. · Befides these open spaces, there are many large khanes,
or (as most travellers call them) caravan faraijs, consisting < of a capacious square, on all sides of which are built on the <ground floor, a number of rooms, used occasionally for
Itables, warehouses, or chambers. Above stairs, a colonade coccupies the four fides, to which opens a number of small « rooms, wherein the merchants, as well strangers as natives, (transact most of their business.
The streets are generally narrow, but, however, are well “ paved, and kept remarkably clean.
- The market-places, called here bazars, are properly long,
covered, narrow streets, on each side of which are a number Fof small shops, just sufficient to hold the tradesman (and perhaps
one or two more) with all the commodities he deals in about him, the buyer being obliged to stand without. Each se
parate branch of business has a particular bazar allotted them, 6 and these, as well as the streets, are all locked up an hour and
an half after fun-set, and many of them earlier, which is a great security against house-breakers. It deferves to be remembered, that tho' their doors are mostly cased with iron, yet their locks are made of wood,
In the suburbs, to the eastward, are their flaughter-houses, • in a very airy place, with a large open field before them. « The tanners have a khane, where they work, in the south
west part of the town, near the river.
« To the southward, just without the walls in the suburbs, ( they burn lime, and a little way further, is a small village,
where they make ropes and catgut, which last manufacture • is, at fome seasons, extremely offensive.
In Mesherka, which is part of the suburbs on the oppo« site side of the river, to the westward, is a glass-house, where o they make a coarse kind of white glass, but they work only " a few months in the winter, the greatest part of this manu
facture being brought from a village called Armenass, about (thirty-five miles to the westward, from whence also they « bring the fand used in their glafs-house at Aleppo.
The city is supplied with very good water from some springs near the banks of the river at Heylan, about five (miles to the north north east, which is conveyed from thence
by an aqueduct, and distributed to the different parts of the ( town by earthen pipes. There is a tradition, that this aqueoduct was the work of the Empress Helena, and that from - her the springs took their present name: this water is fuffi
cient for the necessary purposes of drinking, cookery, &c. Besides this, almost every house has a well, but the water
of these, being brackish, is only employed in washing their 6. court-yards, and filling the reservoirs for their fountains.
The fuel used in their houses, is wood and charcoal; for heating their bagnios, they burn the dung of animals, leaves
of plants, parings of fruit, and such like, which they em. ploy people to gather and dry for that purpose.
The markets are well supplied with provisions, of which we shall have occasion to give a more particular account.
- For at least four or five miles round Aleppo, the ground ' is very stony and uneven, having a number of small emi
nences, most of which are as high as any part of the city,
From the west-south-west, to the north-west by west, this « fort of country continues for at least twenty miles, with a < number of small fertile plains interspersed. To the north
ward and southward, after about fix or seven miles, the country is level, and not stony. To the eastward, a vast plain commences, which, tho it is called the Defart, yet
for a great many miles beyond Aleppo, affords a fine fer< tile foil.
In clear weather, the top of Mount Cassius, bearing wet by fouth, and part of the mountains called Amanus, are to
• be seen from several places of the city ; but as the nearest of
these, viz. that part of Amanus which stretches to the eastward, and approaches to Killis, is at least thirty miles distant
from Aleppo, they can be supposed to have but very little o influence upon the air of the place, any more than a small • conical rocky hill, called Sheih Barakat, at about twenty (miles to the west by north, and a narrow chain of low
rocky hills, usually named the Black Mountains, to the • south-south-east, at about ten miles distance.
• The river Coic * (if a stream scarce fix or eight yards ( wide, deserves that name) paffes along the western part of (the city, within a few yards of the walls, and barely serves
to water a narrow flip of gardens upon its banks, reaching < from about five miles north to about three miles south of the % town. Besides these gardens, there are a few more, near
a village called Bab-Allah, about two miles to the north• east, which are supplied by the aqueduct.
· The rising grounds above the gardens, to which the wa« ter cannot be conveyed, are in some places laid out in vine
yards, interspersed with olive, fig, and pistachio trees, as
are also many spots to the eastward, where there are no ! gardens.
Inconsiderable as this stream and these gardens may appear, yet they contain almost the only water and trees that
are to be met with for twenty or thirty miles round; for the < villages are all destitute of trees, and most of them only sup
plied with water by what rain they can save in cisterns.' It is worthy notice what our Author observes, p. 11. • In all Syria there is but one river, (the Orontes) that having its rise on the land-side of the high mountains, finds its way to the sea; the rest, which indeed are but few and in
considerable, being soon absorbed by the thirsty plains through " which they run, more especially as they receive but very
few supplies in their passage: and even the Orontes, tho' • it be swelled by a number of little brooks from the high « mountains behind which it runs, and derives a farther sup
ply from the lake of Antioch, yet seems as considerable
a great many miles above Antioch, as where it empties itself o into the Mediterranean.'
Concerning the seasons, Dr. Russel says, in general, they are exceeding regular at Aleppo, where the air is usually healthy, and so pure and free from damps, that all the inhabitants, of whatever rank they may be, fup and sleep in their court
* The antient Singas.