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truth I have experienced; and confess,†, that the works of Vandyck and Rembrandt are the fureft guides to Nature. It is out of these most excellent masters that I have established my method: it is from their pictures I have found the firft Lay of Colours; and from them I have learned the Virgin Teints ⚫ and the Finishing Secrets; tho' I always applied them to prac⚫tice from Nature.

In the method of my work, I begin with a fhort and • plain account of the principal COLOURS used in the FLESH: next I follow with the principal TEINTS. FIRSTPAINTING, or DEAD-COLOURING. SECOND-PAINTING. THIRD, or LAS T-PAINTING, Of Painting BACK• GROUNDS. Some Remarks on COPYING. Of DRAPERY-PAINTING. Of LANDSCHAPE-PAINTING. A new, • short, and familiar Account of the Art of PERSPECTIVE.

All these particulars I have endeavoured to make familiar, clear, and inftructive, without defign to flatter or offend; ⚫ and thro' the whole course of the work I have had the utmoft regard to truth.'

Mr. Bardwell appears throughout his book, a profeffed enemy to Theory; and difgraces the Art he attempts to teach, by fuppofing it may be got, like a knack, by mere practice, rather than communicated as a Science, confifting of certain principles founded on invariable and fixed laws; from which Nature never deviates.

Whoever would inftitute a method of Colouring, muft first make us conceive the alteration of Colour any object fuffers, either from the diverfity of angles which the rays of light make with different parts of its furface, or from the intervention of a greater or lefs quantity of aerial medium between the object and the fpectator's eye, or from the vicinity of another object, whofe colour, by being reflected, will affect the colour of its neighbouring object, He fhould likewife point out the

has hit on the right path; but any Dreamer who flattered himself ever fo abfurdly, with having made wonderful difcoveries, might, if he had affurance enough, fay as much.

He might confefs, that he has, in his endeavours to attain a juft manner of imitating Nature, found great affiftance by copying after the works of Vandyck and Rembrandt; he might tell us, that he had endeavoured to establish his method in conformity to what he imagines were their principles, and practice; and fo far he had been intelligible: but to confefs, that the works of thofe great masters are the furelt guides to Nature, (to the prejudice of Titian, Rubens, &c.) and that out of them he has established his method, is not a confeflion, but an affertion, full of arrogance and falfity; and expressed in the most nonfenfical terms.


general relation between the various tints of the fame Carnation, or Flesh-colour. This, or fomething like this, muft neceffarily be explained, before we can be taught to exprefs thofe accidents in a picture; and we should know what particular effect of light we are to imitate, before the method of imitating it can be conveyed in precepts: fo that fuppofe all his tints mixed up to the greatest perfection, what avails it, unless we are taught to difcern with what part of the original object each tint correfponds? without this, whatever method. of Colouring can be propofed, will be abfurd, and unintelligible; how vain then must this Author appear, when he thus compliments himself and his book in the following strange terms?

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• The motive of my publishing, is folely the benefit of the Art. Such as are born with a happy genius, tho' destitute ' of a mafter or guide, may, from these inftructions, acquire ⚫ a competent knowlege of Colouring, almoft without ftudy<ing. Here the lovers of Painting, who ftudy for their pleafure and amusement, may be conducted eafily, ftep by step, <to the secrets of that Art, which, of all the defigning ones, affords, perhaps, the greatest pleasure to the mind. Here follows a modeft account of himself and his performances, with which we shall not trouble our Readers. He then proceeds.

• Monfieur de Piles fays, "Titian and Rembrandt prepared "their first lay, or grounds, very near alike; and with co"lours that kindly united, and were as near to the life as "poffible; on which they laid their virgin Teints with light "ftrokes of a pencil; and thus they imitated the force and "freshness of Nature.-They were convinced that there were "certain colours, which deftroyed each other, if they were "mixed to excess; and that they should be as little fhaken as "poffible by the motion of the pencil."

It would be folly* in any man, at this prefent time, to affume so much knowlege in the Art of Painting as Monfieur de Piles really had; who was a man of genius and learning,

* Why? Monfieur de Piles was a man of genius and learning, fays Mr. Bardwell, (who is an excellent judge). But these men of genius and learning, are now, it feems, all dead. He made Painting his principal study; which no body now does. So far we can conceive; but that Mr. Bardwell fhould praise him for travelling to complete his knowlege in painting, is fomewhat inconfiftent with what he fays in the last paragraph of this Introduction.

• I cannot

⚫ but indulge a fort of compaffion for thofe Artifts, as I do for other ' mistaken men, who conceive it abfolutely neceffary to traverse Italy, and other countries.'.

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⚫ that made Painting his principal ftudy, and travelled on purpose to complete his knowlege in that delightful art; was intimately acquainted with the Painters in his time, who affifted him in ftudying the works of the great mafters, ⚫ which he carefully examined; and from which he made his reflections, and judicious remarks. This was when the works of Vandyck and Rembrandt were more in perfection, and in an age when Painting was better understood.

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Is it poffible for any thing to be more plain and intelligible ⚫ than these two moft excellent remarks of Monfieur de Piles, ⚫ which contain the principal matter and foundation of Colouring? This is vastly different from theirs, whose Colouring is, as they pretend, to change and wear to the complexion: tho' this may answer their purposes, yet none that ftudy the art of Colouring will, I hope, believe it.

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Wits have fhort memories, and Blockheads none, fays Pope.-Mr. Bardwell's defire of being witty on the very ingenious Artift, and excellent Colourist, here hinted at, probably occafioned his forgetting the neceffity he would fo foon be under, of recommending the following precepts.

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• We muft remember this colour will grow darker. Page 9. The Rofe Tint in changing,' fays he, will fympathize and mix kindly. P. 10.

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Again, Remember the Oker is too ftrong for the White, therefore we should make a little allowance in ufing it.' And page 20, Greens fhould be more beautiful than ⚫ we intend them, because they fade and grow darker?'

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What we have already faid will give a tolerable idea of Mr. Bardwell's abilities, as an Author, and as a Painter; we shall therefore proceed to the laft paragraph of his Introduction, and then take leave of him for the prefent: in a future Number we may confider the merits of his fcheme of Colouring, and his fyftem of Perspective.

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* This is vaftly different from what Mr. Bardwell fays in a former paragraph, wherein he complains, that no good Colourift had treated on this fubject: we are informed, that Monfieur de Piles was a good Colourift; and that Du Frefnoy having employed most of his time in a profound attention to the theory of painting, had a particular veneration for Titian, as the most perfect imitator of nature; followed him in his manner of colouring, and came nearer to him than any other French master. Moreover, Mr. Bardwell finds that these two remarks (which he fays contain the principal matter and foundation of Colouring) are as plain and intelligible as it is poffible for any thing to be. May we not, therefore, fufpect that he is as much indebted to Meffrs. de Piles and du Fresnoy, for his great knowlege in Colouring, as to his tedious course of mistakes, his mere dint of labour, or any other concurrent caufe.

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I cannot,' fays he, but indulge a fort of compaffion for those Artists, as I do for other mistaken men, who think it ⚫ abfolutely neceffary to traverse Italy, and other countries, wafting that time abroad which, in my humble opinion, ⚫ may be employed, at leaft, as well at home, in ftudying the works of Vandyck, and the inimitable beauties of the English Ladies; which, I think, as much preferable to the antiques, as the animated beauties of Nature are to the cold • imitations of her in ftone.'

The first part of this paragraph is already noticed, as inconfiftent with what he delivers in praise of Monfieur de Piles's acquirements. We, however, entirely agree with him, that men who waste their time in one place, might as well have. wafted it in any other place; even tho' it were in imitating inimitable beauties. And tho' we are perfuaded, that our young ftudents will readily approve his hint, that real Ladies are preferable to cold images of ftone; yet, as it has been generally reckoned a fure mark of ignorance, and want of taste, to decry the ancient ftatues, we dare not profefs ourselves of Mr. Bardwell's party, till he has impeached those Grecian beauties of other and greater defects than the coldness of their constitutions, and the rigid infenfibility of their marble bofoms.

The Cafe of Marriages between near Kindred particularly confidered, with respect to the Doctrine of Scripture, the Law of Nature, and the Laws of England, &c. By John Fry. 8vo. 2S. Whifton.


S matrimony is an ordinance, which not only diffuses natural and focial happiness through a State, but by increafing the numbers of the community, ftrengthens and perpetuates it; and as it is the duty of every free State, to secure to its fubjects the gratification of every natural and honeft defire, confiftent with the good of the whole, and the rights of particulars; and as it ought especially to be the care of every Chriftian government, to maintain the liberty wherewith Chrift hath made us free,-from the yoke of Levetical bondage:this pamphlet will, therefore, no doubt, obtain-what the Author fo much wishes,-the serious attention, and candid discuffion, of those under whofe examination it may fall.

In the Preface, among other explanations of the Author's motives for this publication, we meet with these.

To have a true and confiftent idea of this affair, more immediately concerns the welfare of the public, than many are aware

' of; as from the numerous branches of the prefent royal fa

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mily, from whom, under Providence, the nation fo justly felicitates itself, upon the most promising profpects of extenfive advantage, it may, on many occafions, be judged highly expedient, that intermarriages should take place between some of their near kindred. The confequences of ⚫ which may be not only conducive to their own personal fa⚫tisfaction and felicity, but likewife intimately connected with ⚫ the national fecurity, and the establishment and enlargement ⚫ of the Protestant interest.

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Again, the conduct of the enemies of our holy religion, fuggefts the propriety of a critical and free decifion of this fubject. In their abufive infults on revelation, fome of them have urged, with a peculiar fatisfaction, the advantages with ⚫ which they pretend the fcripture history hath furnished them upon this head.

Thus the author of Christianity as old as the Creation, hath charged with immorality that renowned Patriarch Abraham, on this account.

"Was not Abraham, (fays he) though a prophet, and fo "dear to God, that he would not deftroy a neighbouring "town withput acquainting him with it, guilty of an inceftu❝ous marriage, his wife being his fifter by the father's fide* ?" • Whereas, if it appear, upon an impartial review, that this, • and fuch other marriages as the following Differtation at6 tempts to juftify, were not contrary to the law of Nature, nor forbidden by any pofitive law of God, before the introduction of the Mofaic Difpenfation, no juft cause of reproach can be alleged against the alliance Abraham con⚫tracted with his near relation; but the fevere afperfion caft upon him, on account of his marriage, muft, in the judg⚫ment of the impartial, be altogether groundless and unjust.

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The late Viscount Bolingbroke hath, indeed, attempted to difparage the Scriptures by a different measure. He was of opinion, that marriages between near collateral kindred, were not forbidden by the law of Nature, but that the Scrip⚫tures had prohibited them. From hence he endeavours to • vilify the facred writings, as being inconfiftent with the law ⚫ of Nature. But it is prefumed, that in the ensuing tract it ⚫ is clearly proved, that the inconfistency is not real, but only pretended and imaginary.'

The fummary of what our Author delivers, in investigating the doctrine of Scripture, refpecting marriages between near kindred, is as follows.

Chap. xiij. p. 219, zd edition.


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