« AnteriorContinuar »
Our author is inclined to think, that its formation is cwing to subterranean causes, which by violent socks, changing the whole face of that region, left the mountain thus elevated and bare. This is, however, only conjecture; and tho' the bones of animals, found in the interior fissures of the mountain, demonstrate that it owes its origin to fome ruinous caufe, yet what that cause was, is, and, in all probability, ever will remain, a fecret.
Great quantities of excellent iron ore are continually taken from this mountain, and smelted into iron at the neighbouring furnaces. • The ore breaks easily; and what is broke from
the sides of the mountain, readily falls to the foot of it; ( wbile in other mines the ore, with great trouble and coft, " is dug from the bowels of the earth. The only inconveni
ency which happens here is, that the fand, which is lodged • in very great quantities in the fiflures, when the ore is
blown up, falls with it to the foot of the mountain, and • buries or covers it, which they are forced to dig away agains, • on which account they always blow up the ore from the • bottom of the mountain upwards, for the greater ease
the miners, and to hinder the heaping of the fand at the 6 bottom.' Art. 9. An account of an extraordinary case of a child. By
Mr. Richard Guy, Surgeon. A girl near feven years of age, after the most judicious treatment for a supposed dropsy, for near twelve months, died in an emaciated condition. Upon opening her Mr. Guy found the abdominal tumor was owing to a solid substance, Ihaped like an egg, of an adipose cellular consistence, in fome places more than in others, which filled almost the whole cavity of the abdomen; the large end resting on the pelvis, by which the ureters and bladder were greatly compreffed, while the smaller extremity pushed up the diaphragm, lodged the heart under the left clavicle, and rendered all the lobes of the lungs, except one, incapable of respiration. It adhered firmly to the periosteum and backbone, weighted fourteen pounds two ounces and a half; and upon being divided to the center, difcovered several fmall cells, filled with a meliceratous fluid. It had no considerable vessels, but many small ones creeping upon it. No nucleus was found,
In Article 10. the use of the agaric in amputations is further confirmed by the experience of Mons. Andouillet, Sur-, geon of the Charité, and of Mons. Moreau, Surgeon of the Hotel Dieu.
In the same article, and more especially in the i Ith, the use of the powder of the Crepitus Lupi, or Lycoperdon, is recommended for the same purposes, from the experiments of M. la Foffe, the French King's farrier. These experiments were tried before a committee of the Academy of Sciences, and always produced the same effects. Upon diffecting the arteries ftaunched by this powder, the wounds whence the
blood iflued were always found covered with a pellucid membrane, and stopped with a conical grume of blood, whofe apex was towards the axis of the canal.
If this powder succeeds in England, as it did in La Fofle's experiments, the chirurgical world will be greatly obliged to him, and we may predict the destruction of the agaric, notwithstanding the inany articles in this volume, proving its blood-staunching qualities. Mr. Ford of Bristol has experienced the same effects from the fungus-like substance that grows in wine-vaults on the walls, casks, &c. in two amputations. He calls it the Fungus Vinosus. Art. 13. An account of some sales of Dropsies cured by sweet
oil. In a letter from William Oliver, M. D. F. R. 8.
The Doctor gives three instances of people's being effectually and speedily cured of dropsies, by rubbing sweet sallad oil into the abdomen, without any other medicine. The perfons who were said to be recovered by this simple application, were, a young lady, who had been tapped, a woman of 70, and a man who had drank hard, and was upward of 50. Art. 15. An Account of those malignant Fevers that raged at
Rouen, at the end of the year 1753, and at the beginning of 1754. By Monf. Le Cat, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, at Rouen, F. R. S. Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, and Perpetual Secretary of that at Rouen.
This paper deserves an attentive perusal. Dr. Le Cat's methods of cure are simple, and his descriptions are accurate. Art. 16. An account of the death of Mr. George William Rich
man, Professor of Experimental Philosophy, a Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petersburgh. Translated from the High Dutch.
In the 12th volume of our Review we gave, from a former number of these Transactions, a short account of this unhappy accident. As the present account contains many particulars, not mentioned before, we shall lay an extract of this article before our readers; omitting the short sketch of Mr. Rich
man's life, which accompanies the narration here given of his death.
The Professor was making electrical observations, in company with Mr. Sokolow, Engraver to the Academy, (on the 26th of July, 1753) and inclining his head towards the expofitor of his electrical apparatus, to obferve the degree of force it would have ; and whilft he stood in that bent pofture, ' a great white and bluish fire appeared between the electrical
expositor and Mr. Richman's head. At the same time arose a fort of stream, or vapour, which entirely numbed the engraver, and made him fink down on the ground.—As soon
as he had recovered his senses, he got up and ran out of the ç house, acquainting every one whom he met with in the street,
that the thunder had struck into Mr. Richman's house. • Mrs. Richman, on hearing the loud stroke of the thunder,
came hastening into the chamber, in which she conjectured ' fhe should see the bad consequences. She found her husband • past sensation, sitting upon a chest, which happened to be
placed behind him, and leaning against the wall; which fi«tuation must have been occafioned by his falling back upon ' receiving the electrical blow. He was no sooner struck,
bur killed. There were not the least appearances of life. « The surgeons opened a vein of the breathless body twice, « but no blood followed. They endeavoured to recover sensa? tion by violent chafing, but in vain. Upon turning the corpse & topsy-turvy, during the rubbing, an inconsiderable quantity < of blood fell out of the mouth. There appeared a red spot ! on the forehead, from which spirted some drops of blood " through the pores, without wounding the skin. The shoe
belonging to the left foot was burst open. Uncovering the
foot at that place, they found a blue mark, by which it is 6 concluded, that the electrical force of the thunder, having « forced into the head, made its way out again at the foot. • Upon the body, particularly on the left fide, were seveoral red and blue spots, resembling leather Shrunk by being • burnt. Many more blue spots were afterwards visible over ¢ the whole body, and in particular on the back. That upon ¢ the forehead changed to a brownish red. The hair of the • head was not finged, notwithstanding the spot touched same
of it. As for his wig, the deceased had taken it off. In
the place where the shoe was unripped, the stocking was & entire; as was his coat every where, the waistcoat being
only singed on the fore-flap, where it joined the hinder. & But there appeared on the back of the engraver's coat, long I narrow streaks, as if red hot wires had burnt off the nap,
-When «-When the body was opened the next day, the cranium was « very entire, having no fissure, or cross-opening; the brain « as found as poffibly it could; the transparent pellicles of
the wind-pipe were exceffively tender, gave way, and rent
easily. There was some extravasated blood in it, as like ( wife in the cavities below the lungs; thofe by the breast be« ing quite sound, and not damaged; but those towards the < back of a brownish black colour, and filled with more of « the above blood; otherwise none of the entrails were touch( ed: the throat, glands, and the thin intestines were all in« flamed. The finged leather-coloured spots penetrated the skin
only. In short, altho’ one could trace out all the consequences of an instantaneous stroke throughout the whole 6 body, yet many of them have not appeared to happen to < others ftruck by thunder, when they have been examined, Ć Should not one therefore be led to conclude, that the elec« trical force that occafioned Mr. Richman's death, must have « been of a different substance than the common thunder-bolt? « That it was much more fubtile, is obvious, because it left o fo few visible traces in the body which it penetrated.' Art. 19. A Letter to the Right Hon. George Earl of Maccles
field, President of the Royal Society, on the advantage of taking the mean of a number of observations, in practical Astronomy. By T. Sympson, F. R. S.
Notwithstanding the great perfection of astronomical instruments among the moderns, observations are still liable to errors; and therefore, to lessen those errors as much as possible, it has been the usual method to take the mean of several observations of the same kind. But some persons of note being of opinion, that a single observation, carefully taken, was aš much to be relied on as the mean of a great number, Mr. Sympson has, in this paper, shewn, by a mathematical process, the great advantage attending the usual method of taking the mean of several observations; and made it evidently appear, that the chance of committing an error exceeding two seconds, is not one tenth part so great from taking the mean of fix, as from one single observation. Art. 21. Queries sent to a friend in Conftantinople, by Dr,
Maty, F. R. S. and answered by his Excellency James Porter, Esq; his Majesty's Ambassador at Cimstantinople, and F.R.S. The queries sent by Dr. Maty were the seven following:
1. Whether we may know, with any certainty, how many people are generally carried off by the plague at Constanti
2. Whether the number of inhabitants in that capital may be ascertained !
3. Whether what has been advanced by some travellers, and from them assumed by writers on politics, be true, that there are more women than men born in the east ?
4. Whether plurality of wives is in fact, as it was confidently affirmed to be, in the order of naiure, favourable to the increase of mankind?
5. What is the actual state of inoculation in the cast ?
6. What is become of the printing-house at Conftantinople? and are there any original maps of the Turkish dominions, drawn from actual surveys ?
7. What sort of learning is cultivated among the Greeks, and among the Turks?
1. The first of these queries, Mr. Porter observes, cannot be answered, as the Turks keep no bills of mortality. But from an imperfect computation of the Janiffaries, it appears that near 60,000 died during the plague in 1751.
2. The second, from the want of bills of mortality; and their being prohibited by their law from numbering the people, is also incapable of an accurate folution. The only method of calculating the number of people, is by the confumption of corn, which is delivered out by an officer of confideration, and an exact account kept. On this foundation Mr. Porter attempted to calculate the number of people in Constantinople, and found, that before the plague they amounted to about
5 That there are more women than men born in the ? eaft, says Mr. Porter, feems a figment of travellers, rather & than founded in truth; it is scarce to be known, where + polygamy is lawful. The apparent conclufion may seem i natural, because many of the harems of the opulent, espe? cially in the great cities, are numerous; but these are not
composed of the natives of thofe cities, but are brought from countries where the Chriftian rites are observed. So that if more women are found in such families than men, they must be looked upon as an extraneous production, annually, or daily imported.'
4. With regard to the fourth query, it is observed, that notwithstanding their law, the Mahometans procreate less than Christians. Mr. Porter is, however, of opinion, that this does not proceed from the cause usually assigned, (their being enervated by variety) but from the frequent ablutions, &c. required by their law.