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(The plague is begun, bath penetrated into, made an entrance

among the people.] To enter upon action, Gen. xi. 6.• iii. Profanare, figuratively, 1. to break, to dissolve the

texture or force of an obligation ; to ftab, say, or make it ( void, Numb. xxx. 2. Psal. lv. 20.-Ixxxix. 34. [agree

ably to this sense Bishop Pearson on the Creed, (after Grotius) faith ; "one ancient custom of cancelling bonds was by striking a nail through the writing;” to which the • Apostle may allude, Col. ii. 14.] 2. To dissolve, ftab, or

lay the real or relative holiness of persons or things ; to de• fecrate, to profane, pollute, defile. Applied to the Jewish « nation, whom God treated as if they had not been his peo• ple and inheritance, when they were carried into captivity, « Ifai. xlvii. 6. Lam. ii. 2.—to the Temple when destroyed, • or treated as a common building, Ezek. xxv. 3-to a priest · who was profaned, when he did any thing that disqualified • him for his office, Lev. xxi. 4. to any hallowed thing, < which was desecrated by being eaten contrary to the law, * Lev. xix. 8. to a place or thing that is common or unholy,

as distinguished from that which is holy or consecrated, Lev. * X. 10. Ezek. xxii. 26.xlviii. 15. particularly it is apsplied to the fruit of a tree, when first eaten of by the owner,

after the fourth year, in which it was consecrated to God, was expired, [Lev. xix. 23, 24, 25.] Deut. xx. 6. (eaten

of it profaned, desecrated it,]-xxviii. 30. [gather, pro« Fane, the grapes thereof,] Jer. xxxi. 5.-to the Sabbath, or

any ordinances profaned by not being duly observed, Lev. « xxii. 9. Psal. Ixxxix. 31. Ezek. xx. 16.—to God pro" faned by the violation of his constitutions, Ezek. xxii. 26.

---to the name of God, profaned by swearing falsely, Lev. « xix. 12.--to chastity, and the marriage bed profaned by - lewdness, Gen. xlix. 4. Lev. xix. 29. to justice, honour, • goodness, profaned by acting contrary to them. Hence an • action is termed profane, or profaneness, pollution, which is

void of honour, justice, and goodness, Gen. xliv. 7: [God forbid that thy servants pould do (profaneness would be to thy servants from doing, or if they should do) according to this thing ; i. e. it would be unjust and dishonourable in us ' to do this thing.) · Sam. xxiv. 6, 7. [the Lord forbid, that I Jould do this thing, it would be profaneness to me from the • Lord (or the highest degree of dishonour and injustice) if • I should do tris thing.] iii. To diffolve, slay, annul digni

and splendor, by linking the honourable and illustrious, • into a contemptible, vile condition, Psal. Ixxxix. 39. Ifai. xxiii. 9. Ezek. xxviii. 7.

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IV. Tripudiare; a piece of wood penetrated with a tool, < and perforated; a pipe or Aute, whose music exhilerated not

only common mirth, but also sacred and religious joy, Pfal.' • cxlix. 3. Isai. v. 12. a dance peculiarly corresponding to • the music of the fute, in contradistinction to dancing without

any music, or with other music; the flute-dance, the most • brisk and lively, and expressive of the highest joy, 1 Sam.

xviii. 6. Psal. xxx. 11. Cant. vi. 13. [as if it were the company of two armies, as it were the dancing, joy, exulta' tion of two companies, mutually congratulating each other upon some signal occasion.

V. Fenestra; caves, which are formed by penetrating in< to the substance of the earth, Ilai. ii. 19. windows, which

are considered as cut out of the walls of a building, Jer.

xxii. 14. [and cutteth him out windows, my windows, God's « windows ; so called, because they were windows in an up

per chamber, set apart for prayer and devotion, looking to

wards Jerusalem, and thro' which they looked when pray. ing to God. Such a chamber, and such windows, Daniel • had and used in Babylon, Dan. vi. 10.

« VI. Placenta; a cake. The shew-bread consisted of < cakes of this sort, Lev. xxiv. v. And if they were like the

unleavened cakes which the Jews now make, and may at any time be seen at London, the connection with the root is

very apparent. For these are broad cakes, perforated all < over, with holes like a honey-comb, to prevent any fer«mentation. And from the force of this root, it seems pro• bable, that this was the form (whatever was the fize) of the 6 cakes mentioned in the texts that follow.' See Lev. Num. Exod.

Some think 1977, as it fignifies to dance, also y, a pipe, may, with more propriety, be referred to which Mr. Taylor interprets exsultare gaudeo, ' to rejoice with a jcy · which expresses itself in the gestures of the body.' And, perhaps, 17 a cake, should be derived from the fame word in Arabic, which fignifies dulcis fuit. See Golius col. 647. de bir dulcis et suavis fuit. 1579 edulium ex melle vel saccharo confe£tum. Nino Dulciarius piftor aut eduliorum dulcium vendito. And the Grand Signor's confectioner is called in the Turkish language 289977 Helwagi.

We shall exhibit another instance of our Author's skill and ingenuity, in arranging the several significations of a word in their proper order, giving the full force of its usage in every passage, and thewing the connection of the several senses with the primary one.

Page

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Page 882. 79 886th root, hath seven significations. 'i. Picare, pice obtegere: propitiatorium. To cover, to cover by imearing; to smear over, to obliterate or annul a com

pact, Ifai. xxviii. 18. to cover with pitch, in order to re• cure a veliel from leaking; pitch; the mercy-seat, or cover « of the ark of the covenant. ii. Expiare, placare; to a4 tone; to cover fin, or to secure the finner from punishment. & iii. Pagus, vicus ; a small village; a covert, retired place 6 in the country.

iv. Crater, pelvis; a large cup or bowl, s probably with a cover or lid, used in the Temple service; • I suppose to hold wine for the priests and sacrificers, when 6 they did eat there before the Lord; Deut. xiv. 26.-xv. ( 19, 20. vi. Cyprus arbor. Ligustrum Ægyptiacum. « Arab. Henna or Alhenna ; a shrub ten or fifteen foot high, < like a Privet, whose flowers grow in bunches, and have a

very sweet and grateful smell. With the powder of the leaves or flowers, mixt with water, women smeared their

hands, feet, &c. to give them a golden colour. Celf. Hierob. part i. p. 225. Hiller Hieroph. part i. cap. 54. Raii Hift. Plant. tom. ii. p. 1604. vii. Leo juvenis; a young • lion that has done fucking the lioness; and leaving the co

vert begins to seek prey for himself. Bochart; being just

come out of the covert, and naturally frequenting it more ! than other lions, he may be called the covert - lion. < See Psal. xvii. 12. Jer. xxv. 38. He has forsaken his covert,

the [young] lion.' The meaning of the word Cherub having been greatly controverted of late, we apprehend our readers will not be displeased with the following extract, which contains Mr. Taylor's sense of that word.

Page 888.88gth root. Cherubh, Cherubinus. It ' is evident that the four living creatures in Rev. iv. 6, 7, 8. © are the same with the four living creatures, called also Cherubims, in Ezek. i. 5, &c.-X. 1, &c. But the four living creatures, and the four and twenty Elders, Rev. v. 8, 9, joined in singing a new song to the Lamb, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; for thou waft fiain, and has redeemed us unto God by thy blood, out of

every KINDRED and TONGUE and PEOPLE and NATION, « The angels joined in the chorus which follows ver. 11, 12,

But none but such as belong to the church of God in this world, none but Men, could join in this song. The twen

ty-four Elders, it is generally agreed, reprelent the Priests, 6 or Ministers of the Church, and then the four living crea

tires, or Cherubim, must represent the people, or body of

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• the church, of God upon earth. This suits Ezekiel's Che6 rubim very well: they represent the church of God attend«ed with the wheels, or revolutions, of his providence. < And so the Cherubim in the Temple, especially those over " the mercy-seat, may properly denote the church on earth, < where God hath fet his throne, and in the midst of which • he dwells or reigns, Numb. vii. 89. Psal. xcix. 1. Ezek. i ix. 3. In this view the Cherubim must be confidered as hie

roglyphical, denoting the perfection or combination of all • fpiritual and moral excellencies, which constitute the cha• racter of God's faithful servants or subjects, under the hiero

glyphical forms of a man, a bullock, a lion, an eagle, all • with wings, full of eyes, &c. [1 Kings vii. 29. lions,

oxen, and other Cherubims; or the other forms which con• ftitute the Cherubim.] But this will not take in the sense of « Cherub and Cherubim in other places. Some general notion • that will suit all cases, should, if poflible, be found out ;

as suppose to be perfect, or perfectly accomplished. Applied ( to a bullock in full vigour, (Exek. X. 14.) as that among • the herds, is the most perfect in strength and usefulness.- To the Prince of Tyre (Ezek. xxviii. 14.) compleat (at « least in his own proud conceit) in dignity, power, policy, • wealth, splendour ; [anointed, inaugurated, duly establish• ed in royalty; covering, soaring above and protecting • others. ]-To that which is most perfect and powerful in 6 velocity, Psal. xviii. 10.-To the guard upon the tree of • life, Gen. iii. 24. Posibly it may here be applied to an

gels; but we can only say, with certainty, that the Cheru(bim and flaming (word, which turned every way, denote • some perfect and irresistible power, which rendered the tree

of life, here upon earth, quite inaccessible. But, through “ Chrift, blessed be God, free access is granted to it in the fu• ture world, Rev. ii. 7.—xxii. 2.'

Aben Ezra, Chaskuni, and Bar Nachman, upon the sea cond chapter of Numbers, where mention is made of the children of Israel pitching, every man by his own standard, with the ensign of their father's house, say, that the creatures in the Cherubim were the standards of Ísrael: Reuben had on his standard the figure of a man, Juda a lion, Ephraim the ox, and Dan the eagle. The reasons why these animals were chosen by these tribes, are taken from circumstances pofterior to the use of the standards. Josephus and Philo are both fi·lent on this head. The conjecture, therefore, for it is no more than a conjecture, rests upon the probability of this use of the animals. There is no other account of them so pro

bable

bable as this. The general notion, therefore, comprehended under the word Cherubim will be that of a guard. Hence you will be able to account for their situation in the Temple, near the presence of the Lord, and round about the throne, Rev. iv. 6, 7, 8. Also for the use of it in expressing the guard upon the tree of life, whatever that guard was, whether it was a perpetual fame arising from pits of sulphur and bitumen, as was the opinion of Grotius, or was no other than what is called Deut. xxxiii. 2. the fire of the law for them. The very learned and sagacious Mr. Mede has adopted the explication of the Cherubim given by Aben Ezra. Bochart, Launæus, Heidegger, and particularly Witsius in his Ægyptiaca, have all strenuously opposed it.

We shall with plealure embrace the earliest opportunity of giving our readers an account of the second volume of Mr. Taylor's Concordance; which, we hear, will be published next winter.

The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. In three

Parts. Containing, 1. An accurate description of that island, its situation and foil; with a brief account of its former and present fate, government, revenues, produce and trade.-2. A history of the natural productions, including the various forts of native fofils, perfect and imperfect vegetables, quadrupeds, birds, fijhes, reptiles, and insects; with their proo perties and uses in mechanics, diet, and physic.-3. An account of the nature of climates in general, and their different effects upon the human body; with a detail of the diseases arising from this fource, particularly within the tropics. In three dissertations. The whole illustrated with fifty copperplates : in which the most curious productions are represented of the natural size, and delineated immediately from the objects. By Patrick Brown, M. D. Folio. 21. 25. Printed for the Author, and fold by Osborne and Co. HIS work was published by subscription, and tho' the

subscribers are not very numerous, yet among them appear more than a few truly respectable names. Besides several of our own countrymen, justly eminent for their literary abilities, Burmannus, Gronovius, Linnæus, Muschenbroek, Schwenke, Trew, and Wackendorff, learned foreigners, have honoured Dr. Brown's labours: Labours indeed ! such as required no less qualifications (a) than what our Author declares

(a) Our Author speaks of himself as being happy in a large • share of health and strength; enured to the climate ; and having • a mind Strongly disposed to the cultivation of natural knowlege.'

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