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purpose; they are then put into cold water, and scraped and * peeled gradually :- this operation may last three or four days, ? during which time the roots are constantly kept in water, • but is frequently shifted, both for cleanliness and to take off « more of their native acrimony. After they are well prepared

in this manner; they are put into jars, and covered over < with a thin fyrup, which, after two or three days, is shifted • and a richer put on; and this is sometimes again removed, ? and a fourth put on ; but it seldom requires more than three

syrups to be well preserved: the shifted syrups are not, how• ever, useless, for in thefe countries they are diluted and fer• mented into a small pleasant liquor, commonly called Cool • Drink.

" As the botanic characters of this plant have been but im• perfectly described hitherto, and generally laid down from

imperfect specimens, I have been induced to give them here ' at large, as they appear in the perfect state of the plant. Periantium. Spatha duplex uniflora, exterior membranacea co

nica forem laxè cingens, interior membranacea tenuior et minor tubo floris adnata, et limbum cum genitalibus strictè involvens, in conum acuminatum

leniterque compressum produ£ta. Corolla, et Monopetala, infernè angufta tubulata, germini inNectarium. cidens ; limbus tripartitus, laciniis oblongo-ovatis

medio majori : è sinu huic oppofito emergit Nectarium craffum oblongo-ovatum, in acumen sinuatum

dėsinens. Stamina. Filamenta duo tubo floris adnata; antheræ crase

neflario adnate : rudimenta vero totidem fupernè libera per longitudinem tubi porrecta, nullisque an

theris donata, lacinia majori foris fuppofita sunt. Piftillum. Germen Jubrotundum flori fuppofitum ; ftylus rectus

simplex longitudine floris, et inter antheras porreca

tus : figma crassius tubulatum et ciliatum. Pericarpium. Capsula subrotunda unilocularis, obtusè-triloba,

tribus lineis longitudinalibus internè notata. Semina. Plura, &c. fed plerumque abortiunt.

· The root of this plant is a warm, pungent aromatic, 6 and answers in all weaknesses of the stomach and viscera,

proceeding from cold, or inertion: when preserved, it is "mild, and generally used as a stomachic, tho' not less effec• tual in defluxions of the breast, or weakness of the nerves;

but the other coarser preparations of it, are used more by those who are obliged to bear the inclemeney of the weather

in colder regions, and require some warm stimulants to ra-
rify their chilly juices, as well as to promote the tonic ac-
tion of the nerves.
• CEDRELA 2. Foliis pinnatis, foribus sparsis, ligno gra-

6 viori.
Arbor. Foliis pinnatisi &c. Catef. vol. II. t. 81. & Mil
• ler in Appen.

Mahogany: • This tree grew formerly

, very common in Jamaica, and $ while it could be had in the low-lands, and brought to mar

ket at an eafy rate, furnished a very considerable branch of • the exports of that ifland; it thrives in most foils, and va* ries both its grain and texture with each: that which grows • among the rocks is smaller, but very hard and weighty, of a • clofe grain and beautifully shaded; while the produce of the • low and richer lands is observed to be more light and porous,

of a paler colour and open grain; and that of mixed foils . to hold a medium between both. The tree growş very tall * and straight; and generally bears a great number of Capsulæ

in the season, the flowers are of a reddish or saffron colour, and the fruit of an oval fortn, and about the size of a turkey's egg, while that of the foregoing species hårdly ex

ceeds the fize of a nutmeg. The wood is generally hard, • takes a fine polith, and is found to answer better than any i other fort in all kinds of cabinet ware; it is now universally $ esteemed; and sells at a good price; but it is pity that it is (not cultivated in the more convenient waste lands of that <ifland. It is a very strong timber, and answers very well in • beams, joists, plank, boards, and shingles; and has been

frequently put to those uses in Jamaica in former times." Surely the best methods of cultivating a tree more than once recommended, and, indeed, from whence Great Britain has been no less benefitted than ornamented, deserved our Na. turalist's enquiry; but of that we have not one word. • THEOBROMA 2. Fructu ovato-acuminatos subverrucoso, de

cem fulcis longitudinalibus subarato. • Cachaos. Mart. 369.

- The Chocolate tree, with long pods. • THEOBROMA 3. Fructu fubrotundo, fubverrucofon decem

fulcis fubar ate. * Theobroma foliis integerrimis. L. Sp. Pl. & H. C. • Cacao. Ger. Ema. &c. Slo. Cat, 134. & H. t. 160. « Cacao. Catesb. App. t. 6. & Chocolata Bontii, p. 198.

· The Chocolate tree, with round pods. Rev. Od. 1756.

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« Both

• Both species of the Cacao or Chocolate tree are pretty frequent in Jamaica ; and often found wild in the woods, where doubtless they had been cultivated in the time of the Spaniards: but they are feldom planted there in regular walks, 'as they are on the Main; where hurricanes are nei

ther fo frequent nor so deitructive. The trees are very deli* cate, and rarely survive when once loosened in the ground*;

which is generally the case, when they are not well shaded,

in hurricane times, for the ground is then soft and yielding "for the space of many feet under the surface; and the force • of the wind often fuch, as to break or bend the most robuft

trees,' The Spaniards, to prevent such inconveniences, used & to intermix many of the Coral Bean trees t (from whence * they have been fince generally called Mader di Cacao) in their * walks, which helped greatly to break the force of the wind, "and thereby generally preserved their Cacao trees. I have,

however, feen numbers of them thrive well, without any shelter of this kind, and bear the force of many storms without damage ; but, probably, they were protected while young, and yet too tender to bear any extraordinary shocks; for I generally observed them to be planted in a good deep mould, and a warm, well covered situation. *These trees grow naturally to a moderate fize; and seldom exceed fix or seven inches in diameter, or rise above fif

teen or fixteen feet in height. They are very beautiful, and, ? in general, extremely engaging to the fight when charged < with fruit; which grows from all parts of the trunk, and

larger branches indiscriminately. When the seeds are loose and rattle in the pods, they are picked off, opened, and the kernels picked out, and exposed daily to the sun, until they are thoroughly cured, and fit for the store, or market.

• These feeds are remarkably nourishing, and agrecable to e most people, which occafions them to be now commonly kept in most houses in America, as a necessary

rt of the • provisions of the family : they are generally ground or

pounded very fine, at leisure hours; and made into a paste I, ** The root cankers generally on those occasions, and decays most commonly afterwards : but I query, whether many of them would not recover, had they been pulled up, and pruned, both at top and bottom, when they begin to wither, and then transplanted?!? nitely # The Erythrina.

I Qur Author muft have learned this process for making Che. colate from fome ignorant Negro, or it couki not have been lo very imperfeet.

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Natural Hiftory of Yamåica.
orto Mures

339

310 stp. rod to be the more in readiness upon occasion. It is naturally pretty much charged with oil, but mixes very

well with either milk or water, the usual vehicles, with which it is prepared for immediate use. It is much elteemed in all the fouthern colonies of America, and well known to make up

the principal part of the nourishment of most of the old 64 people in those parts, as well as of a great number of Jews,

The plant is propagated by the feed; but requires a great alblaive

of care to raise it with success. It is generally planted and cultivated in the following manner, viz. You take a * full grown pod, that has lain that the feeds may be fully

by fome days, and cut off the top at the pointed extremity, lo exposed to view; you then bury it two thiras, or deeper, in mouid, in some moist and shady place. In a few days the seeds begin to germinate, and then they ought to be taken out, one by one, and transplanted into proper beds : but the mould to which they are transferred should be rich, well divided, and free ; moist, properly shaded, and disposed at proper distances, so as to leave convenient room for the roots and branches of the trees to spread. In each of these beds you plant one or two seeds, with the root part downwards, scarcely covering them at the top; you then moisten the mould gently about them, and cover the bed with some large leaves, to protect the young budding plants from the more active fays of the fun; which may be still guarded by some little ambi- · ent bulwark to ward off such accidehts as may hấppen from heavy rains, of blowing, windy weather. They seldom require to be watered after the first day; but if this should be

come neceffary, it must be done with greatt enderness; and is you best managed by laying a piece of wet cloth, or some watered weeds, gently round the young plant; which should be left there till the earth soaks a sufficient quantity of the moifure. But great care must be taken not to break off the seed-leaves of the plant on thele occasions ; for these are

only the tender divided lobes of the kernel, and the loss of * them would wholly prevent its further growth.

The plantain-walks afford the most natural and agreeable shade for those plants, while young, but as they rile, they should be fupplied with a more fubftantial guardi, to protect ther from the inclemencies of the weather which ought to

be continued until they grow to full perfection, and muft be, 6 removed with caution even then.' foto 8 od The above may fuffice for samples of our Author's botanical judgment. Let us next take a thort view of his third book,

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• containing

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containing an account of the several sorts of Quadrupedes,

Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, and Insects, commonly observed in ! and about the island; their properties, mechanism, and

uses. With respect to the method, the Doctor professes to have followed the distribution of Linnæus, as much as pos• sible, in the arrangement of this tribe, as well as the forego

ing; but having proceeded from the mineral to the vegetable, and thence to the animal region, he was obliged to invert the order in which Linnæus disposed them, and to

begin with those which thew least of animality.' Accordingly the first chapter of this book treats of Insects; from which we shall take the

NEREIS 1. Tentaculis capitis binis, tripartitis ; corporis,

plurimis penicilli-formibus, duplici Jerie ad latera positis, . Scolopendra Marina authorum. Pet. Gaz. · The Ship-worm of Jamaica. « This insect is extremely destructive to all the Chips that anchor for any time in the harbours of Jamaica, or in any other part within the Tropics: they cut with great facility through the planks, and burrow a considerable way in the

substance of them, incrustating the sides of all their holes 6 with a smooth testaceous substance. They cut with equal

eale thro’ most forts of timber, nor dowwe yet know any, except some of the palın tribe, that is free from their attacks; but, from late experiments, we have some reafon to

hope that Aloes and Indian Pepper mixed up with the other « ingredients, with which the bottoms of ships are commonly • daubed, may retard their attacks, if not wholly prevent

them.

« It is amazing with what ease these insects run through all • sorts of timber ; but it is remarkable that they burrow moft

in the parts that are chiefly exposed to a viciffitude of ele"ments. In the harbour of Kingston, where all the wharfs

are made of wood, and suitained by large piles of the strong. ' eft timbers, there are frequent occasions to observe the ope

rations of this infect, which generally destroys the largest pieces of the hardest and most refinous woods, in the fpace of a few years. « There is a great variety of these insects, and many of the other fpecies are equally destructive,'

-Our Author has given the figure of this infect.

The fecond chapter is appropriated to Filhes ; whence, for the sake of throwing in an observation, that might noi, perhaps, have occurred to the Doctor, we shall extract the • PERCA 1. Minor subargentea. The Sinnet.

6 PERCA

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