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After this account of the Jews, our Author describes the other inhabitants of Alexandria., s svisloh soni 290bs, m?
The Turks govern the city; the garrisons in both the Pharillons, and another in the town, confift of Turks, who are under the command of an Aga. They have also a Cadis or civil magistrate : the rest of them are either mechanics or little shop keepers. They have few merchants among them, but these are richer than they would seem to be sebi smiol
There are many Christians, (Copts, Greeks, and Armenians) at Alexandria, where, however, they make no great figure, but support themselves as the Turks do; only with this difference, that, excepting a few of the more opulent Greeks and Armenians, they are generally despised. The Patriarch of the Copts, who calls himself the successor of St. Mark the Evangelift, fits in that Apostle's chair, in this city, tho’his ordinary residence is at Cairo. basta od to gobroyd Baidul
All Europeans are called Franks. The chief of them are French and Englith; the former of whom boast that they make themselves most respected; but the latter have, perhaps, a great advantage over them in matters of commerce. ris The French have a Consul, who depends upon another at Grand Cairo. He is placed here by the French Plenipotentiary at Constantinople; and has a fort of secretary, who carries on the correspondences, determines all differences between merchants and captains of French vessels, and is therefore called Le Chancelier*. The Consul has also another officer, called the Drogmant, or interpreter, who interferes in all disputes that may happen between the French and the Turks. He has a priest, and a chapel, in a very large house, where he resides, with the greatest part of the people of his nation : the rest live in separate houses. He does not appear to carty on any trade for himself; and is seldom seen abroad, that he may not become too familiar : for the vanity of the French, according to our Author, is such, that they not only thew him all the respect in their power, but would have other nations entertain the highest ideas of his person and character; and it is not their fault, if he is not believed to be of the blood royal. He never takes a trip to Rosetta, but he hoists the white enlign on his flag-staff; and when he goes out of, or enters, the port, is saluted with a general discharge of cannon from all the French ships in the harbour. To support this magnificence, they pay a considerable duty, or tax, to their Conful, and they
** Cancelier, is the general name for this officer, all over the Levant, to whatsoever nation he belongs. The works os Juo aut 29704 Tergiman or Dragoman, in Turkish, an Interpreter.
have another tax upon houses, or goods, to defray the exa pences of providing for the common security, and for recom; pensing such as may have suffered by the infolence and oppresfion of the Turks. These duties oblige them to raise the price of their commodities, and, consequently, lay them un der a disadvantage, from which the English, who pay no duty but that to the Consul, are entirely free. The English live in a more familiar manner with one another, and with their Conful, than the French do. They are quiets and mind their business; but if there is any thing to be got, they are sure to have their share : if any difficulties arise, they withdraw, and leave to the French the honour of determining them
The Author here takes up almost three pages, in tell: ing a story of a Janiffary, Bravo to fome Greek women, who kept a house for the entertainment of failors. The French Consul finding it of very bad confequence to his country, men, forbad them going to the house, which exafperated the Janiffary so much, that he insulted the French, wherever he met them. The government refused to meddle in the affair. The French, therefore, applied to the magistrates at Cairo, and procured a Sious * or black-head (Tête-noire) to be sent, who banished both the Greek women, and the Janissary. But the wives of the Bravo supposing that their husband was fentenced to be drowned, gathered a mob, and attacked the Consul's house. The Janiffaries on guard there, could not protect it, till reinforced by others sent by the Englifh Consul, and by the Sious. The commotion lafted till night; when, satisfied that the fentence was only banishment, the rioters were appealed.
The Venetians and the Dutch had once an establishment here ; but the Confuls themselves became bankrupts. There are now but few vessels that arrive from those nations, or from the Swedes, who are likewise in alliance with the Porte; and they are all at the mercy of the person who farms the duties : except fame Venetian vefsels which arrive under French colours, and are protected by the Consul of that nation.
Our Author knew of no other Europeans who traded to Alexandria. The Turkish vessels that arrive here belong to the Sultan, and come every year for the Grand Signor's Cat ratt, which is paid in merchandize. The Bacha of Cairo collects it, and lends a Bey from Cairo to Conftantinople with it.
* Sija fignifies black in the Turkish language.
+ Charag or haraz, fignifies tribute, and by this name is always meant, the capitation, or poll-taxi
Whilft Mr. Norden was at Alexandria, a Turkish Acet came there, for three thousand men, which Egypt was to furnish, as its contingent, during the war between the Porte and the Emperor of Germany. These soldiers, consisting of Allaffs * and Janiffarieś, committed many and great outrages in the two months they staid at Alexandria: they robbed and pillaged almost every body, and, in particular, a French merchant, of one thousand Shequiris, which the French Consul tried, but in vain, to recover.
There are two sorts of vessels seen every day in the harbour; the larger, called Saiks, go to Damiette, and other ports of the Levant; the Vérgues t, or other vessels, are employed in bringing from Rosette, and Danniette, the merchandises of Eutope, or carrying to those ports the merchandises of Cairo, that are designed to pass into Europe.
During the three weeks Mr. Norden staid at Alexandria, he frequently repaired to certain places that lay at no great distance from the city, which enabled him to give fix drawings of different views of towns, mosques, and castles, situate in or near Delta: but we can say no more of these copper-plates, than that the designs are finely executed by Tuscher, who engraved them, as well as a considerable number of the lefler ornaments : of which there are a great many in this work.
Before our Author departs from Alexandria, to go into Upper Egypt, he gives his advice to travellers into this country; that they take care to get a good Banker; that they dress in the habit of a Turk, get a pair of whiskers, and assume an air of gravity and importance; and that they take into their service a Janiffary who talks Lingua Franka, knows the country, and will protect them against the inhabitants. As the Drogman belonging to the French is generally one that has been brought up in the country, and a perfect master of the language and customs thereof, he may be of great use to travellets. Three things they should carefully avoid; not to attempt the going into mosques, forts, or other prohibited places; not to dig about, or break any ancient monument, as ihe Turks will believe your design is to carry off some great treasu e; not to indulge a passion for the other fex: fome young merchants having been murdered on that account; and others, who were assured by their Janiffaries, that they had been favoured by women of great distinction, have met with diseases they could never be cured of. They must also take care never to Strike
* Azeb, signifies a Centinel in the Turkish language.
a Mussulman; for if they escape with life, it will at least cost them all they are worth.
Cairo. * the capital of Egypt, is situate to the east of the Nile, a little above the place where the river divides to form the Delta. There are two towns, one called New, the other Old-Cairo. As the description of this great city is so well known, our Author contents himself with three remarks; the first relates to the opening the calith, or canal, which, during the tiine of the Nile's increase, conveys the water to Grand Cairo. As this canal passes through the country, it looks like a neglected ditch. In the city it has a better aspect, but is not very broad
any where, at the place where the waters of the Nile enter, it may be about 15 or 20'feet wide. When the Nile rises, the passage which admits it into the calish is thut, by means of a bank of earth raised there, on which is marked the time for opening this, and all other canals in the kingdom. On the appointed day, the Basha and Beys repair to this place, with a grand retinue, to aflift at the ceremony of open ing the canal. They are placed under a tent on one fide, and the Copts and Jews are employed in cutting the dyke." Some dirty fellows, in a miserable bark, throw nuts and melons, and other trash, into the water, as it enters ; and the Bashạ flings away fome parats (small pieces of money), while a poor fort of fire-work, consisting of about twenty rockets, is played off. The people on seeing the Nile risen to that height which fertilises their fields, and insures them an abundant harvest, indulge in a thousand extravagances. In particular, they expreis their joy by the most lascivious dances : moreover, the tumult is so great, that not a year paffes, in which fome one, or other, does not lose his life. Thus ends this contemptible ceremony, which former travellers have described in very magnificent terms. Of this festival, our Author has given us a fine representation among his designs.
Our Author next mentions the famous well of Joseph. Its mouth is 18 feet wide, by 24 long; but the whole depth, 276, from the upper wheel, to the bottom of the water. This depth is divided into two parts; for at 146 feet from the top, is a resting-place, to which height the water is raised by means of another wheel, with a chain of earthen buckets: this second place is not so large as above, being but 15 feet long, by nine wide; its height alio nine. The whole well is cut out in the rock, and so artificially performed, that the rock serves as a wall, or
* The Arabic name of this place is Masser. Al Kebir, from whence the Europeans have made Cairo, iignifestimply, I HECITY; and is bere used by way of pre-emincrce for the metropolis of egypt.
rampart, in going down on the side of the well; and at proper distances, passages are made for the admission of lighty which comes from the mouth of the well; and the oxen go down the fame way to draw up the water by the second wheel. From this place to the bottom, is another descent, in like manner as the first, only not lo large, being but three or four feet wide, and fix high, and without any parapet on the sides. It is entire ly open, which makes the descent very dangerous. At the bota tom of this last defcent is the spring, or bason, which is about nine or ten feet deep. The water taftes brackish, and therefore is not used for drinking, but in time of liege, or other distress.
His third remark relates to weights and measures, and merchandife: for which, as there is nothing very entertaining in names and numbers, we refer our readers to the book itfelf; and proceed with our Author to Old Cairo.
This antient city, of which Mr. Norden has three views, is fituated on the edge of a great canal, which detaches the island of Rodda from the main land. Its length, reckoning from the ma. chine that raises the water of the aqueduct to Balar*, is about a quarter of a French league; and its greatest breadth, taken from the Hofpitium to the canal, is about 500 common paces; the rest is very unequal, and its extreméties are bounded by common houses, Most of the buildings, excepting those in which the labouring people live, are receffes for people of distinction, when the Nile overflows. There are many gardens; and date trees, and arbors of vines, cover a great deal of the ground. The Turks have fix mosques here, adorned with minarets; the Jews a synagogue; the Romanists a convent, or hofpitium, occupied by the Fathers of the Holy Land; the Copts a district, with feveral churches, in one of which is the cave, where, as tradition will have it, the blessed Virgin reposed, when she went into Egypt: the Fathers of the Holy Land, pay a certain annual fum to the Copts, for the privilege of saying mass in this cave. The water-house is a work of the Saracens; and may once have been a palace.' At present there are four mills, with chains of earthen pots: they are worked by oxen, and supply the aqueduct that conveys the water to the castle of Grand Cairo. One of the moft remarkable edifices here, is Joseph's Granary. It covers a great deal of ground, is encompassed with a wall, is divided into several apartments, and is the repofitory of corn, collected from the several districts in Egypt, as a tribute to the Grand Signior. As the top is open, the doves, and other birds, come daily, and in great numbers, to feed upon the corn.
The doors are shut only with wooden bolts, but the Inspectors of the granary, after they have shut a door, take
* Basar is the market.
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