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After this account of the Jews, our Author describes the other inhabitants of Alexandria., s svislab jon 29pbs

The Turks govern the city; the garrisons in both the Phas rillons, and another in the town, consist of Turks, who are under the command of an Aga. They have also a Cadis orci vil magistrate : the rest of them are either mechanics or little shop keepers. They have few merchants among thems, but these few are richer than they would seem to be bi bio 3 515

There are many Christians, (Copts, Greeks, and Armenians) at Alexandria; where, however, they make no great figure, but support themselves as the Turks do; only with this difference, that, excepting a few of the more opulent Greeks and Armenians, they are generally despised. The Patriarch of the Copts, who calls himself the successor of St. Mark the Evangelift, fits in that Apostle's chair, in this city, tho’his ordinary residence is at Cairo. basta od to obtowdBaidul

Al Europeans are called Franks. The chief of them are French and Englith; the former of whom boast that they make themselves most respected; but the latter have, perhaps, a great advantage over them in matters of commerce. ris The French have a Conful, who depends upon another at Grand Cairo. He is placed here by the French Plenipotentiary at Constantinople, and has a fort of secretary, who carries on the correspondences, determines all differences between merchants and captains of French vessels, and is therefore called Le Chancelier * The Consul has also another officer, called the Drogmant, or interpreter, who interferes in all disputes that may happen between the French and the Turks. He has a priest, and a chapel, in a very large house, where he relides, with the greatest part of the people of his nation: the rest live in separate houses. He does not appear to cara ty on any trade for himself; and is seldom seen abroad, that he may not become too familiar: for the vanity of the French, according to our Author, is such, that they, not only shew him all the respect in their power, but would have other nations entertain the highest ideas of his person and character; and it is not their fault, if he is not believed to be of the blood royal. He never takes a trip to Rosetta, but he hoists the white enlign on his flag-staff; and when he goes out of, or enters, the port, is saluted with a general discharge of cannon from all the French ships in the harbour. To support this magnificence, they pay a considerable duty, or tax, to their Conful, and they

* Caricelier, is the general name for this officer, all over the Levant, to whatsoever nation he belongs. bezorts o suoritut 2990043 tTergiman or Dragoman, in Turkish, an Interpreter.

have another tax upon houses, or goods, to defray the exa pences of providing for the common security, and for recom: pensing such as may have suffered by the infolence and oppresfion of the Turks. These duties oblige them to raise the price of their commodities, and, confequently, lay them under a disadvantage, from which the English, who pay no duty but that to the Consul, are entirely free. The English live in a more familiar manner with one another, and with their Conful, than the French do. They are quiets and mind their business; but if there is any thing to be got, they are sure to have their share : if any difficulties arise, they withdraw, and leave to the French the honour of determining them,

The Author here takes up almost three pages, in tell: ing a story of a Janiffary, Bravo to fome Greek women, who kept a house for the entertainment of failors. The French Consul finding it of very bad confequence to his country, men, forbad them going to the house; which exasperated the Janiffary so much, that he infulted the French, wherever he met them. The government refused to meddle in the affair. The French, therefore, applied to the magistrates at Cairo, and procured a Sious * or black-head (Tête-noire) to be sent, who banished both the Greek women, and the Janisfary. But the wives of the Bravo supposing that their husband was fentenced to be drowned, gathered a mob, and attacked the Consul's house. The Janiffaries on guard there, could not protect it, till reinforced by others sent by the Englifh Consul, and by the Sious. The commotion lafted till night; when, satisfied that the sentence was only banishment, the rioters were appealed.

The Venetians and the Dutch had once an establishment here ; but the Contuls themselves became bankrupts. There are now but few vessels that arrive from those nations, or from the Swedes, who are likewise in alliance with the Porte ; and they are all at the mercy of the person who farms the duties : except fame Venetian vefsels which arrive under French colours, and are protected by the Conful of that nation.

Our Author knew of no other Europeans who traded to Alexandria. The Turkish vessels that arrive here belong to the Sultan, and come every year for the Grand Signor's Cat Fatt, which is paid in merchandize. The Bacha of Cairo collects it, and sends a Bey from Cairo to Conftantinople with it.

Sija fignifies black in the Turkish language. † Charag or har az, fignifies tribute, and by this name is álways meaut, the capitation, or poll-taxi


Whilf Mr. Norden was at Alexandria, a Turkish Acet came there, for three thousand men, which Egypt was to furnish, as its contingent, during the war between the Porte and the Emperor of Germany. These soldiers, consisting of Affaffs * and Janiffaries, committed many and great outrages in the two months they staid at Alexandria: they robbed and pillaged almost every body, and, in particular, a French merchant, of one thousand Shequiris, which the French Consul tried, but in vain, to recover.

There are two sorts of vessels seen every day in the harbour; the larger, called Saiks, go to Damiette, and other ports of the Levant; the Vérgues t, or other vessels, are employed in bringing from Rosette, and Dárniette, the merchandises of Eutope, or carrying to those ports the merchandises of Cairo, that are designed to pass into Europe.

During the three weeks Mr. Norden staid at Alexandria, he frequently repaired to certain places that lay at' no great distance from the city, which enabled him to give fix drawings of different views of towns, mosques, and castles, situate in or near Delta: but we can say no more of these copper-plates, than that the designs are finely executed by Tuscher, who engraved them, as well as a considerable number of the lefler ornaments : of which there are a great many in this work.

Before our. Author departs from Alexandria, to go into Upper Egypt, he gives his advice to travellers into this country: that they take care to get a good Banker ; that they dress in the habit of a Turk, get a pair of whiskers, and affume an air of gravity and importance; and that they take into their service a Janiffary who talks Lingua Franka, knows the country, and will protect them against the inhabitants. As the Drogman belonging to the French is generally one that has been brought up in the country, and a perfect master of the language and customs thereof, he may be of great use to travellets. Three things they should carefully avoid; not to attempt the going into mosques, forts, or other prohibited places; not to dig about, or break any ancient monument, as ihe Turks will believe your design is to carry off some great treasu e; not to indulge a passion for the other sex : fome young merchants having been murdered on that account; and others, who were assured by their Janiffaries, that they had been favoured by women of great distinction, have met with diseases they could never be cured of. They must also take care never to strike

* Azeb, signifies a Centinel in the Turkish language.
4. Perhaps Barca or Barks.
Rev. Oct. 1755.


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a Muflulman; for if they escape with life, it will at least coft them all they are worth.

Cairo * the capital of Egypt, is situate to the east of the Nile, a little above the place where the river divides to form the Delta. There are two towns, one called New, the other Old-Cairo. As the description of this great city is so well known, our Author contents himself with three remarks the first relates to the opening the califh, or canal, which, during the time of the Nile's increase, conveys the water to Grand Cairo. As this canal passes through the country, it looks like a neglected ditch. In the city it has a better afect, but is not very broad any where; at the place where the waters of the Nile enter, it may be about 15 or 20 feet wide. When the Nile rises, the pallage which admits it into the calish is thut, by means of a bank of earth raised there, on which is marked the time for opening this, and all other canals in the kingdom. On the appointed day, the Basha and Beys repair to this place, with a grand retinue, to aslift at the ceremony of opening the canal. They are placed under a tent on one side, and the Copts and Jews are employed in cutting the dyke. Some dirty fellows, in a miserable bark, throw nuts and melons, and other trash, into the water, as it enters; and the Basha flings away fome parats (small pieces of money), while a poor fort of fire-work, consisting of about twenty rockets, is played off. The people on seeing the Nile risen to that height which fertilises their fields, and insures them an abundant harvest, indulge in a thousand extravagances. In particular, they'expreis their joy by the most ļascivious dances: moreover, the tumult is so great, that not a year paffes, in which some one, or other, does not lose his life. Thus ends this contemptible ceremony, which former travellers have described in very magnificent terms. Of this festival, our Author has given us a fine representation among his designs.

Our Author next mentions the famous well of Jofeph. Its mouth is 18 feet wide, by 24 long; but the whole depth, 276, from the upper wheel, to the bottom of the water. This depth is divided into two parts ; for at 146 feet from the top, is a resting-place, to which height the water is raised by means of another wheel, with a chain of earthen buckets: this second place is not so large as above, being but 15 feet long, by nine wide; its height allo nine. The whole well is cut out in the rock, and so artificially performed, that the rock ferves as a wall, or

* The Arabic name of this place is Maffer, Al Kehir, from whence the Europeans have made Cairo, iigmfes fimply, I HECITY; and is bere used by way of pre-emincrce for the metropolis of Igypt.



rampart, in going down on the side of the well; and at proper distances, passages are made for the admission of light, which comes from the mouth of the well; and the oxen go down the fame way to draw up the water by the second wheel. From this place to the bottom, is another descent; in like manner as the first, only not fo large, being but three or four feet wide, and fix high, and without any parapet on the sides. It is entire ly:open, which makes the descent very dangerous. At the bottom of this last descent is the spring, or balon, which is about nine or ten feet deep. The water tastes brackish, and therefore is not used for drinking, but in time of fiege, or other distress.

His third remark relates to weights and measures, and merchandise : for which, as there is nothing very entertaining in names and numbers, we refer our readers to the book itfelf; and proceed with our Author to Old Cairo.

This antient city, of which Mr. Norden has three views, is fituated on the edge of a great canal, which detaches the island of Rodda from the main land. Its length, reckoning from the ma. chine that raises the water of the aqueduct to Bafar*, is about a quarter of a French league; and its greatest breadth, taken from the Hofpitium to the canal, is about 500 common paces; the rest is very unequal, and its extréméties are bounded by common houses. Most of the buildings, excepting those in which the labouring people live, are receffes for people of diftinction, when the Nile overflows. There are many gardens; and datetrees, and arbors of vines, cover a great deal of the ground. The Turks have fix mosques here, adorned with minarets; the Jews a synagogue; the Romanists a convent, or hofpitium, occupied by the Fathers of the Holy Land; the Copts a district, with feyeral churches, in one of which is the cave, where, as tradition will have it, the blessed Virgin reposed, when she went into Egypt: the Fathers of the Holy Land, pay a certain annual sum to the Copts, for the privilege of saying mass in this cave. The water-house is a work of the Saracens; and may once have been a palace.' At present there are four mills, with chains of earthen pots: they are worked by oxen, and fupply the aqueduct that conveys the water to the castle of Grand Cairo. One of the moft remarkable edifices here, is Jofeph's Granary. It covers a great deal of ground, is encompassed with a wall, is divided into several apartments, and is the repository of corn, collected from the several districts in Egypt, as a tribute to the Grand Signior. As the top is open, the doves, and other birds, come daily, and in great numbers, to feed upon the corn. The doors are fhut only with wooden bolts, but the Inspectors of the granary, after they have shut a door, take

Basar is the market.

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