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Britain and Ireland. If our Author is not always correct, there is this in his favour, that he appears to have spared no pains to get information, and to have consulted proper materials. We have, indeed, differed from him in the arrangement of his accounts, and with a double view; one, for the ease of our readers, the other, for the sake of taking up as little room as poffible. Under our circumstances, of being much in arrear for many publications, brevity, so far as it can be made compatible with due information, is the one thing, at present, particularly needful for us to study.
This Section concludes with an account of the Public Revenues of the island: these are of two sorts; one for the service, and under the immediate direction of the Crown, raised by established laws for that purpose.
1. ift, - By duties on foreign wines, and other spirituous liquors; on foreign indigo, cacoa, $ tobacco, cotton, and English refined sugar,
which, at a medium, for seven years past, « amount (annually) to about
I 1000 o 2dly, By the quit-rents of about one mil6 lion and five or six hundred thousand acres of 6 land, that are already patented in that island,
and pay at the rate of a halfpenny per acre ; ¢ and the interest on quit-rent bonds, at 10 per
cent, which, taken at a medium for several ? years, amounts to
4000 OO 3dly, By escheats and casualties, which $ seldom amount to less than
(0) 16000 0 0
()! His Majesty has been graciously pleased to consent, that the monies (thus raised] should be always laid out in promoting the ' welfare and security of the island, and in paying the public Offi: cers, whose falaries he was pleased to consent should be regulated • and appointed in the following manner, viz.
202 IO O
I 2000 O
45 12 6
The other part is levied by certain imposts, proportioned to the occasional necellities of the Colony; nor can the monies so raised, be appropriated or disposed of without the consent and approbation of the community. These at present are, ist, By duties on wine, ruin, and other fpirituous liquors, • fold by retail (9), about
f. 8000 0 0 2dly, ' by a deficiency tax, or tax laid on ' such as do not keep and maintain a number of < white servants proportioned to the number of o their slaves and cattle. This tax was firft in« ftituted to promote the importation of white
people; and to oblige every man of interest
to encourage them, both for the safety and • welfare of the Colony; but the neglect of the
public on this occasion, now produces a settled revenue of about
8000 OO 3dly, By an impost on imported Negros, computed, at a medium, to produce about
£. 23500 OO Out of this sum the Governor, for the time being, we are told, is usually complimented with an additional salary of 2500l. a year, and every Officer of the regiment with an annual present; its further application is to encourage new settlers, to relieve the distressed, and promote industry.
In fection 4, the inhabitants, and their manner of living, are described; and a few natural curiofities mentioned: The inhabitants our Author has, not injudiciously, clafled into Planters, Settlers, Merchants, and Dependents; besides Negros.
Не appears to have studied the manners of each class with some attention, and to have done equal justice to the several characters. With respect to their method of living, their buildings, furniture, and habits, are, as in other countries, proportioned to their fortunes. The rich live fumptuously every day; and those in inferior circumstances, as well as they can.-The curiofities here noticed are, 1. The
(9) Kingston alone, according to our Author, pays to this tax about 1151. a week; which is more than two thirds of the whole produce. Confidering the number of shipping places round the Nand, in most, if not all which, there are tippling houses, resorted to by the sailors, who are generally known to be no enemies to liquor, nor very fparing of their money, it may, perhaps, be doubted whether the produce of this tax is not here somewhat under-rated.
Water-fall in Mamee river, a little above Bull-Bay, in the parish of Port-Royal. 2. The Cascade, and 3. the Grotto, both in the Parish of St. Anne. 4. The Fogs in the parish of St. Thomas in the Vale. The last of these will fall under our notice, with more propriety, 'when the latter part of the Doctor's work comes before us: and the three first appear too immaterial to command a particular regard here; for which reason we shall, at present, take leave of our Author, reserving the consideration of his natural History, to another opportunity.
An Essay on the Origin of Human Knowlege. Being a supple
ment to Mr. Locke's Elay on the Human Understanding. Transated from the French of the Abbé de Condillac, Member of the Royal Academy of Berlin. By Mr. Nugent. 8vo. 55. Nourfe.
N the year 1689 the celebrated Mr. Locke published his
that work, he proposed to himself, not glory, but improvement.
Unsatisfied with the prevailing opinions of that age, concerning the source from whence knowlege is derived, and wanting to inform himself how far the human mind could proceed with certainty of evidence in its speculations, he entered into his own mind, reviewed the materials of his own knowlege, discovered whence they came, and marked the bounds of their extent. His book was the transcript of that fair and accurate enquiry: a transcript fo fair, that it always approves itself to the understanding of every man capable of peruling it; and so accurate, that it hath served ever since for the groundwork of every other investigation of the kind.
Among the principal books bearing any affinity to Mr. Locke's subject, there are three which seem to have most deservedly attracted the attention of the public: one by the late Bishop of Cloyne, printed in the year 1710, entitled, A Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowlege
. Another by the late Lord Bolingbroke, entitled, An Elay concerning the Nature, Extent, and Reality of Human Knowlege. third by the Abbé de Condillac ; of which we now proceed to give an account.
This ingenious Abbé divides his work into two parts. The first treats of the materials of our knowlege, and particularly of the operations of the mind; and the second, of language
and method. In the conduct of his enquiries on both these fubjects, he owns his obligations to two of our countrymen: to Locke, almost every where; and to Warburton, in the fecond part of this Essay. This afforded an occasion to Mr. Nugent, the Translator of this work, to dedicate the book to Dr. Warburton. The dedication is followed by the Translator's preface, which gives us a very striking picture of the philofophic character of our sagacious Abbé, whom we cannot but admire for his disinterested and unbiased pursuit of truth. We are not only pleased with his aim, but with the ability. he discovers in accomplishing his intention; and what not only gains our admiration, but fixes our esteem, is the ingenuity and candor with which he acknowleges an error, and corrects a mistake. But we refer our Readers to the Translator's preface, where they will find this account of the Abbé strongly supported, not only by obfervations on the performance now under our confideration, but by a subsequent piece, entitled, A Treatise on Sensation ; with an analysis of which, Mr. Nugent has favoured the public.
The principal design of the Abbé de Condillac, in the first part of his Essay, is to explain to us how the mind opens, and how its functions spread. To this first part, and principal intention of our Abbé, we shall at present confine ourselves ; for as to the materials of our knowlege, he produces nothing new. Our abstract take as follows; it is almost
where in the words of the Translator.
The perception, or impression, caused in the mind by the agitation of the senses, is the first operation of the understanding. In vain would outward objects folicit the senses; the mind would never have any knowlege of them, did it not perceive them. Hence the first and smallest degree of knowlege is perception.
But since perception arises only from the impressions made on the senses, it is certain, that this first degree of knowlege will have more or less extent, according as men are organized to receive a greater or less variety of sensations.
Among several perceptions, which we are conscious of at the same time, it frequently happens, that we are more strongly apprized of the existence of one of them, than of that of all the rest. Nay, the more our conscioufness of some increases, the more will that of the others diminish. This operation, by which our consciousness concerning particular perceptions is so greatly increased, that they seem to be the only perceptions of which we take notice, I call Attention.
I discern therefore two forts of perceptions among those we are conscious of; some which we remember at least the moment after, others which we forget the very moment they are impressed. We not only, in the ordinary course of things, forget a part of our perceptions; but, sometimes, we forget them all. If the several objects around me, acting upon my senses with an almost equal force, produce perceptions in my mind, all of them nearly of the same degree of vivacity; and if I acquiesce in the impression they make, without striving to obtain a higher degree of consciousness concerning one than another ; I fall retain no idea at all of what has passed within me. Let us therefore conclude, that we are incapable of giving any account of the greatest part of our perceptions, not because we were not conscious of them, but that we forget them the next moment.
Our attention is engaged by external objects, in exact proportion as they suit our constitution, passions, and state of life. This suitableness of objects causes them to act upon us with greater force, and to impress us with a more lively sensation. To this it is owing, that when a change is made in us, we view the same objects differently, and form quite contrary judgments of them. Men are generally so apt to be deceived by this sort of judgments, that he who at different times sees and judges differently, thinks nevertheless that both now and then he fees and judges aright. And this bias becomes so natural to us, that led thereby to consider objects only as they regard ourselves, we never fail to censure the conduct of others, as much as we approve our own.
When objects attract our attention, the perceptions they produce within us are connected with our consciousness of ourselves, and of every thing relative to us. Hence it is, that consciousness not only gives us a knowlege of our perceptions, but also, if those perceptions be repeated, informs us that we had them before, and represents them as belonging to us, and as affecting, notwithstanding their variety and succesfion, a Being which is always the same self. Consciousness considered in regard to these new effects, is a new operation, which serves us every instant, and is the foundation of experience. Without it, each moment of our life would seem the first of our existence, and our knowlege would never extend beyond a first perception. I shall call it Reminiscence.
The progress of the operations, whose analysis and origin have been here explained, is obvious. At first there is only a fimple perception in the mind, which is no more than the impression it receives from external objects. Hence arise, in