Imágenes de páginas

What a miracle is this! (fays St. Chrysostom) he who fits above with the Father, at the very instant of time is'handled with the hands of men,--And again, That which is in the cop, is the same which Aowed from the lide of Chrift: (Theopbilact.) Because we abhor the eating of raw fleth, and efpecially human fleshy, therefore it appeareth as bread, tho'it is, indeed, flesh: (St. Auftin.) Chrift was carried in his own hands, when he said, this is my body : (St. Ambrose. It is bread before it is consecrated, but when that ceremony hath passed upon it, of bread it becomes the Aeth of Chrift. Thus much for the Fathers. If now we resort to the Script ture itself, it is plain that our Saviour's own words, literally understood, do carry the meaning which the Papifts affix to them. This is my body; this is my blood. My flesh is méat, indeed; my blood is drink, indeed.utkinoi3 9949

Now in what manner is all this to be got the better of? Here we have the authority of the Church, the sense of the Fathers, and the plain words of Scripture, all bearing teftimo wy, with their united force, to the truth of Tranfubftantia tion: by what superior weight of argument, is this threefold cord to be broke through? is there any other method of doing it, than by having recourse to the Reason of the thing? We bring the doctrine to be tried at the bar of human Rea. fon, we there find it inconsistent with the clear principles of Reafon ; and hence confidently pronounce, that it is, in its own nature, impoffible. Against this, indeed, the authority of the Church is a cobweb, the opinions of Fathers lighter than air; and we affirm, that our Saviour's words 'mult neceffarily be taken in a figurative sense, because it is impoffible they should be true in a literal one. But here steps out Dr. Patten, and roundly tells us, that the impossibility of a doctrine is no argument against its being revealed; for he affums, a revelation may come from God, tho it contains things inconfiftent with the conceptions of man. "Now no proportion is inconsistent with the conceptions of man, otherwile than as it contradicts the Reason of man, and it then only contradiéts his Reason, when he clearly perceives it to be impossible. The confequence of all this is, that Transubstantiation may be trúc, for any thing Dr. Patteri can have to say against it.' The fame sort of weapon we have, and such only, to beat down - another doctrine with a hard náme, Predestination ; for my

part, I have nothing elle against it, but that it is inconfiftent * With the conceptions of my mind concerning the nature and attributes of God; it contradicts my ideas of divine good


[ocr errors]

mess, cand justice, and this makes it impossible for me to be lieve it could

d be St. Paul's meaning, consistently with my belief of his having been inspired. 6 2730s l'eds diw

srods Thus we fee with whom it is, that these decriers of rear son unite, and to what point

they would lead usus And hence there is some room to fulpect, after all our boastings and pas rade that popery is not kept out of this nation by dint of argument and fair realoning, was not the door against it barred by good and wholelome laws, it is much to be feared, it would pour in upon us like a deluge; with writers of Dr P's stamp, it is certain, the papists have greatly the advantage in every Atep of the dispute; no body can give so good realons for the exclusion of reason, and to consistently with them selves as they do. It were to be wished, we would no longer give them an opportunity of taking up our own arms, and turning them against ourselves. Let us be convinced, that the least restraint upon reason is injurious to the protestant cause; reasoning may weaken a false religion; a true one has nothing to fear from it: true religion can contain nothing in it but what is

what is reasonable, and what is in itself reasonable, it is a paradox to say, Reason can ever hurt. sciwid 101

TRUOT 24ợng 30 63 6700 biot Syruid sel te not9 Al dt of Shunay matinada -44 116 To 5 to plano The Causes of Heat and Cold in the several Climates and Situa

indians of this Globe, so far as they depend upon the Rays of the 1917, Sung gandered, in order to few, that the difference of heat con and gold in other countries may be nearly ascertained by a therside Prometer, :: By. I, Sheldrake. 8vo. Is. Cooper. 10 160 202190

Log THIS Differtation, which contains about forty pages, is ente dedicated to the Earl of Macclesfield, Prefident of the Royal Society, and by the dedication we learn, that this tract hath been honoured with a favourable hearing before that

Society, zid And, indeed, whether we consider the intention of the Asthor, or his manner of reasoning, or the success which seems atas have attended his conjectures, wherein he hath displayed omo small degree of phlosophical sagacity, no less could be due it to him than a favourable hearing. VIR 18 Almost infinite, says this Writer, " is the variety of obtostjects that employ the lenle of vision, and among these, the Boring flowers that rite spontaneously to adorn and beautify the face - Scof mature, are not the least engaging. They have charms to allure and gratify the organs of vition, and of imelling;

• they

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

they have wisdom and contrivance in their forms and structure, to engage the study of the philosopher, and to excite meditation in the divine and as their beauty charms our eye, their virtues administer to the relief of every animal, in the care of various maladies, It is not, therefore, cum

riofity, or ornament, alone, that induces us to with we • could teach the vegetable productions of other countries, to

grow in English ground; but health and piety join our ideas < of beauty, and all persuade the culture of every fair and use

ful Aower, herb, vegetable, and tree, whether it be the

growth of this, or the remoteft, clime.--As we have no < certain rule for determining the heat, that exotic plants

may require in summer, nor, unless by dear-bought expe

rience, what degree of cold they could, with safety, bear in • winter, I was led to consider, whether it might not be por<fible to discover fome method, for determining how much 6 less the cold of the winter, in more southern climates, might • be, than in ours; and in what proportion their heat allo, e might probably exceed that of our summer, by adjusting a

thermometer id, as to ascertain the difference; that if it • were possible we might, by the affiftance of good green« houses, thermometers, and stoves, have the pleasure of see<ing exotics here, in almost the same beauty and perfection as in their native countries."

3:31༔ t3 From the above quotation, the tendency of our Author's meditations begins pretty fully to appear. The train of thinking, which, on this occasion, presented itself to him, is somet what singular. We shall

, therefore, fairly place it before our Readers, keeping as closely to Mr. Sheldrake's own terms, as succinctness and perspicuity will permit.

The difference of fealons, says he, as well as the different degrees of heat or cold, depend upon the changes of the pofition of this globe, with respect to the sun, the only visible fountain of warmth and life.--From repeated observations, the natural state of this globe seems to be, what we call temperate, or an intermediate degree between hot and cold This natural warmth of the earth is what secures springs, and all other bodies, from being frozen ; few winters proving fo coid, as to penetrate the earth to more than twelve or four- . teen inches below the surface. The transitions from heat to cold, in the air embracing our globe, are chiefly owing to the elevation and depreslion of the poles, which cause so great a change in the fituation of the earth, that the obliquity and perpendicularity in which the rays of the sun fall, are continually in a state of variation; according to which warmth is


[ocr errors]

perpetually increasing or diminishing.–So far as action and reaction occasioned by reflection, conduce to the production of heat, fo far also will the continuance of the fun's presence, with the flowness of his motion, be found to increase that heat: and, on the contrary, cold will be increased by the obliquity, of his rays, the swiftnefs of his motion, and the time of his abfence below the horizon. -Upon these principles it would appear, that a regular increafe of heat should always follow the approach of the fun, and as gradual a decrease of warmth, or increase of cold, always attend his departure; but this is not fo, either on the Continent, or the Iands. There are many accidents to prevent it; such as the situation of hills, moun tains, and the declivity of land from a true plane : for if the descent be towards the fouth, it will be warmer than it would be, sf towards the north. Clouds also will sometimes propagate heat by reflection, and water-clouds will make the air cool. Winds from the South, if without rain, and from the fouth-welt

, always increafe warmth; as, on the contrary, winds from the east, north-east, north, and north-west, always bring a colder air with them. Whenever water becomes a reflecting plane, the smoothness of its surface increases very much the heat of the fun's rays: and, certain it is, that all bodies, whose surfaces, being polished, reflect light, reflect heat also along with it the degree of which will bear a just proportion to the closeness of the pores, and extent, convexity, or concavity of the surface. Besides, heat is always increased, or diminished, as the colour of the body, on which the rays

of the fun fall, is light or dark, or admits of different shades from white to black; and as the furface of the body is ragged ars smooth.'1 Black absorbs light, and if the furface be rough, it will grow warm much fooner than if it were smooth : white, on the contrary, reflects light and heat, and that more vigoroafly from a polished surface. The fame holds true of all intermediate degrees of colour, in proportion as they recede from the grand opposites, black and white. Heat increases by the continuance of action, notwithstanding what caused it grows weaker ;' and cold increases, notwithstanding the sun's approach, till his thinly disperfed rays become closer collected together, and his prefence is longer with us. When a body is hot, a less degree of heat will preserve that heat, than was required to generate it; and fo, on the contrary, wich refpe&t to bodies that are cold, more heat is required to put the parts in motion again, than will keep them so, when once agitated, upit - 1160), 535

It in!


[ocr errors]


It is certain, that all parts of this globe enjoy the same quantity, or nearly fo, of the sun's prelence, in the fpace of a year; and it is certain, that all places do not enjoy the fame quantity of heat from his presence. As the sun's motion from north to fouth, and from south te north, is confined between the tropics, so is his motion swifter there, than in any other part of the globe: and the nearer he approaches the equator, so much the swifter is his motion from east to weit, and from north to fouth, and south to north. This will-appear from the following observation. The sun passes from three degrees, thirty minutes, fouth latitude, to three degrees, thirty minutes, north latitude, being together seven degrees in about eighteen days ; whereas, when the sun enters Gemini on the 21st day of May, at twenty degrees north latitude, he fpends one entire month in going three degrees and thirty mis nutes, or till he enters Cancer, and touches the northern tropic; and another month in returning back from the tropic, till he arrives at Leo, on the 234 of July: in all which time, being fixty-seven days, the sun is as near to the tropic as he was before to the equator for eighteen days. Hence it appears reasonable to suppose, notwithstanding the fun passes the equator twice in the space of twelve months, that as he spends only thirty-six days in these two tranfits, the heat under either of the tropics may be as great, if not greater, than under the line. Secondly, for a further proof of the probability, that the heat under the tropic is as great, if not greater, than under the line, I shall just observe the difference of velocity in the sun's motion, at the above mentioned different places, on the surface of the globe. Under the equator, the sun, in one hour, moves fifteen degrees, each degree containing fixty geometrical miles; that is, he moves nine hundred miles in an hour: whereas under the tropic, tho' in an hour he moves the same number of degrees, yet as each degree there contains only fifty-five such miles, the velocity of his motion there is only at the rate of eight hundred and twenty-five miles in the hour; i. e. the fun travels feventy-five miles lefs in Co

hour, under one of the tropics, than under the equator. * The motion of the fun then being flower under the tropic, may we not with reason suppose, that by his being nearly so long vertical, and withal his motion so much flower, the heat may thereby be raised to a more intense degree here, than it is under the equinoctial line? It is also to be remembered in this place, that the fun, in our fummer half of the year, remains about one hundred and forty hours longer above the horizon, under the tropic, than above that under the equator; which


« AnteriorContinuar »