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* included in this celestial city: whole nations, as Cappado

cians, Scythians, and others, having in numberless multi« tudes at once settled in Rome." This boaft, in reality,

can relate only to the few quarters, or wards, where some o individuals of those 'nations, used chiefly to live. Vespa« fian's amphitheatre was about a hundred and fifty feet in

height; yet Ammianus Marcellinus, book xvi. C. 16. is pleased to say, that its height is scarce discernable by human eyes. In Pliny the elder's time, the eastern part of the city was terminated by the Agger Tarquini, or Tarquin's rampart, as it is to this day, and the monument of Cestius may

be concluded to have been the western bounds, as the 5 ancient Romans did not admit of tombs, or sepulchral mo

numents, within the city. Towards the Ponte Molle, as in modern times, there was an open plain, in which Conftantine the Great drew up his army in order of battle ; and the Vatican Mount is known to have been entirely without any buildings. "It is very probable, both from the present ruins, and parfages of ancient writers, that in most places the walls of the

modern city, were the limits of the ancient, and that the entire circumference of both was nearly equal; but

there is a very great difference in the number of the build. ings on the same ground plot; for the plan of modern Rome plainly shews, that one half of it is not built upon ; 6 and that those places on which the most splendid and magni• ficent structures anciently stood, are now turned to gardens, "fields, meadows, vineyards, and even waste ground. To • walk round the circuit of the city, including all the wind• ings and angles of the walls, takes up, at most, but four < hours, being about thirteen short Italian miles; whereas a

tour round Paris, and its suburbs, will require six or seven 6 hours.

« As to the number of inbabitants in ancient and modern Rome, Livy, lib. i. c. 44. informs us, that in the time of

Servius Tullius the citizens were computed at eighty thou(fand; which in the Consulship of Quintius, were increased Ito a hundred and twenty-four thouíand two hundred and « fourteen. (Idem. lib. jii, c. 3.) But it is not to be imagin• ed, that this number includes only such Roman citizens ag • were housekeepers at Rome; it rather comprehends all who

were made free of the city, though they resided in other

parts of the empire. This honour at first was not so cheap · as it was afterwards under the prevalence of corruption, when this privilege was lavishly bestowed on whole cities Rri

and

• an oinces; til at last the Emperor Antoninus declared • all heibiods of the Roman empire citizens of Rome, S and this finally abrogated the distination which otherwise • had fuiler id continual violation. At first, the Roman legi

0.75 cild only of citizens of Rome; but this was foon «acre The Luftra were intituted every fifth year for • tag an account of the number of the people, and the p

at proportion of the taxes. In the Dictatorship cortos Fabius Maximes, the Roman citizens amount

editconundred and fourteen thousand ; and this Luftrum

Wis a work of time, being carried on through all the pro• vinces. (Liv. lib. xxix. C. 37.), Before the civil wars, it • appears from Florus's eyitoire of Livy, that the number of • Roman citizers, at the hichest calculation, was four hunodreu and fry thousand; but generally they were reckoned • to be retwixt two and three hundred thousand, till the civil « discoris reduced them to a hundred and fifty thousand. This < cal ulation is attended with no difficulty, Plutarch and Ap

pian concurrir:g in it; and the latter says, that the civil “ wars had destroyed above half the Roman citizens." Sue. « tonius, c. xli, in Cæsare, informs us, “ that Cæfar dimi. 6 nittied the number of those to whom corn was diftributed ® out of the public granaries, and that only three hundred " and twenty thousand partook of that donation." But on « these occafions the question was not concerning citizenship, • bot indigence; and thus all the common people who pre& fented thenfelves were gratified. These calculations being « indifulle, we cannot but wonder at reading in Tacitus, • what he lays concerning the Emperor Claudius, Condidit

lujiruum, quo caufa funt civium LXVIIII cantera & LXIII . mill. "He ordered a Luftrum, by which the munter of « citizens was found to be fixty-nine claffes of a hundredi, S6 and fixty-four of a thousand each ;" for before, in the

Owo fome centuries, the number had increased but four . or fix fold. In the short interval between Cæsar's triumph

and Claudius's Loftrum, which, at most, was not above • eight years, according to this account, the proportion had

at once, as it were, roic forty-fix to one. This is either coming to the negligence of transcribers, or Tacitus had

formed his computation upon very different grounds from • Livy. Probly the case is, that in 'Tacitus's time the num" ber of serícos, men and women, old and young, intitled . cumference did not extend beyond the remains of its ancient

to the steedom of Rome, amounted to betwixt fix and fe« ven milions. They who ascribe to ancient Rome fuch an incredible number of inhabitants, if they allow that its cir7

cumference

walls, must have recourse to the height of the houtes, but to very little purpose: for Straho, in his fiiih bouk, mnen. tions an order of Auguftus, ayaint biking hours alove seventy feet high; and according to Aurelius Vicior, Trajan reduced the standard to fixty teet, which is equal butta about four or five stories; cfecially in het countries, TC low rooms are very inconvenient. Novi k is well kroeg

that this is the common height of the lour ac Vienna, l'a4. ris, and other modern capital cities, and conquertly in this point Rome had no particular advantage over then.

If Rome contained to many millions of fouls, Ikee little reason why Suetonius, in his Life of Niro, bond it it

down, as something very extraordinary, thepi nce « in one autumn had swept away no then thirty tho lind « people;” it being known from express that in one S-lous cities the annual number of natural deaths is abito

in twenty-fix, or thirty. Herice it is evident, tam z cies i containing four millions and a half of inhabitants, 2 corda

ing to the common course of nature, without any ratione interfering, must lose every quarter of a year above thing

thousand of its inhabitants. London contains a million of ? inhabitants *, and the burials are annually about twenty-sz

thousand; but the plague in King Charles the second's tine, 6 carried off ninety-seven thousand. Whatever was the min

ber of the inhabitants of ancient Rome, it greatly excited " those of modern Rome. It appears from Ciacconius's Life

of Gregory XI. that in 1376, all the fouls in Rome aboutita ed only to thirty-three thousand. In the quiet and bispry

reign of Pope Leo, according to Paulus Jovius, they'wers • increased to eighty-five thousand; but in the tumultuous

times, under Clement VII. they funk again fo low as thiriya ļ two thousand. In the year 1709, the number of births at • Rome, were three thousand fix hundred and fixty-two;

and the whole number of inhabitants amounted to a hud. d

thirty-eight thousand five hundred and fixty-eight. Arvas & these were forty Bishops, two thousand fix hundred and eighty-fix Priests, three thousand five hundred and fifty-nine

* In the year 1716, a wager was laid at Hanover, betwixt • Lord Wharton' and Count Monceau, concerning the number of

inhabitants of London, which the former affirmed to be fifteen • hundred thousand. The decision of this wager was referred, by

letter, to the Lord Mayor of London ; who allowed my Lord Wharton to be in the wrong, but judged the number to be, at leaft, eleven hundred thousand.

• Regulars,

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Regulars, one thousand eight hundred and fourteen Nuns, • three hundred and ninety-three

ee Courtezans, or common < Prostitutes, and fourteen Moors. In the above-mentoned

calculation, the Jews, who are generally above eight or

nine thousand, were not thought worthy to be included. • Five years after this calculation was made, viz. 1714, in o the month of July, Pope Clement XI. ordered Carraccioli s to take an account of all the inhabitants of Rome, which < then amounted to an hundred and forty-three thousands Śwhereas Paris can produce, at least, eight or nine hundred • by their yearly Bills of Mortality, them, and London still more, as may be evidently seen:

. • The last mentioned city, within these twenty years, has « increased prodigiously, and the difference between London 6 and Paris, will plainly appear to any one who takes a view 6 of Paris from the tower of Notre Dame, and of London

from the upper gallery of St. Paul's. As to the numbers of

inhabitants, London is better adapted for it than Paris, < which abounds with spacious convents, the inhabitants of « which bear little proportion to their largeness. The Seine 6 also employs but few people, whereas the many hundreds of s large vessels, and some thousands of boats, which ply on the

Thames, maintain more people than are usually found in a large city, Some conjecture may be formed of the number of inhabitants at London, from the consumption of eat

ables ; for, my Lord Townsend, in the year 1725, assured " the King of Prussia, at Herenhausen, which is confirmed by 6 exact registers, that, one day with another, it amounts to

twelve hundred oxen, besides which, above twenty thou• fand sheep, and twelve thousand hogs and calves, are con

sumed there every week *.

· The sovereignty of ancient Rome over a great part of & the world, may seem to raise it considerably above modern

Rome; but the latter also glories in a monarchy raised by

the profoundest policy, and by an artifice of a very fingular 6 nature; and in respect of dominion, especially before the s time of Luther, it almoft surpassed even ancient Rome, "ac* cording to Prosper's words ;

**According to Maitland's calculation for the same year, there were consumed in London, in 1725, 98,247 oxen, 711,123 * fheep and lambs, 194,760 calves, and 186,932 hogs, and a pro

portionable quantity of fish, fowl, and vegetables. I must be observad, that London is considerably increased since that time. The number of houses, according to the same author, in London, Westminster, and Southwark, is 95,968.

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Germany, &c. "Faa Cuput mundi quidquid non poffidet armis Relligione tenet.

SHOES VISIRIUS GIF piwai She is become the metropolis of the world, and those countries where her arms have not penetrated, she holds by «the tenure of religion."

ose With regard to external fplendor, its stately temples, and ! magnificent palaces, I am inclined to think that modern • Rome is fuperior to the ancient; at least in this particular • I differ from St. Austin, who, preferably to all other things, • wilhed to have seen Christum in carne, Paulum in ore, Romam in flore. * Christ in the flesh, St. Paul preaching, « and Rome in its ancient glory."

* What high ideas Petrarch entertained of the grandeur of ancient Rome, appears from the following beautiful lines of <that celebrated poet:

Qui fu quella di Imperio antica sede,
Temuta in pace e triomfante in guerra.
Fu! perch altro che il loco hor non si vede.
Quella che Roma fu giace, s' atterra.

Quejł cui l'herba copre e calia il piede
Fur moli ad ciel vicine, & hor son terra,
Roma che'l mondo vinfe, al tempo cede,

. 1917

Che i piani inalza, e che l'altezza atterra.

Roma in Roma non e, Vulcano e Marte
La Grandezza di Roma a Roma han tolta,
Struggendo l'opre e di Natura e di Arte
Volio, obopra il mondo e'n polve e volta.
E fra queste ruine à terra fparte y

In se Pella cadea morta e sepolta.
m Here stood th' august and ancient seat of empire,
w « In war victorious, dreaded ev'n in peace ;

Here food, alas! its place is only seen, 3845. And what was Rome lies buried in its ruins.

" Those lofty structures, whose aspiring heads
« Tow'r'd up to heav'n, are levelPd with the earth,
“ O'ergrown with weeds and trampled under foot.
« Rome, which was once the mistress of the world,
« Yields to the tooth of all-devouring time,
“ Which levels heights, and raises humble plains.
“ Rome is no longer Rome.-The fire and sword
“Her grandeur have destroy'd, and laid in dust
« The noble works of nature and of art;
“ And here her scatter'd fragments lie interr’d.”

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