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113 But fince Petrarch's time things are very much altered at 1$ Rome; befides, the veneration for antiquity, and the natu6-ral prejudice of mankind in favour of things loft or absent, of that are present and Atrike the rear outlight from those

doth not wholly confift in the multitude of ftatues, and the + enormous extent and largeness of publia edifices, fuch as

were the pride of ancient Rome and as Europe át present cannot sbew any structure equal in beauty and maghihcence

to St. Peter's church in the modern city; lo le question whe*ther Nero's golden palace, or any of the temples in anċične

Rome, could be compared to this noble edifice: 6pm 2. Qui miseranda vidét veteris Hic poterit meritò dicere: Roma fuit.

Eta 19 Aft qui celsa nove fpectat Palatia Rome,

Poste Itali Hic poterit merito dicere : Roma vigat.

11:05%, ima 1066 Whoever beholds the ruinous remains of ancient Rome, may well fay, Rome is no more; but who

whoever turns his eyes « towards the fplendid palaces of new Rome, may as Justly “ say, Rome ftill flourishes.**.

When the vaft fums remitted to this city, from all Ro* man-catholic countries, are cơnsidered, it is no longer a

wonder, that, with such resources, it has weathered fo many severe storms. It is but a few.centuries since the

power • of the Pope was such, that feveral Monarchs not only paid him

a yearly tribute, but, if they offered to act contrary to his Holiness's pleasure, or did not in every thing fully comply with his commands, tumults, excommunications, and sometimes

the loss of their crownis and dominions, were the con" sequence, and this without any respect of perfons, or diftinc

tion of nations. St. Antoninus obferves, that the words of • David, in the viith Plalm, viz. Thou ba't put all things under his feet; "all Sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the

field, ""the fowl of the air, and the fiß of the sea, were literally ac

complished in the Pope. The sheep, according to that fagacious Commentator, fignify the Christians; the oxen, the Jerus ; the beasts of the field, the Pagans, the fowls of the air, good and evil angels*; and lastly, by the fijbes of the sea, are

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Concerning the Pope's prerogative over angels, I remember « in a manuscript of Pope Clement the Vith's buli for the jubilee • of the year 1950, kept in the city library at 'Utrecht, to have : read these words: Mandamus Angelis Paradis, quod animam illius

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meant the fouls in Purgatory. The orthodox cannot take offence at this interpretation, as they are compared to that

innocent serviceable creature the fheep ; but the Hereotics are, little obliged to Urbano Cerri, who, in his State of y the Romith church, always speaks of them as unclean sf beasts; and with his Elogium on Pope Innocent XI. for 2. his zealous persecution of Heretics, he introduces fome fer3. Went exhortations, encouraging him to go on; profanely ofrapplying these words, in the Acts of the Apostles, to the Ros

man Pontiff Rife, Peter, kill and eat out Angist The great power of the Pope must be attended with a ve,

ry large revenue, were it to confift only of the profits aris

ng from Dispensations, Annates, Palls, Canonizations, • &. But the wealth of those families, whose good fortune

it has been to have one of their relations exalted to the pas pal dignity, is a convincing proof of this; for, notwithItanding the Pope's profuse way of living, they leave overgrown fortunes, both in land and money, to their heirs. - How thote fortunes are raised is well known to the Ottoboni,

Altieri, Chigi, Pamfili, Barberini, Borghese, Ludovisi, and other Cafe Papaline, or papal families. It has been computed, that Urban VIII, who was one of the Barbe

rini, left to his family above twenty-four millions of Roman Scudi*, and this partly accrued from the confiscati

ons of the effects of three thousand unhappy persons who were put to death by the inquisition. dir. 1. The family arms of Pope Innocent XII. are three cups,

which he ordered to be inverted, implying, that instead of filling, he intended to pour out and distribute, adding this motto, Aliisa non fibi. To others, not to himself;' but Pasquin placed the comma after the word non, and thus quite altered the meaning, though with too much truth.

The lands and revenues of the Pope are managed by the Apoftolic Chamber, where the employments are so lucrative, that the more considerable are sold for eighty or a hundred thousand dollars t. Collations to ecclefiaftical benefices, dispensations, &c. are made out in the Datary, so called from the usual signature Datum Romæ apud sanctum

sri yd viftis bus a Purgatorio penitus absolutam in Paradisi gloriam introducini. . " We require and command the Angels of Paradise that, as we “ have discharged his soul from Purgatory, they will immediately carry it to the joys of Paradise."

About 6,000,000l. fterling. + ! About 22,500l.' ferling.

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Petrum,

· Petrum, &c. when the Pope is at the Vatican, and apud

fanctam Mariam majorem, when he is at the Quirinal pa

lace. Every instrument, after passing through the Datary, o comes into the Secretary of State's office, of which the Da

tary is but, as it were, a department. The Rota is a kind of Parliament, or fuperior court of judicature.

The highest affembly is the Consistory, where the Cardinals fit and vote; and, on some particular occasions, there

is free admittance into this court, as happened on the uth < of February last, at the promotion of Cardinal Şalviati. « About nine in the morning the Cardinals met in their long " robes and mantelets of ermine, but without any black spots « on their heads they wore red fulk caps, thaped almoft like those of the Jesuits

. The Cardinals who had been Regu·lars, appeared in the habit of their order, made of a thin • cloth. The Pope came in a clofe episcopal vestment of • gold tissue, with a mitre, embroidered with gold, on his • head; and on each side of his fcat, which was elevated « above the rest, and under a canopy, was placed a large fan, « made of white pea-cock's * feathers. The Cardinals fat on « the second bench from the floor, the first bench being assignsed for their Caudatarii, or train-bearers: the Pope being « seated, the Cardinals, with their robes sweeping the ground, « came up to him, according to their feniority, to make the • usual falutationt. Afterwards Salviati being called in, he • appeared in the habit of a Cardinal ; and having first kissed the · Pope's foot, and then his right hand, his Holiness embraced 6 him.

After this ceremony, he went about and killed all o the Cardinals. In the mean time a motion was read in

Latin, concerning a canonization to be deliberated on, lit« tle of which being understood, no body seemed to give any « heed to it. This round of falutations being over, the

'' That the antients made their Arbellas, or fans, of pea-cocks • feathers, may be seen from Montfaucon's Antig. exp. (uppl.

tom.i. tab. 2. Such also were the fans made use of by the Dead

cons for driving away the flies, that they might not fall into the 'chalice, (Anselmus, lib. ii, Ep 162. Durandus, lib. iv. c. 35. 'n 8, 9, and the author of the Constitutiones Apoftolicæ ;) and

among the Greeks, to this day, such a fabellum is put into the • hand of the Deacon at his ordination

+* It is only at the adoration on his election, and at the coro. ' nation of a Pope, that the Cardinals kiss his feet.

1. Every canonization is rated at a hundred thousand Roman • fcudi, or 21,2501. ftcrling; and in the year 1712, there happened no less than four.'

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new Cardinal was again lead to the papal chair, where his • Holiness, during the recital of some prayers, put the red - hat on his head, but it was immediately taken off again.

When a memorial or petition is delivered to the Pope, < and returned with Lectum written on it, it is an ill omen, « indicating, that it has indeed been read, but, at least for • the present, will not be granted; this manner of softening • a denial has some affinity with the phrafe used by Henry IV. • of France, Nous verronsWe'll see."

The Pope's military forces, whether by land or sea, make no great figure. The place where any of his soldiers are to • be Teen, are the castle of St. Angelo, Civita Vecchia, Ura • bino, Ferrara, and some small forts on the frontiers, The • Pope's Swiss guards are well paid, and cloathed; yet their • chief employment is to keep off the crowd at public folem

nities. I must say, that foreigners, on all occasions, find • them very civil, especially if addressed in German, by the • ütle of Landsmann, which is more than can always be said 6 of their countrymen at Versailles. I remember that an Au. • ftrian Nobleman, of great rank, being pressed by the crowd, « in return for his condescending compliment of Landsmann, • received this answer, "Ay! to-day every bear-leader calls “6 us countrymen.” (For preventing all disorders and tumults, there is at Rome • a corps of three hundred Sbirri, commanded by a Captain, s who is called il Barigello, he is distinguished from the rest « by a gold chain and medal; and when he has a mind to be s known, he wears the chain about his neck. This post was 6

formerly very credible, but now is accounted contemptible; « and Pope Clement XI endeavouring to restore it to its

former esteem, by persuading fome persons of family to ac. cept of it, was answered, that the best way to bring that post into credit again, would be, to bestow it on the ne

phew of a Pope, as after such a predeceffor, no man would • be ashamed of it: But the Pope, and his relations, pursued

a higher game, and for the affair remains as it was. The

prelent Barigello was formerly a Captain in a marching re•giment, and for his good parts, and agreeable address, was

received into the best of company; but falling into low cir

cumstances, he aecepted of this employment, which, at • once deprived him of all commerce with his former friends s and companions.

• The Cardinals make no extraordinary figure, for persons (who claim an equality with crowned heads. The title of • Cardinal is, indeed, of some antiquity, but not in the pre

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? fent acceptation of it. Formerly the Bishop of Rome was

chosen by the Clergy and People, and afterwards confirmed • by the Emperor ; by whom also he was sometimes deprived

for turbulent and feditious practices. It was under Pope Nicholas II. that the Cardinals firft began to acquire fuch bigh reputation. The red hat was conferred on them in the year

1243, by Innocent IV. at the Council of Lyons, as Nic : • cholas de Curbio obferves in his life. To Paul II. they

owe the scarlet robes, and the title of Eminentiffimus they hold from Urban VIII, whereas before they were stiled only

Illuftriffimi, in common with other Bishops and Prelates. & The red hat is an emblem of their readiness to thed their ? blood for the Catholic Faith, though the Cardinals make & no great figure in the list of Martyrs. It is certain, that up

on the whole, the scarlet vestment is very becoming even * the dead Cardinals are painted with this colour, in order to

fet off their cadaverous visages; and it is no longer ago than last March, that Cardinal Pamfili lay in ftate in St. Agves's church, whose rosy florid countenance was entirely owing to carmine or vermillion.

In the promotion of foreign Prelates to the Cardinalship, the Pope allows of the nomination by crowned heads of the Popish religion. This privilege the King of Sardinia ob

tained by a refined piece of policy, for he recommended to • Benedict XIII. Ferreri, brother to the Marquis d'Ormea, 6 whom the Pope himself wished to see invested with the purple. I could likewise name a Cardinal who owed his

3 promotion to the Defender of the Proteftant Faith, viz. George I. * King of Great Britain, who procured him the King of Po« land's nomination ; but the circumstances of this intrigue

are best known to the present Bishop of Namur, formerly s known by the name of Abbé Strickland. The Conclave " is the theatre where the Cardinals principally endeavour to $ display their abilities, and where many things are transacted

which favour little of their pretended divine inspiration. It s is known, that during the election of a Pope, in the year 51721, the feuds and animofities ran fo high, that they fell

to blows, and threw the standishes at one another. In this

fray Davia, Albani, Pamfili, and Althan, diftinguished i themselves ; so that it is not all strange, that among the at

tendants of the Conclave, there are always two or three "Surgeons in waiting.'

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