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But fince Petrarch's time things are very much altered at 1 Rome; befides, the veneration for antiquity, and the natu$ral prejudice of mankind in favour of things loft or absent, 76 makes them to be looked upon in a different light from those that are present and

strike the senses, M. The beauty of a city 7& doth not wholly confift in the multitude of statues, and the - enormous extent and largeness of public edifices, fuch as

were the pride of ancient Romeo and as Europe at present 6 cannot shew any structure equal in beauty and magnificence to St. Peter's church in the modern city; fo L question

whe$yther Nero's golden palace, or any of the temples in ancient

Rome, could be compared to this noble edifices shkrim -2001 Qui miferanda videt veteris veftigia Roma, co i Igni 2013 Hie poterit meritò dicere : Roma fuit. - Aft qui celsa nova spettat Palatia Romeo másd izti i

dow Hic poterit merito dicere ! Roma vigat.. ninyib inq -1910 9VBS! 330V to yow Sluit Sodil sds raibristi 205 Whoever beholds the ruinous remains of ancient Rome, is may well fay, Rome is no more ; but whoever turns his eyes s towards the fplendid palaces of new Rome, may as justly fay, Rome ftill flourishes,

Sint 19.10 DIIS 9016 When the vast sums remitted to this city, from all Ro* man-catholic countries, are considered, it is no longer a < wonder, that, with such resources, it has weathered so mae ny severe storms. It is but a few centuries since the power • of the Pope was such, that several Monarchs not only paid him

a yearly tribute, but, if they offered to act contrary to his Ho14 liness's pleasure, or did not in every thing fully comply with

his commands, tumults, excommunications, and sometimes even the loss of their crowns and dominions, were the con

sequence, and this without any respe&t of perfons, of diftinc« tion of nations. St. Antoninus obferves, that the words of • David, in the viiith Palm, viz. Thou ba't put all things un

der his feet; "all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field, the foul of the air, and the fin of the fea, were literally ac

complished in the Pope. The sheep, according to that fagaoc cious Commentator, fignify the Christians; the oxen, the

Frus; the bealls of the field, the Pagans; the fowls of the air, good and evil angels* ; and lastly, by the fishes of the sea, are

meant 137 *Concern'ng the Pope's prerogative over angels, I remember • in a manuscript

of Pope Cleinent the Vith's bull for the jubilee • of the year 1959, kept in the city library at 'Utrecht, to have

read these words: Mandamus Angelis Paradi, quod animam illius

å Pura


meant the souls in The orthodox cannot take

offence at this interpretation, as they are compared to that & innocent serviceable creature the fheep ; but the Here16 tics are little obliged to Urbano Cerri, who, in his State of Fi the Romith church, always speaks of them as unclean A beasts ; and with his Elogium on Pope Innocent XI. for e his zealous persecution of Heretics, he introduces fome fer31 vent exhortations, encouraging him to go on; profanely ofrapplying these words, in the Acts of the Apostles, to the Ro

man Pontiff, Rife, Peter; kill and eat. :no Anais

The great power of the Pope must be attended with a very large revenue, were it to confift only of the profits aris, ing from Dispensations, Annates, Palls, Canonizations, &c. But the wealth of those families, whose good fortune it has been to have one of their relations exalted to the pas pal dignity, is a convincing proof of this è for, notwith

standing the Pope's profuse way of living, they leave overGrgrown fortunes, both in land and money, to their

How those fortunes are raised is well known to the Ottoboni, Altieri, Chigi, Pamfili, Barberini, Borghese, Ludovifi,

and other Case Papaline, or papal families. It has been computed, that Urban VIII. who was one of the Barberini, left to his family above twenty-four millions of Roman Scudi * and this partly accrued from the confiscations of the effects of three thousand unhappy persons who were put to death by the w 11

The family arms of Pope Innocent XII. are three cups, which he ordered to be inverted, implying, that instead of filling, he intended to pour out and distribute, adding this motto, Aliis, non fibi, bis

« To others, not to himself;" but. Pasquin placed the comma after the word nou, and thus quite altered the meaning, though with too much truth.

The lands and revenues of the Pope are managed by the Apostolic Chainber, where the employments are so lucrative, that the more considerable are sold for eighty or a hundred thousand dollars t. Collations to ecclefiaftical benefices, dispensations, &c. are made out in the Datary, so called from the usual signature Datum Romæ apud sanctum

en yd, al bos a Purgatorio penitus abfolutam in Paradisi gloriam introducan. We require and command the Angels of Paradise that, as we “ have discharged his foul from Purgatory, they will immediately carry it to the joys of Paradise."

About 6,000,000l. fterling. t! About 22,5001. terling.


tary is but, as it were, a department. The Rota is a kind

Petrum, &c. when the Pope is at the Vatican, and apud

fanétam Mariam majorem, when he is at the Quirinal pao Yace. Every instrument, after passing through the Datary,

comes into the Secretary of State's office, of which the Da

« of Parliament, or fuperior court of judicature.

The highest assembly is the Consistory, where the Car• dinals fit and vote; and, on some particular occasions, there

is free admittance into this court, as happened on the ith

of February last, at the promotion of Cardinal Salviati. « About nine in the morning the Cardinals met in their long « robes and mantelets of ermine, but without any black spots « on their heads they wore red folk caps, shaped almost like • those of the Jesuits. The Cardinals who had been Regu. • lars, appeared in the habit of their order, made of a thin • cloth. The Pope came in a clofe episcopal vestment of • gold tissue, with a mitre, embroidered with gold, on his • head; and on each side of his seat, which was elevated « above the rest, and under a canopy, was placed a large fan, 6 made of white pea-cock's* feathers. The Cardinals sat on • the second bench from the floor, the first bench being aßignied for their Caudatarii, or train-bearers : the Pope being • seated, the Cardinals, with their robes sweeping the ground, • came up to him, according to their feniority, to make the • usual salutationt. Afterwards Salviati being called in, he

appeared in the habit of a Cardinal ; and having first kissed the • Pope's foot, and then his right hand, his Holiness embraced « him. After this ceremony, he went about and kissed all o the Cardinals. In the mean time a motion was read in • Latin, concerning a canonization to be deliberated on, lit(tle of which being understood, no body seemed to give any « heed to it. This round of falutations being over, the

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** That the antients made their flabellas, or fans, of pea-cocks feathers, may be seen from Montfaucon's Antiq. exp. fuppl. ' tom. i. tab. 2. Such also were the fans made use of by the Dea:

for driving away the flies, that they might not fall into the * chalice, (Anselmus, lib. ii, Ep 162. Durandus, lib. iv. c. 35. 'n 8, 9, and the author of the Constitutiones Apoftolicæ ;) and

among the Greeks, to this day, such a flabellum is put into the hand of the Deacon at his ordination,

+* It is only at the adoration on his election, and at the coro' nation of a Pope, that the Cardinals kiss his feet.

1. Every canonization is rated at a hundred thousand Roman • scudi, or 21,2501. fterling; and in the year 1712, there happened no less than four.'



new Cardinal was again lead to the papal chair, where his

Holiness, during the recital of some prayers, put the red 6 hat on his head; but it was immediately taken off again.

6 When a memorial or petition is delivered to the Pope, < and returned with Lectum written on it, it is an ill omen, indicating, that it has indeed been read, but, at leaft for

the present, will not be granted; this manner of foftening • a denial has some affinity with the phrase used by Henry IV. • of France, Nous verrons,

verrons, We'll fee. panpitimbs 991 si The Pope's military forces, whether by land or sea, make no great figure, The place where any of his foldiers are to • be seen, are the castle of St. Angelo, Civita Vecchia, Ur ..

bino, Ferrara, and some small forts on the frontiers. The • Pope's Swiss guards are well paid, and cloathed; yet their • chief employment is to keep off the crowd at public folem

nities. I must say, that foreigners, on all occasions, find 6 them very civil, especially if addressed in German, by the 6 title of Landsmann, which is more than can always be said

of their countrymen at Versailles. I remember that an Au* ftrian Nobleman, of great rank, being pressed by the crowd,

in return for his condescending compliment of Landsmann,

received this answer, Ay! to-day every bear-leader calls 66 us countrymen.

padors darw by but 6

For preventing all disorders and tumults, there is at Rome • a corps of three hundred Sbirri, commanded by a Captain,

who is called il Barigello ; he is distinguished from the rest by a gold chain and medal; and when he has a mind to be

known, he wears the chain about his neck. This post was 6 formerly very credible, but now is accounted contemptible; 6 and Pope Clement XI. endeavouring to restore it to its

former esteem, by persuading some persons of family to ac. «cept of it, was answered, that the best way to bring that

post into credit again, would be, to bestow it on the nephew of a Pope, as after such a predecessor, no man would

be ashamed of it: But the Pope, and his relations, pursued • a higher game, and so the affair remains as it was. The - present Barigello was formerly a Captain in a marching reo

giment, and for his good parts, and agreeable address, was

received into the best of company; but falling into low cir• cumstances, he accepted of this employment, which, at

once deprived him of all commerce with his former friends and companions. 10135 commerce

sto CD « The Cardinals make no extraordinary figure, for persons who claim an equality with crowned heads. The title of & Cardinal is, indeed, of some antiquity, but not in the pre

• sent

• sent acceptation of it. Formerly the Bishop of Rome was

chosen by the Clergy and People, and afterwards confirmed • by the Emperor ; by whom also he was sometimes deprived

for turbulent and feditious practices. It was under Pope Nicholas II. that the Cardinals first began to acquire fuch high reputation. The red hat was conferred on them in the year 1243, by Innocent IV. at the Council of Lyons, as Nicholas de Curbio observes in his life. To Paul II. they

owe the scarlet robes, and the title of Eminentiffimus they < hold from Urban VIII, whereas before they were stiled only

Illuftriffimi, in common with other Bishops and Prelates. 6 The red hat is an emblem of their readiness to thed their ! blood for the Catholic Faith, though the Cardinals make 4 no great figure in the list of Martyrs. It is certain, that up

on the whole, the scarlet vestment is very becoming, even

the dead Cardinals are painted with this colour, in order to 's set off their cadaverous visages; and it is no longer ago than * Jait March, that Cardinal Pamfili lay in flate in St. Agnes's • church, whose rosy florid countenance was entirely owing to carmine or vermillion.

* In the promotion of foreign Prelates to the Cardinalship, <the Pope allows of the nomination by crowned heads of the

Popish religion. This privilege the King of Sardinia ob

tained by a refined piece of policy, for he recommended to · Benedict XIII. Ferreri, brother to the Marquis d'Ormea, 6 whom the Pope himself wihed to see invested with the pur

I could likewise name a Cardinal who owed his promotion to the Defender of the Proteftant Faith, viz. George I. ** King of Great Britain, who procured him the King of Poi land's nomination ; but the circumstances of this intrigue

are best known to the prefent Bishop of Namur, formerly ç known by the name of Abbé Strickland. The Conclave " is the theatre whese the Cardinals principally endeavour to - display their abilities, and where many things are transacted

which favour little of their pretended divine inspiration. It is known, that during the election of a Pope, in the year 1721, the feuds and animosities ran fo high, that they fel

to blows, and threw the standishes at one another. In this <fray Davia, Albani, Pamfili, and Althan, diftinguished

themselves; fo that it is not all ftrange, that among the attendants of the Conclave, there are always two or three Surgeons in waiting.'


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