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A New and Complete. Diftionary of Arts and Sciences; compre
bending all the branches of useful knowlegé, with åccurate de fcriptions as well of the various machines, inftruments, toalsz figures, and schemes necessary for illustrating thein, as of the claffes, kinds, preparations, whether animals, vegetables, mis nerals, fofils, or fluids." Together with the kingdoms, pro, vinces, cities, towns, and other réinarkable places in the known world. Illustrated by above three hundred copper-plates, en graved by Mr. Jefferys, Geographer and Engraver to the Prince of Wales. The whole extracted
from the best Authors; in all languages. By á Society of Gentlemen. 8vo. 4 vols.
2 l. 5 s. or, bound in eight yolumes, 21. 8 s. Owen.! ho whon, and in what manner, Dictioriaries of Arts
and Sciences may be useful, has been explained upon a former occasion * Harris may not improperly be placed among the earliest Lexicographers, who, in our country, carried a scheme of this kind into actual execution. His plan was improved in the Cyclopædia ; and several modern refinements, in the mechånic and other arts, as well as some late discoveries in philosophy, furnished materials for another compilation of the fame kind, printed but a few years ago, by Hinton, under the title of, A New and Universal Dičtionary of Arts, &c. No Author was mentioned in the title, or advertisements, but it appears, from the dedication, that the Compiler's name was Barro v. To a consciousness of some imperfections, and deficiencies, may be attributed the fupplemental volumes to Chambers ; nor is it quite improbable, but that to some hints in die Revietrit, the Public are obliged for an additional volume to Mr. Darrow's performance.
These affiitanecs; which cangot be deemsed very inconfiderable, were all at the command of the Compilars of the work now under our inspection; irred, they have acknor. hered the free use of them: Dizionarios, Tinctions, • Merroirs, Systems, Commentarios reci, and eve: « says, Elements, and Granmára,nec ntribute !
their several quotas--towards, Dec. tice: 1:3 which, however, they are so trends and use on, in order to fit them for their ran oue bacs, to wch! bec both tedious and afilefs to rcu co to Slovej
• See Review, Vol. X. p. ;!. 67
literally copied ; nor could the occasional insertion of the
• occafion. Yet would such references have been no more than honest, and candid, especially where whole articles are
words, Chambers and Barrow, have greatly fwelled the size of these volumes.
Though literary property has not the same legal securities that defend our civil possessions ; though at the Old Bailey it would be looked upon as a higher crime to have stolen a handkerchief, value Sixpence, than to have robbed an Author of his whole stock in trade, his thoughts and language; yet, in point of strict equity, it is apprehended, no good reason can be given, why the labours of the head should not be as inviolable as the work of the hands.
However laudable the purpose of facilitating the avenues to knowlege, and rendering the purchase of it easy, this ought not to be attempted by means inconsistent with justice: plagiarism of any fort, we conceive to fall under the predicament of injustice; and of this crime the Society of Gentlemen who put together this compilation stand indicted, in our court of judicature. The evidence against them we fhall lay before our Readers, and leave it to them to pass fentence.
But, perhaps, prescription may be pleaded in bar of our indi&tment : it has been customary, say they, for all Lexicographers to filch from each other; and they may possibly farther insist, that the nature of such an undertaking, muft, of necessity, render such filching unavoidable. To which we rejoin, that no custom or prescription ought to be admitted in vindication of a practice in itself unjust; and though it may be allowed, supposing the same originals to have been consulted, that a fi milarity of expression will follow; yet a fameness is not necessarily implied: and when even errors are copied, it argues no lefs want of judgment than want of honesty. -Our defendants have, indeed, sometimes endeavoured to disguise their thefts; but, by so doing, they have fallen into frequent abfurdities.
But, to our evidence: in which we shall proceed alphabetically, in conformity to the nature of the prosecution, though not to the practice of other courts.
Whoever will be at the pains of comparing the account given of AMALGAMATION, in this New Dictionary, with that given by Barrow, who himself has confessedly borrowed from Boerhaave, will readily perceive, that the former is much indebted to the latter ; but what chemift, or mineralift, before these gentlemen, ever talked of melted mercury! This we venture to rank among their transformations.
AMPLITUDE, in astronomy, is defined by the new Lexicographers, an arch of the horizon, intercepted between the
eaft and west, and the center of the fun, or a planet at its • rifing and setting ; thus far they agree almoft literally with the Cyclopeedias to which they add, and so is either north • and south, or ortive and occafive.' True, indeed, the amplitudes are sometimes called northern and southern, as they happen to fall in the northern or fouthern quarters of the horizon; but as it is here expreffed, would not any person unacquainted with astronomy, be inclined to think north and south intended as fynonymous to ortive and occasive?
BORAX, is injudiciously called a mineral*, instead of a native falt: the hiftory ofrit given in this work is extreniely defective its uses are too vaguely described, and a manifest error is go pied from the Supplement to the Cyclopædia; wherein it is said to be used for making Glauber's salt; whereas, in reality, all that ought, with any fort of propriety, to have been mentioned on this head, is, that there is a pollibility of producing a falt like Glauber's from it.
Mariners COMPASS, is a close copy from Barrow: the same may, in a great meafure, be said of DROWNING, only that the latter of thefe articles is more than a little deformed, by our Gentlemen's attempting to conceal the plagiarism.
The article DYING, will, we apprehend, appear upon examination, to be the actual property of the Cyclopeedia, Abundance of transposition, and a few diversifications of expreffion, may render the fraud somewhat less obvious; but with what judgment these artifices are employed, the fole lowing will evince. Under, Dying of Silks, the Cyclopoedia says, Red Crimfon is dyed with pure cochineal mefticht,
The method of pracuring and preparing this falt is pretty fully described in the Review, Vol. XII. p. 93.
# For the information of such of our Readers as may be as little acquainted with this dying ingredient as these gentiemen-book-makers, it may not be amils to observe, that there are two sorts of
cochineel, the finer called mestique, the other termed wild cochia • neel. 'The first is gathered from such plants of the Opuntia, as i ' are prepared and managed properly, on purpose for the production • of the arjinal; the other is found wild on the wild plant, and is • much inferior to the mefique in value. The mestique has its name * from the name of the place where it is propagated in the greatest
quantity, Meftique, in the Bay of Honduras. As to the other, it is not yer determined, whether it be another species of the animal, or whether the same species in a less thriving condition.' Supply to Cyrlop from Reaumur's Hift. of Infeats,
adding galls, turmeric, arsenic, and tartar, all put togeother in a copper of fair water, almoft boiling. The new Compilers chufe to direct this process otherwise : Red Crim
fon, say they, is given with pure cochineel, maftic, adding į galls, turmeric, arsenic, and tartar, all mixed in a copper of • fair water, almost boiling. Whát confidence is to be placed in instructors fo palpably ignorant of the subject they pretend to teach?
Epic Poem, and FRICTION, belong to Barrow; GILDING to the Cyclopaedia: whether these gentlemen have rendered this art more intelligible, by telling us, that gilding with liquid gold; or, as it is expressed in other Dictionaries, gilding metals by fire, is performed by gold reduced to a calx, and amalga mated with mercury,' we leave to be determined by gilders. However, their deficiency in the technical terms, used in this branch of business, makes it fomewhat suspicious, that they have not been very conversant with the operation.
The furnaces and instruments for making, the methods of blowing, cafting, grinding, polishing, and painting GLASS, are all verbally taken from Barrow: to likewife is what is contained under the word HELIOSTATA *. Nor do we think it more than common justice to restore all the merit of the article Hero to the Cyclopaedia.
Upon the subjects IcTHYOCOLLA, and IRON, our Lexicographers have chose to adhere, and that very closely, to Mr. Barrow. Their Readers, we apprehend, will not take it amiss to be advertised of a correction very necessary to be made in the fourth column, line 5, of the latter article; where, instead of Crystals in Spars,' they will read Crystals and • Spars”. It may, poffibly, be only a typographical mistake, but it is too material to be over-looked.
LANGUAGE, a topic surely capable of variety, and LENS, the former fomewhat abbreviated, and the latter a little transposed, are copied from the Cyclopaedia. To LATITUDE, and Longitude, Barrow seems considerably to have contributed; and to him, also, we conceive, ought justly to be ascribed what is found here under the title MAGNET.
The Supplement to the Cyclopedia appears to have fup. plied the article MESENTERIC Fever. To whom we ought, with propriety, to attribute the account here given of the NEWTONIAN Philosophy, may admit of some doubt; our new
• An inftrument invented by S'Gravesande, and designed to con fine the rays of the fun, in a horizontal direction, across a dark chamber.
Compilers have agreed almost literally with Barrow, who has acknowleged, in this refpect, his obligation to Harris.
OLIBANUM is a faithful transcript from Barrow ; even his little inaccuracy, of not distinguishing the particular species of frankincense to which this drug is properly referable, these gentlemen have not thought fit to correct.
PLOTTING among Surveyors, may be juftly claimed by the Cyclopædia; so alio may the article Punch.-It is poflible: there may be among our Readers, fome who may think with us, that this liquor, taken in a moderate dole, is falubrious, as well as exhilarating: to such it may not be disagreeable to know the directions of both writers on this subject; whereby they will also have the further advantage of being instructed in the art* of literary transmutation, in cate any of them thould be inclined to commence second-hand authors. Thus it ftands in the Cys: clopeedia
* Punch is also a name of a sort of compound drink, fre." quent in England, and particularly about the maritime parts thereof, though little known elsewhere.
Its basis is a spring-water, which being rendered cooler, • brisker, and more acid, with lemon-juice, and sweetened ' again to the palate with fine sugar, makes what they call: • sherbet; to which a proper quantily of a spirituous liquor,
as brandy, rum, or arrack, being fuperadded, the liquor "commences punch...
• Several Authors condemn the use of punch, as prejudicial. " to the brain and nervous system. - Dr. Cheyne infits, that
there is but one whole some ingredient in it, which fome now begin to leave out, viz. the mere water.
The proportion of the ingredients are various; usually the • brandy and water are in equal * quantities.-Some, instead • of lemon-juice, use lime-juice, which makes what they call
punch-royal; this is found lefs liable to affect the head, as well as more grateful to the stomach.
• Some also make milk-punch, by adding near as much 6. milk to the sherbet as there is water, which tempers the 6 acrimony of the lemon; others prefer tea-punch, made of. green tea, instead of water, and drank hot.
Lastly, what they call punch for chamber.-maids, is made 6 without any water, of lime-juice, Tharpened with a little
* It mul have been a long time since the ingredients of purch, were thus proportioned. Our Grandmothers used to say,
Two of four, and one of sweet,
One of strong, and two of weak. REVIEW, Dec. 1756.