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fo that peace, on her fide, actually refembled war; and, on his, not a troop had been moved, nor a fingle tent pitched :-the King thought it high time to break filence, at leaft. That accordingly he directed M. Klinggrafe, his Plenipotentiary at the Imperial Court, to demand of the Empress-Queen, whether all thofe great preparations of war, which were making on the frontiers of Silefia, were defigned against the King, or what were the intentions of her Imperial Majefty? That her anfwer, in express terms, was, "That, in the prefent conjuncture, fhe had found it neceffary to make armaments, as well for her own defence, as for "that of her allies; and which did not tend to the prejudice of any body."
So vague an anfwer requiring explanations, M. Klinggrafe, in conformity to further inftructions, farther reprefented to the Emprefs, That tho' the King had diffembled, as long as his fafety, and his glory would permit; the bad defigns imputed to the Emprefs, would no longer fuffer him to do fo: That he was acquainted with the offenfive projects of the two Courts, to attack him together, unexpectedly, the Emprefs-Queen with 80,000 men, the Emprefs of Ruffia with 120,000, which were to have been put in execution in the fpring of the current year, but had been deferred till the next, because the Ruffian troops wanted recruits, their fhips feamen, and Livonia corn for their fubfiftence: That the King left the Emprefs the choice of peace or war: that if the chofe peace, all he asked, was, a pofitive affurance, that he had no intention to attack the King, either this year or the next; but that he should confider any ambiguous answer, as a declaration of war; in which cafe, he should call Heaven and Earth to witness, that all the calamities resulting from it, were to be placed to her account :
That the answer given by the Court of Vienna, was more haughty, and lefs fatisfactory, than the former; which was both recapitulated and juftified in it, as clear, reafonable, and fatiffactory, and what fhe might have declined giving at all, if the had fo thought proper; feeing, that all Europe knew the mili tary preparations fhe was making in her own dominions, had not been refolved on, till the military difpofitions of the King of Pruffia himself, had firft fet her the example: That being accustomed to receive, as well as practife, the attentions which Sovereigns owe to each other, fhe could not hear, without as much aftonishment as fenfibility, the contents of M. Klinggrafe's Memorial, which were of fuch a kind, both for matter, and manner of expreffion, that were fhe to anfwer the whole, she could not avoid trefpaffing on the bounds of moderation fhe had prefcribed to herself: That the informations his Pruffian Majefly had received, concerning an offenfive alliance between her Majefty and the Emprefs of Ruffia, and all the circumstances and ftipulations relating to it, were abfolutely falfe and groundless; that no fuch treaty did exift, or ever had exifted; and that this declaration would enable all Europe to judge of what weight
and quality the dreadful events are, which Mr. Klinggrafe's Memorial announced, and that they could in no fenfe be imputed to her.
What follows next in this Expofition, is called a fhort Recapitulation to fhew the infufficiency, and incongruity of this Reply. And firft, concerning the military difpofitions of the King of Pruffia, faid to be known to all Europe; it farther afferts, That upon the Ruffian armaments, in the month of June, the King caused four regiments to pafs out of his electorate into Pomerania; and ordered his fortreffes to be put into a state of defence of which the Emprefs-Queen, glad of any pretence to palliate - her ill intentions, was pleafed to avail herfelf, as a fufficient excufe for affembling an army of 80,000 men in Bohemia and Moravia : that when this army had been so affembled, the King ordered three regiments, which had been quartered in Weftphalia, towards Haberftadt; but, to avoid giving umbrage, did not fend a fingle regiment into Silefia; his troops remaining quiet in their garrifons, without even horfes, and the other neceffaries for an army, which was either to encamp, or invade that, on the contrary, the Court of Vienna, while ufing the language of peace, actually took the most serious measures for war; caufing another camp to be marked out near Hotzenplots, which, tho' a place belonging thereto, lay directly between the two fortreffes of Neiffe and Cofel; and, moreover, being then preparing to occupy the camp of Iaromitz, within two miles of Silefia:
That, upon thefe advices, the King thought it time to make the proper difpofitions, that he might not be at the mercy of a Court fo well-intentioned to his interefts, as that of Vienna was : That if he had had any formed defign against the Emprefs, he might have put it in execution, with eafe, two months fooner: That, however, he was negociating while his enemies were arming That he had only followed the measures of the Auftrians and that, confequently, the very article on which they lay fo much ftrefs, only ferves to fet their ill defigns in broad day-light.
Recurring then to the anfwer firft given to M. Klinggrafe, faid in the fecond to be fo clear a declaration, the Expositor pronounces, both to be inconclufive and unintelligible: aking who are the allies of the Emprefs threatened with war? France, or Ruffia? and adding, That none but fuch as were ftrangely blinded, would fufpect him of defigning to attack either; much lefs with fuch a force as the four regiments fent into Pomerania.
He also cavils with the Court of Vienna, for faying, they did not mean to attack any body, inftead of faying explicitly, they did not mean to attack the King of Pruffia. He maintains, that the fubject matter of Klinggrafe's Memorial would not have appeared difagreeable, but to a Court difinclined to give the affurances demanded: and, paffing on to the Ruffian alliance, he fays; It is eafy for the Auftrian Minifters to deny this Convention but, befides the facts which are published about it, there are circumftances which feem fufficiently to indicate at leaft a concert.
Thefe circumstances he then enumerates-namely, The approach of the Ruffian troops, in the beginning of June, towards the frontiers of Pruffia: The forming an army of 70,000 men, in Livonia, at the fame time that the Auftrians were forming another in Bohemia, under the title of an Army of Observation : The return of the Ruffians, about the middle of that month, into their quarters; and the adjournment of the Auftrian camps till the next year.
After which he proceeds to fay, That notwithstanding these fufpicions and indications, the King would have been glad to have accepted a denial of these projects, accompanied with affurances, that they would not attack the King, either this year or the next: That this was the effential article in Klinggrafe's Memorial, which is precifely the article to which no answer is given: Afks, If this filence did not fufficiently, fhew, what the defigns of the Court of Vienna tended to? and which of the two Powers wifhed for war? that Power whofe troops were encamped on his neighbour's frontiers, or that whofe troops were quiet in their quarters? Infers, that the Court of Vienna, far from defiring peace, breathed nothing but war; and propofed, by continual artifices, and haughtineffes, to drive the King into it, in order to have a pretext for reclaiming the affiftance of its allies, &c.And then adjoins, That altho' this anfwer left no further doubt about the defigns of the Emprefs-Queen, and laid him under a neceffity to take the only part which was confiflent with his honour and glory; his Majefty had ftill been pleased to make one last attempt to fhake the inflexibility of the Court of Vienna, for the fake of preferving peace: That, he had accordingly charged M. Klinggrafe, a third time, to declare, that if the Emprefs would yet give the pofitive affurances before required, viz. that she would not attack the King by name, either this year or the next, his Majefty would, in fuch cafe, directly withdraw his troops, and reftore things to the ftate wherein they ought to But that this having proved as fruitless as the former, his Majefty flattered himself, that all Europe would do him justice, from a conviction, that it was not the King, but the Court of Vienna that would have war.
Here the Expofitor, if he had fo thought fit, might have laid down his pen but an over-fondness for his fubject, or an overfolicitude to leave nothing unfaid upon it, leads him into repetions of matter, if not of terms, which might have been spared. After which he makes a very proper diftinction between the first aggreffions and the first hostilities: Acknowleges the King of Pruffia to have commenced hoftilities; but confiders the Enprefs-Queen as the Aggreffor: Infifts, that aggreffions, of which he fpecifies feveral kinds, juftify hoftilities: Briefly cites feveral cafes in point: Charges the House of Auftria again, with a defign to deftroy the Liberties of Germany: Declares his Pruffian Majefty to be their Champion and Defender; and that they fhall not be buried, but in the fame grave with Pruffia: Makes ano
ther appeal to Heaven: Says, he is forced to take up arms to diffipate a confpiracy against him; and concludes in thefe words: If his Majefty departs from his ufual moderation, ⚫ it is only becaufe it ceases to be a virtue, when his honour and his independency, his country, and his crown are at stake.'
This is a fketch of the remarkable piece which is the bafis of the Leyden Letter; and the drift of that Letter is to illuftrate more at large the diftinction above fpecified and admitted, between Aggreffions and Hoftilities; as alfo to prove, that a Prince is, in every light, juftifiable, who, apprifed of an injurious defign upon his dominions, proceeds against his adversary by way of prevention. The arguments made ufe of, are drawn from the first law of Self-prefervation: The right of Princes, (who acknowleging no fuperior, are in a state of nature with regard to each other) to the benefit of this law, in common with all other individuals: The right of Princes to appeal to the fword, in every fuch caufe as would warrant a subject to appeal to the Courts of law and Juftice: The proofs of aggreffion, by any overt-act or acts, whether by military preparations, adverfe alliances, &c. which are, in fact, fo many hoftilities, tho' diftinguished by a different name: The tacit avowal of fuch aggreffions, by repeated refufals of the requifite explanations, again and again demanded : The obligations incumbent on a Prince, as the father and protector of his fubjects, to prevent the calamities preparing for them by his and their enemies; And the authorities of all the eminent Civilians to warrant their proceeding accordingly.
Coming to application, he fays, The King of Pruffia, in the laft war, fufficiently made good his claims from the • House of Auftria,-and acquired as good a title to Silefia, as a ⚫ private perfon, who, in any inftance, having gained his fuit, has to poffefs what was adjudged to him.-If then the Queen of Hungary endeavours to recover that province, fhe meditates an unjust defign, and the war by which the King of Prussia en⚫deavours to overthrow the measures she has taken for that purpofe, is ftrictly defenfive.'
The remainder of this piece will be called by fome, an Invective againft the Houfe of Auftria; as bringing a pretty home charge againft it, of unreasonable ambition,. rapacioufnefs, and other eminent princely qualities and the conclufion is seconded with a ftrong citation from a Latin work of the last age, which, for the fake of fhewing how well England has paid her court to the other powers of the continent, by the incredible efforts fhe has made for the aggrandizement of that ungrateful House, we fhall here fubjoin, as follows:
"The Houfe of Auftria having always governed the Empire "with a view to its own private intereft, it were to be wished, "that the Electors would agree to perform what fome authors "fay they concluded upon, in the time of Lewis of Bavaria; "which was, That the Houfe of Auftria fhould for ever be de
prived of the Imperial Crown. This example was imitated by the Poles, who, after being fully convinced of the ambi"tion of this Houfe, concluded in one of the diets, That no
perfon fhould dare, under the pain of infamy, to propofe a "Prince of the Houfe of Auftria to be King of Poland, or give "him his fuffrage for that purpose. The Electors not having "repealed this ancient convention of their predeceffors, putting "the cafe that it has exifted, the Houfe of Auftria has raised 66 a flame in the Empire, which can fcarcely be extinguished "without the entire ruin of that House."
III. Four Pieces, containing a full Vindication of his Pruffian Majefty's Conduct in the prefent Juncture. 4to. 3s. E. Owen.
The firft of thefe is a Memorial from the Pruffian Minister to the States-General, in answer to the Memorial of the Saxon Refident at the Hague; for which reafon it will be, in some fort, neceffary to give a fketch of the one, which has also been officioufly printed here, before we proceed to the other and if we fhould alfo happen to recollect as we go, that the outside of all this cabinet-work is ever rendered as fpecious as poffible, we shall understand none of them the worse for it.-Thefe, however, which follow, are fo many facts which cannot be disputed, viz. The Pruffians formally demand a free paffage through Saxony; the Saxon Court does not refuse it, but requires time to make the proper adjustments; with a refolution, however, to obftruct them by force of arms, when properly fupported: and his Pruffian Majefty fore-feeing, or fore-knowing this, never waits the iffue of his own requifition, but enters on the premiffes, in a way that fufficiently fhewed, what kind of authority he relied on moft, when he first ventured on this hardy enterprize.
The Saxon Memorialift, then, fets out with calling it, not only an Invafion, but an attack on the Law of Nations; in the prefervation of which every Power was interefted; an invasion in the time of the profoundeft peace, and when the King, his auguft Mafter, had not only avoided, with the greatest care, every measure that might poffibly give umbrage to his neighbours, but, from the first glimpse of a mifunderstanding between the Courts of Vienna and Berlin, had enjoined his Minifters at all the Courts of Europe, to declare his firm refolution, to obferve the strictest Neutrality.
He further aggravates the horrors of this invafion, by an enemy, under the mafque of friendship, who, without alleging the least complaint, or any pretext whatsoever, but his own conveniency, made himself mafter of the whole country, capital and all; fortifies, dismantles, difarms, feizes the revenue, raises contributions, exacts hoftages, empties arfenals, forces the archieves of ftate from the cuftody of the Queen of Poland herself, by the dint of menaces and violence; and inftead of the legitimate go