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terfering on the continent, beyond the just measure and referve of which the cool folidity of Queen Elizabeth fet us an example;aya hint towards an examination, whether the general diffatisfaction that has gone forth againft paft measures, is with, or without foundation, &c.All fenfibly, though flightly, touched; all deferving a good degree of regard, though liable to fome objections under the head of arrangement; and all animated with fuch a fpirit as the times most certainly ftand in need of as proofs of which, the Reader is defired to accept of the two following paffages-and if the Author, who appears weekly under Mr. Hooper's colours, was to avail himself of the leffon contained in them, it would be no dishonour to his parts, nor differvice to his caufe.

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On this occafion, to be of any party, but that of one's country, must be at once the height of folly, and the height of treaton. Neither perfons, or things, can now deserve the public attention, but fo far as they relate to the retrieval of the public affairs. All internal divifions, all little paffions of revenge, or intereft, cannot confiftently with the fafety of the nation, but yield to that great common cause of union against the French King; who, after having rent from us a limb, the acute feelings of pain for which, are rather exafperated than abated by reflection, will hardly ftop, or give us breathingtime, before he purfues his ftroke at the vitals of Britain'

The Public will then, moft probably, make the juft allowances for the evidently difadvantageous conjuncture, in which fuch accepters may come in, and fairly diftinguish between the confequences of prior delinquencies, either impoffible, or at leaft extremely difficult, for them to repair, and those acts purely their own. If their good intentions are cordial, they need not fear juftice being done to them. The heart judges the heart. There is no one, too, can be infenfible, not only of the up-hill labour that awaits them, to regain the loft advantages over foreign enemies, alert and flushed with their first fucceffes, but of the gain-fayings, and oppofition they will have to meet with from domestic ones; from the different opinions, in fhort, inflexible obftinacy, and prejudices of thofe, to whom no fyltem, however adapted to the public good, will be welcome, unless it coincides with, or takes in, their own private intereft, to say nothing of the refentments always following removals, and the yet more malignant rage of those, whofe 'clearest revenue, founded on too long tolerated abuses, muft ⚫ fubfide on the re-establishment of that public economy, which, ⚫ under a judicious controul, equidiftant from the vice of either extreme, can never be but commendable, but is now an absolute neceffity. Such enmities then they need not have much penetration to anticipate, nor much firmnefs to defpife. The fhame would be not to deferve them. Folly ever murmurs át the reign of wisdom, villainy at that of honesty, and Chaos complains of order. If, too, they are really eftimable them

felves, they will be the cause of effeem to others, who, from thinking theirs worth gaining, will exert themselves to gain it, and in courfe deferve that of their country: and they will thus ⚫ be the authors of all the good done for the fake of imitating, or of being approved by them. Whereas, it is unconceivable 'the damage, hurt, and difhonour, refulting to the public fer⚫vice, from fubordinates defpifing their fuperiors, a contempt ⚫ which can never grow up without caufe, and from which there is never any recovering. The little non-expletives then of great offices, can only ferve to fink and degrade the authority of thofe offices, but can never make the awe of them, give a ⚫ competent fupplement of dignity to the intrinfic nothingness of their perfonal character. Yet, how often has the Public groan⚫ed at feeing places of the highest importance beftowed on thofe, whofe only title feemed to be that of the most affured incapacity for them; and fometimes, though not quite fo often, the fecondaries and fubalterns chofen by the fame standard ; fome of whom, and thofe, indeed, often the leaft worthlefs, were pinned on the public, purely to fave the expence of a private gratification for private fervice, or even for domeftic drudgery, and thrust into pofts they were unfit to enjoy, with much the fame propriety that Mahomet gave his camel a place in his Paradife, for having proved a faithful beast of burthen G to him.'

II. A Letter to the Duke, concerning the ftanding Force neceffary to keep this kingdom in a good pofture of defence. By a Country Gentleman. 4to. 6d. Baldwin.

The defign of this Difcourfe is to convince his Royal Highness, that the intereft of the King, and Royal Family, the Proteftant fucceffion, and his own peculiar influence, greatness and glory, would be more enlarged, and better secured by a constitutional militia, of 160,000 free Englishmen, to be augmented, upon any emergency, to 200,000, or a yet greater number, than by any number of mercenary, or foreign forces, that can poffibly be kept Hup, and maintained, by all the wealth of this kingdom.

The plain, frank, honeft, fenfible, manly character of a Country Gentleman, is fo well fuftained in it, that there is hardly a thread of the Courtier to be found inter-tiffued through the whole piece. And if it has met with as good a reception as Paul did with Agrippa, who confeffed he was almoft perfuaded to be a Chriftian; or Harrington with Cromwell, when the Protector was induced by that Writer's book to say, "The Gentleman had like to have talked me out of my power;" he will deferve a public congratulation upon it.

III. The Cafe of the Importation of Bar Iron from our own Colonies of North America. Humbly recommended to the confideration of the prefent Parliament, by the Iron Manufacturers of Great Britain. 8vo. 6d. Trye.

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In whatever name this Cafe appears, the dome of St. Paul's is not more obvious than the hand that compiled it. The Reverend is to be traced in every propofition, every deduction, ast every conclufion and as no small degree of credit ought to refult to the Author from fo accurate a piece, fo the point →→→ contended for in it, namely, the admiffion of Bar-Iron from our For colonies, duty-free, feems to deserve all the encouragement that the legiflature can give it.

* IV. "An Answer to a Pamphlet, called, The Conduct of the Miniftry impartially examined. In which it is proved, that neither imbecility nor ignorance in the Mr, have been the caufes of the prefent unhappy fituation of this nation. By the Author of the four Letters to the People of England, -8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Cooper.

As it has been a rule with the Reviewers, not to beflow any antiparticular attention on the productions of this intemperate Writer,

fo nothing particular will be faid of this But if one of fo humble * a class as ours might prefume to fuggeft a hint to a state-underta *ber of his felf-fufficience, it should be, not to expofe the naked

nefs of his country, for the future, as he has hitherto done, with the air of a Satyr, more delighted with the advantage, than fhocked at fo indelicate an office.

V. Reflections previous to the Establishment of a Militia. 8vo. Is. DodЛley.

Of all the numerous treatises which have appeared on this interefting and important fubject, this, in our humble opinion, deferves the preference. It is founded on the broadest bafis,-the elements of human nature, the particular ftate, difpofitions, and exigencies of the times, the preparatories neceffary to be made, the alteratives to be introduced, the diversity of confiderations to be attended to, the ftimulatives on one hand, the preventives on the other; and, indeed, whatever may either forward or retard the defired effect. The Author is apparently of no party, and feems to be actuated by no principle, but the laudable ambition of making his abilities, natural and acquired, useful to the community: he is defective in no lights that hiftory can give him; he follows none fervilely; and though he has not only genius enough to discover the fources of intelligence, but also to direct the current as he pleases, it blushes through a veil of modefty, which renders it fo much the more captivating, if not the more meritorious.

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To illufirate all that is here faid, would be to recite the whole piece for which reafon, a few inftances mult ferve.Having tated the difference between the military ftate, and military aptitudes of this country, now and formerly, when all the growth of the foil was from a military root; the caufes of that difference; the propriety of conforming our future regulations thereto, and the infufficiency of our prefent martinet fyftem, as practifed in the army, he proceeds to say, The feeling of a man unaccufAPPENDIX, Vol. XV. tomed



tomed to use a weapon, is a fear that it may hurt himself; and ⚫ that of a man familiar with the use of it, is a confidence that it ⚫ will hurt his enemy.' He proposes next, that every restraint by which the people are hindered from having, or amufing themselves with, arms, may be taken away, notwithstanding the affociation for preferving the game;-that prizes may be given to the most dexterous markfmen, in order to infpire a love of arms, as yet not fo much as dreamed of among our Paraders ;-explains himself farther by specifying two requifites to the creating the military in queftion; namely, that the body of the people out of which our regiments are to be formed by rotation, fhould not only be acquainted with arms, but value themselves upon the ufe of them and that the proper degree of authority, and fubordination, should be established, and the habit of military obedience provided for →→→ anfwers the common, trite, vulgar objections, derived from our divifions, difcontens, &c.-infinuates more, and more juft, causes of apprehenfion from a standing mercenary army; recommends an inftitution formed on inclination, rather than compulfion;-takes it for granted, that this inclination may be formed, if it is not already to be found ;-as also, that the principles of love of glory, and dread of difgrace, are frong enough, if properly managed, to bear any stress;-touches on the means, and concludes with a brief of his plan, which is here fubjoined.

Let the proper officers in every county, city, and borough, be directed to make out complete lifts in the following terms. Of the noblemen, and gentlemen, poffeffed of a certain valuation, qualified for the rank of Colonels.

Of all poffeffed of a lower valuation, qualified for Fieldofficers.

Of another valuation, qualified for Captains. And let all ⚫ freeholders, having the valuation of one hundred a year, be understood to be qualified for inferior Officers, and not obliged to serve as foldiers.

Let the remaining lift confift of fuch as poffefs a certain extent of ground, and under one hundred a year. Let a similar method be followed in all cities and boroughs, that the lower clafs, here likewife, may confift of fuch as are respectable among the inhabitants.

This lower lift, to avoid repetition, I fhall call, that of free« men. It excludes all cottagers, day-labourers, and fervants. It must likewise exclude every perfon at prefent, or for the future, who has, or fhall be, convicted of any criminal, or infamous charge, before the civil magistrate.

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When his Majelly is pleased to appoint his Officers, let them draw by lot, from the lift of freemen, the names of fuch perfons as are to take the firft turn of military duty; and when their time is expired, a new appointment of officers may proceed in the fame manner, until the whole have taken their turn.

Let it be lawful for a freeman to fubftitute another freeman in his place but the fubftitute alone, in this case, shall enjoy

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the honours and privileges of the militia. Let it be lawful for a freeman to fubftitute his fon, who, though not in the lift of freemen, whilst he lives in his father's family, fhall, in this cafe, enjoy the honours of the militia, and communicate the fame to his father likewife. Let the names of fuch as refufe to prefent themselves, or fubftitute another in the above terms, be truck off the lift of freemen, and excluded for life: let this, if thought neceffary, affect their children.'

If it is apprehended, that the lift qualified for the rank of inferior officers, may exceed, in proportion, the other claffes, Tet the number of fuch officers, appointed to a regiment, be in"Creafed accordingly. And when, in the field, the feveral pofts in a battalion are difpofed of, according to rank and feniority, The fupernumeraries may take poft by the colours, which they are fuppofed to carry and defend. To this particular, which feems to relate immediately to the form of a regiment, I will add another; that in every company, once in three months, a prize fhall be contended for, by ihooting at a mark. That all who have ever won fuch a prize, in different companies, fhall, when the regiment is affembled, form a divifion a-part, and take poft in the flank, or advanced in the front, commanded by four officers from the colours.

Such broken hints may illuftrate the meaning of this effay. A perfon, though ill qualified to adjuft every particular, may yet ftrike out general views, not unworthy of the public attention. I will conclude this tedious performance with obferving, that if we reft our militia upon its proper bafis, a general ufe cf arms, and the love of honour, we fhall find men hardy enough to ferve their country; that duty will employ the most deferving of our people, whofe fword, without alarming the public liberty, will be a fure defence againft a foreign enemy. If, on the contrary, thefe points are neglected, the form and pretended difcipline of a militia will be vain, and our arms muft come by fubftitution into the hands of the leaft reputable clafs of the people, who cannot be reduced into the order of an army, and Who are ftrangers to the fentiments and the attention to perfonal character, which fuch a duty would require."

VIA political Difcourfe upon the different kinds of Militia, whether national, mercenary, or auxiliary. By Joachim Chriftian, Pupil to the celebrated Conringius. Tranflated into Englifh, with a preface, fuited to the prefent important crifis. By Thomas Whifton, M. A. 8vo. 2 s. Whifton and White.


It is true, that there never was a crifis more proper for an Englifh tranflation of this treatife, than the prefent, when the national cry for a militia has been fo loudly raifed, and fo graciously heard. It is at least a teftimony in favour of that cry, and contains a variety of inftances to encourage thofe to perfevere, who firfl began it: but then it favours more of the college than of the world; and X x 2 fuggells

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