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sense. To this end I have ventured on a labour, that is the first essay of the kind on any modern author whatsoever. For the late edition of Milton, by the learned Dr. Bentley, is, in the main, a performance of another species. It is plain, it was the intention of that great man rather to correct and pare off the excrefcencies of the Paradise Loft, in the manner that Tucca and Varius were employed to criticise the Æneis of Virgil, than to restore corrupted passages. Hence, therefore, may be seen either the iniquity or ignorance of his censurers, who, from fome expressions would make us believe the doctor every where gives us his corrections as the original text of the author; whereas the chief turn of his criticism is plainly to fhew the world, that, if Milton did not write as he would have him, he ought to have wrote fo.

I thought proper to premise this observation to the readers, as it will shew that the critick on Shakspeare is of a quite different kind.

His genuine text is for the most part religiously adhered to; and the numerous faults and blemishes, purely his own, are left as they were found. Nothing is altered but what by the clearest reasoning can be proved a corruption of the true text; and the alteration, a real restoration of the genuine reading. Nay, so strictly have I strove to give the true reading, though sometimes not to the advantage of my author, that I have been ridiculously ridiculed for it by those, who either were iniquitously for turning every thing to my disadvantage; or else were totally ignorant of the true duty of an editor.

The science of criticism, as far as it effects an editor, feeris to be reduced to these three claires; the emendation of corrupt passages; the explanation of obscure and difficult ones; and an enquiry into the beauties and defects of composition. This work is principally confined to the two former parts: though there are feveral specimens interspersed of the latter kind, as several of the emendations were best fupported, and several of the difficulties best explained, by taking notice of the beauties and defects of the composicion peculiar to this immortal poet. But this was but occasional, and for the fake only of perfecting the two other parts, which were the proper objects of the editor's labour. The third lies open for every willing uni dertaker: and I shall be pleased to see it the employment of a masterly pen.

It must necessarily happen, as I have formerly observed, that where the assistance of manuscripts is wanting to fet an author's meaning right, and rescue him from those errors which have been transmitted down through a series of incorrect editions, and a long intervention of time, many passages must be desperate, and past a cure ; and their true sense irretrievable either to care or the fagacity of conjecture. But is there any reason therefore to fay, that because all cannot be retrieved, all ought to be left defperate? We should shew very litde honesty, or wisdom, to play the tyrants with an author's text; to raze, alter, innoi vate, and overturn, at all adventures, and to the utter detriment of his sense and meaning: but to be fo very reserved and cautious, as to interpose

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no relief or conjecture, where it manifestly labours
and cries out for assistance, seems, on the other
hand, an indolent absurdity.
As there are


in Shakspeare, upon which some suspicions of depravity do not reasonably arise; I have thought it my duty in the first place, by a diligent and laborious collation, to take in the assistance of all the older copies.

In his historical plays, whenever our English chronicles, and in his tragedies, when Greek or Roman story could give any light, no pains have been omitted to set passages right, by comparing my author with his originals: for, as I have frequently observed, he was a close and accurate copier wherever his fable was founded on history.

Wherever the author's sense is clear and discoverable, (though perchance, low and trivial, ) I have not by any innovation tampered with his text, out of an ostentation of endeavouring to make him fpeak better than the old copies have done.

Where, through all the former editions, a pasfage has laboured under flat nonsense and invincible darkness, if, by the addition or alteration of a letter or two, or a transposition in the pointing, I have restored to him both sense and sentiment: fuch corrections, I am persuaded, will need no indulgence.

And whenever I have taken a great latitude and liberty in amending, I have constantly endeavoured to support'my corrections and conjectures by parallel passages and authorities from himself, the surest ineans of expounding any author whatsoever. Cette

voie d'interpréter un auteur par lui-même est plus sure que tous les commentaires, says a very learned French critick.

As to my notes, (from which the common and learned readers of our author, I hope, will derive fome satisfaction,) I have endeavoured to give them a variety in some proportion to their number: Wherever I have ventured at an emendation, a note is constantly subjoined to justify and assert the reafon of it. Where I only offer a conjecture, and do not disturb the text, I fairly set forth my grounds for such a conjecture; and submit it to judgment. Some remarks are spent in explaining passages, where the wit or satire depends on an obscure point of history: others, where állusions are to divinity, philosophy; or other branches of science. Some are added, to shew where there is a fufpicion of our author having borrowed from the ancients : others, to shew where he is rallying his contempos iaries; or where he himself is rallied by them. And some are necessarily thrown in, to explain an obscure and obfolete term, phrase, or idea: I once intended to have added a complete and copious glosary; but as I have been importuned and am prepared to give a correct edition of our author's Poëms, (in which many terms occur that are not to be met with in his plays,) I thought a glossary to all Shakspeare's works more proper to attend that volume.

In reforming an infinite number of passages in the pointing, where the sense was before quite loft, I have frequently subjoined notes to fhew the depraved, and to improve the reformed, pointing: a part of labour in this work which I could very


willingly have spared myself. May it not be objected, why thén have you burthened us with these notes? The answer is obvious, and, if I mistake not, very material.

Without such notes, these passages in subsequent editions would be liable, through the ignorance of printers and correctors, to fall into the old confufion: whereas, a note on every one hinders all possible return to depravity: and for ever secures them in a state of purity and integrity not to be loft or forfeited.

Again, as some notes have been necessary to point out the detection of the corrupted text, and establish the restoration of the genuine reading; fome others have been as necessary for the explanation of paffages obfcure and difficult. To understand the necessity and use of this part of my task, fome particulars of iny author's character are previoully to be explained. / There are obscurities in him, which are common to him with all poets of the fame fpecies; there are others, the iffue of the times he lived in; and there are others, again, peculiar to himself. The nature of comick poetry being entirely satirical, it busies itself more in expofing what we call caprice and humour, than vices cognizable to the laws. The English, from the happiness of a free constitution, and a turn of mind peculiarly speculative and inquisitive, are observed to produce more humourists, and a greater variety of original characters, than any other people whatsoever: and thefe owing their immediate birth to the peculiar genius of each age, an infinite number of things alluded to, glanced at, and exposed, must needs become obscure, as the characters themfelves are antiquated and disused. An editor there

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