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farther service, but they, in themselves, should be, some way or other, serviceable to him; which that they may be, I must have as great a care in the choice, as in the use, of my recreations.

There are some recreations that are so far from conducing to his service, that they may make more for the incensing of his wrath; as drinking and gaming, which, though in themselves lawful, yet, as they often prove an occasion of swearing, lying, cheating, and contention amongst men, and, by consequence, of wrath in God; so they ought, by all means, to be shunned and avoided. Indeed, it may be questioned, whether gaming be ever a lawful recreation; for either it is a lottery, or not. If it be a lottery, it is not lawful, because it is a great presumption and sin to set God at work to recreate ourselves; for poor nothings to employ the chiefest good, immediately to determine such frivolous and trifling impertinencies. If it be not a lottery, then it is not a pure recreation; for, if it depends upon man's wit and study, it exercises his brain and spirits as much as if he was about other things: so that being, on one side, not lawful; on the other side, no recreation; it can, on no side, be a lawful recreation.

For, what is the end of recreation, but to revive my languishing spirits, to let them rest and be quiet a little, when they are tired with too much exercise, that they may be fresher, livelier, and fitter for work afterwards? Hence is it, that God indeed hath provided a recreation for all sensible creatures; sleep, which is the rest of the spirits in the nerves. When the little animal spirits have been, all the day, running up and down upon the soul's errands, then, to lie down still and quiet, is a great refreshment and revivement to them, provided still that it be moderately used. Whereas, the indulging ourselves too much in it, is rather a clogging and stupifying of them; as we see in our bodies, which, when not accustomed to, are most averse from, and unfit for exercise.

So that the chief and only time for recreation is when my spirits are either weary with labour and study, or else called in to some necessary employment in some other place; as at and after meals, especially such as are of a hard digestion; for then the spirits have enough to do, to turn the food we eat into good nourishment. And therefore the intenseness of study, running, wrestling, and such-like violent exercises, are not proper at such a time; because, as in studying, we draw the spirits from the stomach to the head; so, in the other exercises, such as noderate walking, conference, and free discourse, about common but necessary points, we send them from the stomach into other parts of the body, where they are to be set on work.

But that which I have found the best recreation, both to my body and mind, whensoever either of them stands in need of it, is music, which exercises at once both my body and my soul; especially when I play myself. For then, methinks, the same motion that my hand makes upon the instrument, the instrument makes upon my heart; it calls in my spirits, composes my thoughts, delights my ear, recreates my mind, and so not only fits me for after-business, but fills my heart, at the present, with pure and useful thoughts; so that when the music sounds the sweetliest in my ears, truth commonly flows the clearest into my mind. And hence it is, that I find my soul is become more harmonious, by being accustomed so much to harmony, and so averse to all manner of discord, that the least jarring sounds, either in notes or words, seem very harsh and unpleasant to me.

That there is something more than ordinary in musie, appears from David's making use of it, for driving away the evil spirit from Saul and Elisha, and for the bringing of the good spirit upon himself. From which I am induced to believe, that there is really a sort of secret and charming power in it, that naturally dispels from the mind all or most of those black humours, which the evil spirit uses to brood upon, and, by composing it into

a more regular, sweet, and docible disposition, renders it the fitter for the Holy Spirit to work upon, the more susceptive of divine grace, and more faithful messenger, whereby to convey truth to the understanding. But however that be, I must necessarily acknowledge, that of all recreations, this is by far the more suitable to my temper and disposition, in that it is not only an exercise to my body, but to my mind too; my spirits being thereby made the more nimble and active, and, by conse quence, the fitter to wait upon my soul, and be employed, by her, in whatsoever business she is engaged.

But in this, and all other recreations, I must always take care not to exceed my measure, either in point of time, or intention; I must not follow them too close, nor spend too many hours in them, but still resolve to use them, as that they may not become a snare to me, but answer the ends for which they were designed, that when God shall call me to it, I may give him as good an account of my recreations, as of my necessary duties.


BUT be not deceived, O my soul; thou art not yet advanced far enough: it is not sufficient to pretend to holiness in my thoughts and affections, and in my words and actions, unless I express it likewise in all the relations and conditions of life. The commandments of God are said to be exceeding broad; they extend themselves to every capacity I can possibly be in, not only enjoining me to live soberly in respect to myself, but righteously to my neighbour, obediently to my sovereign, lovingly to my wife, and faithfully to my people; otherwise I cannot live holly unto God. And, therefore, if I would be thoroughly religious, I must farther endeavour to fix my resolutions with regard to the several duties


the Most High expects from me, in all these particular. relations I bear to him, during my sojourning here on earth.


I am resolved, by the grace of God, to honour and obey the king, or prince, whom God is pleased to set over me, as well as to expect he should safeguard and protect me, whom God is pleased to set under him.

THE King of kings, and Lord of lords, the great and glorious Monarch of all the world, having enacted many gracious laws, is pleased to set over every kingdom and nation such persons as may put them in execution. So that I cannot but look upon a lawful king, as truly a representative of the most high God, as a parliament is of the people; and am therefore persuaded, that whosoever rebels against him, rebels against God himself; not only in that he rebels against the ordinance of God, and so against the God of that ordinance; but because he rebels against him whom God hath set up as his vicegerent, to represent his person and execute his laws in such a part of his dominions.

Hence it is, that these two precepts, fear God, and honour the king, are so often joined together in holy writ; for he that fears God's power, cannot but honour his authority; and he that honours not the king, that represents God, cannot be said to fear God, who is represented by him. And hence, likewise, it is, that God hath been as strict and express in enjoining us obedience to our governors, as to himself: for, thus saith the Lord of hosts, Rom. xiii. 1. Let every soul be subject to the higher powers. Why? because there is no power but of God; the powers that be are ordained of God.

And he has denounced as great a judgment against such as rebel against the magistrate he hath ordained,

as against those that rebel against himself: for, whosoever resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist, shall receive to themselves damnation, ver. 2. So that the wrath of God shall as certainly. fall upon those that rise up against the king, as upon those that fight against God. And no wonder that the punishment should be the same, when the fault is the same: for he that fights against his king, fights against God himself, who hath invested him with that power and authority to govern his people, representing his own glorious majesty before them.

Upon this ground it is that I believe the wickedness of a prince cannot be a sufficient plea for the disobedi ence of his subjects; for it is not the holiness, but the authority of God that he represents, which the most wicked, as well as the most holy, person may be endow ed with: and therefore, when the Gospel first began to spread itself over the earth, though there was no Christian king, or supreme magistrate, of what title soever, to cherish and protect it; nay, though the civil powers were then the greatest enemies to it; yet even then were the disciples of Christ enjoined to submit themselves to every ordinance of man, for the Lord's sake.

Insomuch that did I live amongst the Turks, I should look upon it as my duty to obey the Grand Seignior, in all his lawful edicts, as well as the most Christian and pious king in the world. For, suppose a prince be never so wicked and never so negligent in his duty of protecting me; it doth not follow, that I must neglect mine of obeying him. In such a case, I have another duty added to this; and that is, to pray for him, and to intercede with God for his conversion; for, thus hath the King of kings commanded, that prayers, supplications, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made as for all men, so, more especially, for kings, and those that are in authority; that we may live a quiet and peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty, 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. So that whensoever I address to the court of heaven, I must

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