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enchain', complain', explain', domain', refrain', &c. ; twain, swain, wain, vain, stain, &c. (ain, s. an, in) chil'blain, por'celain, mort'main. (ain, s. en, in) again', against'.
$0. ain, unaccented, s. in, in villain, chap'lain, cham'berlain, mur'rain, qua'train, chief'tain, plan'tain, quin'tain, foun'tain, moun'tain, &c. (ain, sān, in) cas'tellain-cockswain and boatswain are pronounced kok'-sn and bōt' swan, or bō' sn.
$1. ion. preceded by l or n, accented, s. yun, in battalion, vermilion, pavilion, medallion, rebellion, billion, million, postil'ion, &c. companʼion, minʼion, domin'ion, opin'ion, onʼion, &c.
52. sion. preceded by a, e, i, o, or u, s. zhun, in occa'sion, eva'sion, invasion, persuasion, dissua ́sion: adhesion, inhe'sion, cohe'sion, exe'sion decisi'on, precision, incisi'on, collisi'on, divisi'on, provision effo'sion, displo'sion, explo'sion, ero'sion, arro'sion, corro'sion fu'sion, diffu'sion, infuʼsion, confu'sion, conclu'sion, &c. 53. sion, preceded by any of the consonants, s. shun, in impulsion, compul'sion, expanʼsion, comprehen'sion, dimenʼsion, mer'sion, aver". sion, incursion, &c.
54. ssion, s. shun, in passi'on, compassion, cession, concession, profession, egression, pression, sessi'on, possession, &c.
55. tion, s. shun, in constitu'tion, solu'tion, elocu'tion, cau'tion, porʼtion, option, perception, atten'tion, contriti'on, additi'on, &c. 56. tion, preceded by s, or x, s. tyun, in ambus'tion, combus'tion, que 'tion, conges'tion; mix'tion, admix'tion, commix'tion, &c. 57. xion, s shun, in flex'ion, complex'icn, annex'ion, connex'ion, prefix'ion, affix'ion, crucifix'ion, commix'ion, flux'ion, deflux'ion, afflux'ion, efflux'ion.
58. son, s. zn, in rea'son, trea'son, sea'son, den'ison, ven'ison, foi'son, poi'son, empoi'son, coun'terpoison, disinher'ison, pris'on, imprison, dam'son, crim'son. (son, s. zun, in) diapa'son, or'aison, ben'ison, advow'son. (son,s sun, in) son, grand’son, god'son, uʼnison, capar’ison, comparison, (son, s. sn, in) maʼson, garʼrison, parʼson, per'son, les'son. (son, s. sûn, in) caisson'.
59. own, s. own, in down, adown', upside-down', gown, lown, clown, renown', brown, &c. (own, s ōn, in) own, shown, blown, flown, high'flown, known, unknown', grown, sown, disown', unsown'. 60. ear, s. ēr, in ear, dear, endear', fear, gear, hear, rehear', overhear', shear, blear, clear, tear (n water), &c. (ear, s. ār, in) bear, bugʻbear, upbear', underbear', overbear', forbear', pear, tear (v.), tear, (n. a rent), wear, swear, unswear', forswear', outswear'. (ear, s. ear, in linear, rectilin'ear, curvilin'ear. 61. er, s. ĕr, in amʼber, cham'ber, octo'ber, cum'ber, of'ficer, offend'er, pretender, fin'ger, lin'ger, lexicog'rapher, geog'rapher, orthographer, biographer, historiog'rapher, cosmog'rapher, &c. (er, accented, s. er, in) defer', refer', prefer', infer', misinfer', deter', &c. (eer, s. ēr, in) beer, deer, rain'deer, cheer, fleer, mountaineer', engineer', domineer', &c. (eer, s. er, in chan'ticleer e'er, s. ār, in) e'er, ne'er, whene'er, where'er'. (ier accented, and in one syllable, s. ēr, in) pier, cashier', cavalier', chandelier', gondolier', carabinier', cannonier', &c. 62. or, s. ur, in ambassador, meʼteor, an'chor, met'aphor, au'thor, ma'jor, se'nior, ju'nior, infe'rior, supe'rior, interior, war'rior, sail'or, demean'our, minor, &c. (or, s. or, in) or, a'chor, i'chor, nor, sa'por,
pre'tor, flu'or, for, unlooked for, unhoped'for, &c. (or and oor, s. ōr in) louis d'or', corridor', door, bat'tledoor, back'door, trapdoor', death's'door, floor, ground'floor, thrash'ingfloor. (oor, s. ûr, in) boor, moor, poor, unmoor',--oor, s. ăr, in black'amoor.--or, s. âr, in abhor'.
63. our, s. ur, in la'bour, ta'bour, arʼbour, harʼbour, suc'cour, ran'cour, splen'dour, vigʻour, val'our, col'our, &c. (our, s. owr, in) our, scour, hour, flour, deflour', sour, devour'. (our, s. ûr, in) amour', par'amour tour, contour'.--the verb to pour, s. pûr, pōr, or powr.four, s. fōr.--your, s. ùr, or ür.--tour, s. yur, in behaviour, sav'iour. 64. ass, s. ǎss, in ass, lass, class, glass, look'ing glass, i'sing-glass, tin'glass, weath'erglass, hour'glass, mass, amass', pass, repass', surpass', brass, vant'brass, grass, spar'rowgrass, scur'vygrass. (ass, 8. ass, in) car'cass, cut'lass, com'pass, encom'pass, tres'pass, harʼass, sas'safras, cuirass', morass', can'vass: bass, a mat, bāss, in music. 65. ous, s. us, in tremen'dous, stupen'dous, hid'eous, spontaneous, plen'teous, terra'queous, analogous, o'dious, stu'dious, pi'ous, va' rious, jealous, per'ilous, friv'olous, cred'ulous, trem'ulous, &c. 66. ceous, s. shus, in faba'ceous, herbaceous, folia'ceous, coria'ceous, argilla'ceous, poma'ceous, membrana'ceous, arena'ceous, &c. 67. ious and eous,
preceded by d, 8. yus, in te'dious, perfid'ious, fastid'ious, insidious, invid'ious, compen'dious, o'dious, melodious, commo'dious, &c. hid'eous, lapid'eous.—ious, s. eus, in stu’dious. 68. cious and scious, s. shus, in effica'cious, auda'cious, saga'cious, falla'cious, tena'cious, pertina'cious, spa'cious, gra'cious, vora'cious, &c. omnisci'ous, con'scious, luscious, &c.
69. tious, s. shus, in ostenta'tious, vexa'tious, fac'tious, ambitious, propitious, fictitious, adventitious, superstitious, conscientious, senten'tious, conten'tious, cap'tious, cau'tious, incau'tious, &c. 70. ous, s. uus, in conspicuous, innoc'uous, promis'cuous, assiduous, ar'duous, ambiguous, contiguous, mellifluous, super'fluous, ingen'uous, &c. (quous, s. kwus, in) sil'iquous, multisil'oquous, ambil'oquous, multiloquous. (uous, s. ŭus, in) con'gruous, incon'gruous.
71. eat, s. ēt, in eat, beat, brow'beat, feat, defeat', heat, cheat, escheat', bleat, meat, neat, peat, repeat', &c. eat, s. et, in sweet'neat.eat, 8. et, in threat, sweat-eat, s. āt, in great.-eat s. cat, in ca'veat.--hereat', thereat', whercat', s. hēr at', thar at', hwar at'. 12. ct, s. kt, in act, enact', compact', defect', infect', perʼtect, deject', select', as'pect, respect', inspect', pros'pect, &c. (ct has the same sound when s is added, thus) acts, enacts, defects', intects', dejects', respects', inspects', prospects, directs', &c. (iot, s. īt, in endict', and indict'.
73. ight, s. it, in dight, bedight', fight, hight, light, alight', blight, delight', flight, enlight', moon'light, plight, &c. (ight, s. ït, in) twilight, mid'night, fort'night, birth'right, down'right (adj.), up'right, fore'sight, in'sight, o'versight. seven-night, s. senʼnit.) 74, eight. s. at, in freight, weight, pen'ny weight, troy'-weight, weight'ily, weight'iness, weight'y, eight, eighteen, eight'fold, eighth, eight'score, eight'y. (eight, s. it, in) height, sleight.
75. aught, s. ât, in aught, caught, haught, naught, fraught, ful'fraught. (aught, s. ǎft, in) draught, rough'draught.
16. ought, s. ât, in ought, bought, dear'-bought, fought, thought,
methought', fore' thought, after-thought, mer'ry-thought, nought, brought, wrought, high' wrought, inwrought', unwrought', overwrought, sought, besought'. (ought, s. owt, in drought.) 77. scent, s. sent, in scent, ascent', renas'cent, herbes'cent, descent', quies'cent, convales'cent, evanes'cent, cres'cent, excres'cent, &c. 78. ow, s. o, in elbow, rainbow, mead'ow, shadow, overshad 'ow, wid'ow, window, bow'-window, &c. (ow, s. ō, in) bow (n.), to shoot arrows; imbow', show, ra'ree-show, foreshow', pup'petshow, low (adj. or adv), blow, overflow' (v), glow, slow, mow (v.), know, overthrow' (v.), strow, sow, (v.), tow, stow, bestow', &c. (ow, s. ow, in) bow (n. an act of reverence, or v. to bend ), cow, endow', how, some how, low (v.), to bellow; allow', disallow', mow (n), now, enow', brow, eye'brow, prow, sow (n.), vow, avow'.
79. ay, s. ā, in bay, decay', alack'aday', noon'day, fay, gay, delay', relay', allay', inlay', play, display', &c. (ay, s. à in) mon'day, tues'day, wednes'day, thurs'day, fri'day, sat'urday, sun'day, yes'terday, hey'-day, holy'day, nose'gay, round'clay, &c.ay, s. ǎệ.— quay, s. ke.
80. fy, a verbal termination, s. fï, in justify, rec'tify, pu'rify, tes'tify, pac'ify, crucify, not'ify, ter'rify, for'tify, cal'efy, tu'mefy, beau'tify, sanc'tify, sig'nify, qualify, glo'rify, &c. fy, or fi, in the participles of such verbs, has the same sound, thus) jus'tifying, jus'tified; rec'tifying, rec'tified; pu'rifying, pu'rified, &c. (the same sound of fi prevails in the nouns derived rom such verbs as these signifying an actor, thus) justifier, rec'tifier, puʼrifier, &c. (but in nouns from these verbs signifying an act, fi takes the sound of fe, thus) justifica'tion, purifica'tion, testification, &c. (fi has, the sound of fe also in such words as) justifica'tor, testifica'tor, &c. (fy sounds fi, in the verbs defy and affy, also in the interjection fy.-fy sounds fe, in the adjectives lea'fy, chaf'fy, draf'fy, puf'fy, shelf'y, gulf'y, turf'y.
81. ly, unaccented, s. lė, in a'bly, prob'ably, af'fably, remarkʼably, sea'sonably, du'rably, suitably, learn'edly, sa'credly, assur'edly, i'dly, friendly, time'ly, humane'ly, &c. (ly, accented, and in monosyllables, s. lī, in) supply', apply', comply', reply', ply, july', ally', fly, outfly', rely'. 82. ably, s. able, in prob’ably, am'icably, laud'ably, peace'ably, af'fably, variably, remarkably, conform'ably, rea'sonably, sea'sonably, com'parably, al'terably, tol'erably, &c. (the adverb a'bly, s. able.) 83. ibly, s. eble, in invincibly, forc'ibly, cred'ibly, au'dibly, leg'ibly, intelligibly, infallibly, terribly, vis'ibly, sen'sibly, pos'sibly, plau'sibly, compatibly, percep'tibly, contemp'tibly, convert'ibly, &c. 84. ily, s. ele, in read'ily, steadily, gaud'ily, wor'thily, luck'ily, fam'ily happily, primarily, or'dinarily, sol'itarily, voluntarily, satisfac'torily, tran'sitorily, bus'ily, &c.-ily, s. īle, in shi'ly, sli'ly, wi'ly.—— ily, s. ile, in lily.--aily, s. alè, in daily, gai'ly.
85. iety, s. iéti, in nullibi'ety, ubi'ety, soci'ety, medi'ety, nimi'ety, pi'ety, impiety, contrari'ety, vari'ety, ebri'ety, sobriety, insobriety, notoriety, propriety, impropriety, sati'ety, anxiety. (aiety, s. aėtė, in gaiety. oiety, s. oy-ė-tė, in moi'ety.
86. ity, 8. et, in prob'ity, ascer'bity, sagac'ity, capacity, felic'ity, duplicity, velocity, atrocity, valid'ity, rapid'ity, florid'ity, profun'dity, de'ity, corpore'ity, verbal'ity, frugal'ity, liberal'ity, plural'ity, fatal'ity, ability, &c. (ity s. itė, in) city, pit'y.
87. osity, 8. osėtė, in verbosity, morbos'ity, curios'ity, sententios'ity, glandulos'ity, animosity, tenebros'ity, numeros'ity, generosity, moros'ity, monstros'ity, aquos'ity, flatuos'ity, unctuos'ity, &c.
The NATIVES of IRELAND should frequently pronounce the following words, as they commonly give them an improper sound.
rm, at the end of a word, which the Irish pronounce in two syllables, must form only one.
arm, farm, harm, charm, alarm', disarm', warm, swarm, sperm, term, misterm', firm, affirm', infirm', confirm', unfirm', form, deform', reform', efform', 'difform', cu'biform, inform', misinform', conform', perform', transform', plat'form, worm, glow'worm, turm; born, corn, scorn, adorn', horn, shorn, thorn, lorn, morn, torn, worn, sworn, burn, adjourn', mourn, spurn, turn, return', overturn', &c.
Im, at the end of a word, must also be pronounced in one syllable. balm, embalm', calm, becalm', realm, halm, shalm, palm, psalm, qualm, elm, whelm, overwhelm', film, sea'holm.
ey, in monosyllables, or when accented, sounds like ay in day, or ā. obey', disobey', fey, hey, they, whey, grey, prey, trey, convey', purvey', survey'.-key, and ley, s. kē, lē.
a, accented, at the end of a syllable, sounds ā, or like ay in day.
ra'diance, ra'diant, ra'dius, ra'diate, pa'tron, ma'tron, commenta'tor, a'lien, aʼlienable, a'lienate, a'corn, a'ga, a'gency, a'gent, a'gio, a'gue, a'guish, pa'pacy, paʼpal, pa'pist, pa'per, pa'gan, pa'god.—father, papa, mamma, s. fâ'ther, papâ', mamma'.
When a consonant follows the vowel a in the same syllable, and the accent is on the consonant, the vowel a has always its short sound, as in hat,
mal'ice, manʼage, man'cipate, mtanʼful, manʼner, man'ifold, man'sion, man'ual, hap'less, happy, hazʼard, hazʼardous, an'nals, anʼnual, an'swer, anʼtedate, anʼthem, ban'ish, ban'ner, bat'tle, calam'itous, &c. The diphthong ea sounds ẽ when the vowel e is accented, as in sea'son, rea'son, &c.
sea, sea'man, sea'port, sea'sonable, sea'soning, trea'son, trea'sonable, trea'tise, wea'ry, wea'risome, bea'ver, crea'ture, &c. (ea, s. ā, in) great a pear, a bear, to bear, to forbear', to swear, to tear, to wear.
éi, sounded a by the Irish, sounds ẽ in English.
deceit', deceitful, deceive', deceiv'er, receive', receiv'able, receiv er, receipt', conceit', conceit'ed, conceiv'able, conceive', perceive', perceiv'able, nei'ther, ei'ther, deceiv'ing, deceived', receiv'ing, received', conceitʼing, perceiv'ing, perceived', &c. (ei, followed by g, s. ã, thus) reign, feign, deign, &c. (ei, s. ā, also in) rein, reins, vein, drein, veil, heir.
The final e mute makes the preceding e in the same syllable, when accented, have the sound of e, as in supreme, sincere, replete.
scheme, blaspheme', theme, supreme', extreme', sincere', insincere', severe', persevere', delete', replete', complete', incomplete', mete, secrete', concrete', discrete', &c.-ere, s. ar, in there and where. The following words are pronounced differently in IRELAND from what they are in ENGLAND.
cheer'ful, fear'ful, door, floor, gape, gath'er, beard, bull, bush, push, pull, pulpit, calf, catch, coarse, course, court, malici'ous, pud'ding, quash, lei'sure, clam'our, drought, search, source, strength, length, strove, drove, ten'ure, ten'able, wrath, wroth, fare'well, rode, strode, shone, schism, where'fore, there'fore, breadth, cold, bold, coffer, endeav our, foot, mis'chievous, on'ion, put, reach, squadron, zealous, zealot. FAULTS of the ENGLISH in PRONUNCIATION, and particularly of the LONDONERS.
The letters sts, or tes, the plural of nouns, or the singular of verbs, must all be distinctly heard in one syllable.
casts, out'casts, fasts, enthu'siasts, blasts, masts, boasts, con'trasts, chests, jests, nests, for'ests, contests, guests, requests', con'quests; abates, dedicates, com'plicates, supplicates, dates, mit'igates, in'stigates, hates, meʼdiates, ex'piates, sa'tiates, ob'viates, relates', &c.
v must never be pronounced for w, nor w for v.
vale, valiant, valid, value, van, varʼnish, vast, vaunt, vehemence, vein, ven'erate, ven'ture, verge, vest, vic'ar, vice, view, village, vine, vin'egar, vi'olet, vir'tue, viv'id, wood, wood'land, word, work, worthy, &c.
h after w must always be sounded.
whale, wheat, whelm, when, whence, where, whereat', whereby', whereas', whereunto', whet, wheth'er, whey, which, while, whilst, whim, whine, whip, whirl, whist, white, who, whoev'er, whole, &c.
h must be sounded in such words as the following:
hab'it, hail, hair, half, hall, halt, ham'let, hand, hang, hank, happy, harangue',har'ass, har'bour, hard, hardheart'ed, harm, harmony, harp'er, har'row, haste, hate, hate'ful, haugh'ty, haz'ard, head, head'long, heal, health, heap, hear, heart, heart' whole, heat, heath, hea'then, heave, heav'en, heed, height, height'en, hei'nous, held, helm, &c.
In the following words the h is silent.
heir, heir'ess, herb, herb'age, hon'est, honesty, honestly, honour, hon'ourable, hon'ourably, hos'pital, hos'tler, hour, hourly, hum'ble, hum'bles, hum'bled, hum'bly, hu'mour, hu'morist, hu'morous, hu morously, hu'morsome.
In the pronunciation of the following words the NATIVES of SCOTLAND are very liable to err.
of, off, in'to, with, within', without', beneath', ere, erelong', erenow', erewhile', ne'er, e'er, and, man, an, wax, waft, are, were, have, hast, has, hath, had, do, dost, doth, does, might, could, would, should, shall, length, strength, long, strong, na'tion, nati'ona ture, natural, nat'urally, bold, hold, cold, sold, told, yet.