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we formed to participate the supreme beatitude in communicating happiness'? Are we destined to co-operate with God in advancing the order and perfection of his works'? How sublime a creature then is man!
2. Can our solicitude alter the course, or unravel the intricacy' of human events? Can our curiosity pierce through the cloud, which the Supreme Being has made impenetrable' to mortal eye?
3. Can the soldier, when he girdeth on his armour, boast like him that putteth it off'? Can the merchant predict that the speculation, on which he has entered, will be infallibly crowned with success'? Can even the husbandman, who has the promise of God that seed-time and harvest shall not fail, look forward with assured confidence to the expected increase of his fields'? In these and in all similar cases, our resolution to act can be founded on probability alone.
4. Avarus has long been ardently endeavouring to fill his chest and lo! it is now full. Is he happy'? Does he use' it? Does he gratefully think of the Giver' of all good things? Does he distribute to the poor? Alas! these interests have no place in his breast.
5. Yet say, should tyrants learn at last to feel,
And the loud din of battle cease to bray;
Would Death be foil'd'? Would health, and strength, and youth' Defy his power? Has he no arts in store,
No other shafts save those of war'? Alas!
Ev'n in the smile of peace, that smile which sheds
A heavenly sunshine o'er the soul, there basks
RULE III.—When interrogative sentences connected by the disjunctive or, expressed or understood, succeed each other, the first ends with the rising, and the rest with the falling inflection.*
1. Are you toiling for fame', or labouring to heap up a fortune? 2. Do the perfections of the Almighty lie dormant'? Does he possess them as if he possessed them not'? Are they not rather in continual exercise?
3. Does God, after having made his creatures, take no further' care of them? Has he left them to blind fate or undirected chance'? Has he forsaken the works of his own hands'? Or does he always graciously preserve, and keep, and guide' them?
* When or is used conjunctively the inflections are not regulated by it.
4. Are your riches, your leisure, your influence, given you by God in vain'? Or can you be content to pass through life without one generous effort to adorn your exalted station, and to distinguish yourselves as the benefactors of mankind'?
5. Should these credulous infidels after all be in the right, and this pretended revelation be all a fable, from believing it what harm' could ensue? Would it render princes more tyrannical, or subjects more ungovernable'? the rich more insolent, or the poor more disorderly'? Would it make worse parents, or children'; husbands, or wives'; masters, or servants'; friends, or neigh➡ bours'? or would it not make men more virtuous, and, consequently, more happy' in every situation?
6. Is the goodness', or wisdom' of the divine Being, more manifested in this his proceeding?
7. Shall we in your person crown' the author of the public calamities, or shall we destroy' him?
Note 2.-An interrogative sentence consisting of a variety of members depending on each other for sense, may have the inflection common to other sentences, provided the last member has that inflection which distinguishes the species of interrogation to which it belongs.
Can we believe a thinking being, that is in a perpetual progress of improvements', and travelling on from perfection to perfection, after having just looked abroad into the works of its Creator', and made a few discoveries of his infinite goodness, wisdom, and power, must perish at her first setting out', and in the very beginning of her inquiries'?
Note 3.-Interrogative sentences, consisting of members in a series, which form perfect sense as they proceed, must have every member terminate with that inflection which distinguishes the species of interrogation of which they consist.
1. Hath death torn from your embrace the friend whom you tenderly loved' him to whom you were wont to unbosom the secrets of your soul'—him who was your counsellor in perplexity, the sweetner of all your joys, and the assuager of all your sorrows'? You think you do well to mourn; and the tears with which you water his grave, seem to be a tribute due to his virtues. But waste not your affection in
2. Who are the persons that are most apt to fall into peevishness and dejection' that are continually complaining of the world, and see nothing but wretchedness' around them? Are they those whom want compels to toil for their daily bread' who have no treasure but the labour of their hands'-who rise with the rising sun to expose themselves to all the rigours of the seasons, unsheltered from the winter's cold, and unshaded from the summer's heat'? No. The labours of such are the very blessings of their condition.
Note 4. When questions, asked by verbs, are followed by answers, the rising inflection, in a high tone of voice, takes place at the end of the question, and after a long pause, the answer must be pronounced in a lower tone.
1. Are you desirous that your talents and abilities may procure you respect'? Display them not ostentatiously to public view. Would you escape the envy which your riches' might excite? Let them not minister to pride, but adorn them with humility.
2. There is not an evil incident to human nature for which the gospel doth not provide a remedy. Are you ignorant of many things which it highly concerns you to know'? The gospel offers you instruction. Have you deviated from the path of duty'? The gospel offers you forgiveness. Do temptations' surround you? The gospel offers you the aid of heaven. Are you exposed to misery'? It consoles you. Are you subject to death'? It offers you immortality.
RULE. The inflections at the note of exclamation are the same as at any other point, in sentences similarly constructed.
1. How many disappointments have, in their consequences, saved a man from ruin'!
2. How happy are the virtuous, who can rest under the protection of that powerful arm, which made the earth and the heaven'!
3. How comfortable is it to us, as well as ornamental to our profession, to be able to trust the Lord in the path of duty'! to believe that he will supply our wants, direct our steps, plead our cause, and control our enemies'!
4. The day is now breaking, how beautiful its appearance'! how welcome the expectation of the approaching sun'! It is this thought makes the dawn agreeable, that it is the presage of a brighter light.
5. The Almighty sustains and conducts the universe. It was He who separated the jarring elements! It was He who hung up the worlds in empty space'! It is He who preserves them in their circles, and impels them in their course'!
6. How pure, how dignified should they be, whose origin is celestial'! How pure, how dignified should they be, who are taught to look higher than earth: to expect to enjoy the divinest pleasures for evermore, and to shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father'!'
7. Behold the reverential awe with which the words and the opinions of the upright and conscientious are heard and received'! See the wise courting their friendship; the poor applying for their
aid; the friendless and forlorn seeking their advice, and the widow and the fatherless craving their protection'!
When the exclamation, in form of a question, is the echo of another question of the same kind, or when it proceeds from wonder or admiration, it always requires the rising inflection.
1. Will you for ever, Athenians, do nothing but walk up and down the city, asking one another, What news? What news'! Is there any thing more new than to see a man of Macedonia be◄ come master of the Athenians, and give laws to all Greece'?
2. What'! might Rome then have been taken, if those men who were at your gates had not wanted courage' for the attempt? -Rome taken while I' was consul !—Of honours I had sufficient -of life enough-more than enough.
3. Whither shall I turn'? Wretch that I am'! to what place shall I betake' myself? Shall I go to the capitol'? alas! it is overflowed with my brother's blood! or shall I retire to my house'? yet there I behold my mother plunged in misery, weep, ing and despairing'!
4. Plant of celestial seed, if dropp'd below,
RULE.—A parenthesis must be pronounced in a lower tone of voice than the rest of the sentence, and conclude with the same pause and inflection which terminate the member that immediately pre◄ cedes it.*
1. Fear not them who kill the body', (says the Author and Finisher of our faith'), but are not able to kill the soul.
2. Ye know, how we exhorted, and comforted, and charged every one of you, (as a father doth his children'), that you
• A parenthesis must also be pronounced a degree quicker than the rest of the sentence; a pause too must be made both before and after it, proportioned in length to the more intimate or remote connexion which it has with the rest of the sentence.
would walk worthy of God, who hath called you into his kingdom and glory.
3. Now I will come unto you, when I pass through Macedonia'; (for I do' pass through Macedonia ;) and it may be that I will abide, yea, and winter with you, that ye may bring me on my journey whithersoever I go.
4. The last end that can happen to any man, never comes too soon, if he falls in the support of the law and liberty of his country' (for liberty is synonymous with law and government').
5. Though Fame, who is always the herald of the great, has seldom deigned to transmit the exploits of the lower ranks to posterity' (for it is commonly the fate of those whom fortune has placed in the vale of obscurity to have their noble actions buried in oblivion'); yet in their verses, the minstrels have preserved many instances of domestic woe and felicity.
6. Uprightness is a habit, and, like all other habits, gains strength by time and exercise. If, then, we exercise' upright principles (and we cannot have them unless we exercise' them), they must be perpetually on the increase.
7. Rome' (now known by the title of the Western Empire, in contradistinction to Constantinople, which, from its situation, was called the Eastern' Empire) weakened by this division, became a prey to the barbarous nations.
8. Sir Andrew Freeport's notions of trade are noble and generous', and (as every rich man has usually some sly way of jesting, which would make no great figure were he not' a great man) he calls the sea the British Common.
Note 1.The end of a parenthesis must have the falling inflection, when it terminates with an emphatical word.
Had I, when speaking in the assembly, been absolute and independent master of affairs, then your other speakers might call me to account. But if ye were ever present, if ye were all in general invited to propose your sentiments, if ye were all agreed that the measures then suggested were really the best; if you, Eschines, in particular, were thus persuaded (and it was no partial affection for me, that prompted you to give me up the hopes, the applause, the honours, which attended that course I then advised, but the superior force of truth, and your utter inability to point out any more eligible' course), if this was the case, I say, is it not highly cruel and unjust to arraign those measures now, when you could not then propose any better?
Note 2.-When the parenthesis is long it may be pronounced with a degree of monotone or sameness of voice, in order to distinguish it from the rest of the sentence.