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Note. When the verb to be is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, which may serve as a nominative case to it, and the phrases before and after the verb may be transposed, then the pause falls between the verbs.


1. The greatest misery is to be condemned by our own hearts. 2. Charles's highest enjoyment was to relieve the distressed, and to do good.

RULE V.-When several substantives become the nominative to the same verb, a pause must be made between the last substantive and the verb, as well as after each of the other substantives.


1. Riches, pleasure, and health become evils to those who de not know how to use them.

2. Envy, jealousy, and ambition beget wars; fraud, violence, and cruelty conduct them; and they terminate not unfrequently, in mutual imbecility, and in mutual repentance.

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RULE VI.-If there are several adjectives belonging to one substantive, or several substantives belonging to one adjective, every adjective coming after its substantive, and every adjective coming before the substantive except the last must be separated by a short pause.



1. It was a calculation accurate to the last degree.

2. A behaviour active supple and polite, is necessary to succeed in life.

3. The idea of an eternal uncaused Being, forces itself upon the reflecting mind.

4. Let but one brave great active disinterested man arise, and he will be received, followed, and venerated.

6. The inclination of our nature to do good, whose value is not explained, is merely a blind vague and uncertain instinct.

6. There is a sort of delight, which is alternately mixed with terror and sorrow, in the contemplation of death. The soul has

• No pause is admitted between the substantive and the adjective in the inverted order, when the adjective is single, or unaccompanied by adjuncts. Thus, in this line,

They guard with arms divine the British throne

The adjective divine cannot be separated by a pause from the substantive arms.

its curiosity more than ordinarily awakened, when it turns its thoughts upon the conduct of such as have behaved themselves with an equal a resigned a cheerful a generous or heroic temper in that extremity.

Note. This rule applies also to sentences in which several adverbs belong to one verb, or several verbs to one adverb.


1. To love wisely rationally and prudently, is, in the opinion of lovers, not to love at all.

2. Wisely rationally and prudently to love, is, in the opinion of lovers, not to love at all.

RULE VII.-Whatever words are in the ablative absolute, must be separated from the rest by a short pause both before and after them.


1. If a man borrow aught of his neighbour, and it be hurt or die the owner thereof not being with it he shall surely make it good.

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2. God, from the mount of Sinai, whose gray top
Shall tremble he descending will himself

In thunder, lightnings, and loud tempests' sound
Ordain them laws.

RULE VIII.-Nouns in opposition, or words in the same case, where the latter is only explanatory of the former, have a short pause between them, either if both these nouns consist of many terms, or the latter only.


1. Hope the balm of life, soothes us under every misfortune. 2. Content the offspring of virtue, dwells both in retirement, and in the active scenes of life..

3. Solomon the son of David and the builder of the temple of Jerusalem, was the richest monarch that reigned over the Jewish people.

Note. If the two nouns are single, no pause is admitted; as, Paul the apostle; King George; the Emperor Alexander.

RULE IX.-When two substantives come together, and the latter, which is in the genitive case, consists of several words closely united with each other, a pause is admissible between the two principal substantives.


1. We may observe, that any single circumstance of what we have formerly seen often raises up a whole scene of imagery, and awakens numberless ideas that before slept in the imagination.

2. I do not know whether I am singular in my opinion, but for my own part, I would rather look upon a tree in all its luxuriancy, and diffusion of boughs and branches, than when it is cut and trimmed into a mathematical figure.

RULE X.-Who, which, when in the nominative case, and the pronoun that, when used for who, or which, require a short pause before them.


1. Death is the season which brings our affections to the test. 2. Nothing is in vain that rouses the soul: nothing in vain that keeps the ethereal fire alive and glowing.

3. A man can never be obliged to submit to any power, unless he can be satisfied who is the person who has a right to exercise it.

Note. There are several words usually called adverbs, which inelude in them the power of the relative pronoun, and will therefore admit of a pause before them; such as when, why, wherefore, how, where, whether, whither, whence, while, till or until: for when is equivalent to the time at which; why, or wherefore, is equivalent to the reason for which; and so of the rest. It must, however, be noted, that when a preposition comes before one of these relatives, the pause is before the preposition; and that, if any of these words is the last word of the sentenee, or clause of a sentence, no pause is admitted before it: as, "I have read the book, of which I have heard so much commendation, but I know not the reason why. I have heard one of the books much commended, but I cannot tell which," &c.

It must likewise be observed, that, if the substantive which gov. erns the relative, and makes it assume the genitive case, comes before it, no pause is to be placed either before which, or the preposition that governs it.


The passage of the Jordan is a figure of baptism, by the grace of which, the new-born Christian passes from the slavery of sin into a state of freedom peculiar to the chosen sons of God.


RULE XI.-Pause before that when it is used for a conjunction.



1. It is in society only that we can relish those pure joys which embellish and gladden the life of man.

2. The custom and familiarity of these tongues do sometimes so far influence the expressions in these epistles that one may observe the force of the Hebrew conjugations.

RULE XII. When a pause is necessary at prepositions and conjunctions, it must be before and not after them.


1. We must not conform to the world in their amusements and diversions.

2. There is an inseparable connexion between piety and virtue. 3. Homer and Hesiod intimate to us how this art should be applied, when they represent the muses as surrounding Jupiter and warbling hymns about his throne.

Note 1. When a clause comes between the conjunction and the word to which it belongsa pause may be made both before and after the conjunction.


This let him know

Lest wilfully transgressing, he pretend

Note 2.-When a preposition enters into the composition of a verb, the pause comes after it.


People expect in a small essay, that a point of humour should be worked up in all its parts, and a subject touched upon in its most essential articles, without the repetitions, tautologies, and enlargements, that are indulged to longer labours.

RULE XIII.—In an elliptical sentence, pause where the ellipsis takes place.


1. To our faith, we should add virtue; and to virtue knowledge; and to knowledge temperance; and to temperance pa

tience; and to patience godliness; and to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity.

2. The vain man takes praise for honour, the proud man ceremony for respect, the ambitious man power for glory.

RULE XIV.-Words placed either in opposition to, or in apposition with each other, must be distinguished by a pause.


1. The pleasures of the imagination, taken in their full extent, are not so gross as those of sense, nor so refined as those of the understanding.

2. Some place the bliss in action, some in ease;
Those call it pleasure, and contentment these.

RULE XV.-When prepositions are placed in opposition to each other, and all of them are intimately connected with another word, the pause after the second preposition must be shorter than that after the first, and the pause after the third shorter than that after the second.*


1. Rank, distinction, pre-eminence, no man despises, unless he is either raised very much above, or sunk very much below, the ordinary standard of human nature.

2. Whenever words are contrasted with, contradistinguished from, or opposed to, other words, they are always emphatical.

As those classes of words, which admit of no separation, are very small and very few, if we do but take the opportunity of pausing where the sense will permit, we shall never be obliged to break in upon the sense when we find ourselves under the necessity of pausing; but if we overshoot ourselves by pronouncing more in a breath than is necessary, and neglecting those intervals where we may pause conveniently, we shall often find ourselves obliged to pause where the sense is not separable, and, consequently, to weaken and obscure the composition. This observation, for the sake of the memory, may be conveniently comprised in the following verses:

▪ In the examples annexed to this rule, the prepositions, as they are emphatic, are printed in italics, and the pause comes after them.

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