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they mostly wear pantaloons of flowered silk, very full and descending low: the tunic, or jacket, of velvet or white muslin, the neck covered, and the long veils falling gracefully from the turban behind. One other luxury perhaps was wanting, to press to their Oriental lips the pipe, with its end of rich cornelian or scented amber. The writer was one day invited to visit an affluent merchant, and found him seated on the raised divan, reclining on an ottoman on sumptuous cushions: coffee and pipes were brought: the chief interest of the saloon was, however, in a group of six ladies, seated in a circle on a rich carpet on the lower part of the room; each held an elegant pipe of about five feet in length, and each delicate mouth sent forth at intervals whiffs of fragrant tobacco, that rose slowly in thin clouds above their heads, and made them look a little like the kind genii of the Arabian Tales, whose loveliness gradually opens on the favoured believer through the dim halo that surrounds them. Yet the scene was not inelegant, nor did their employment at all unsex, even to the fancy, the Ottoman ladies: a painter might have drawn the indolent dreamy air and attitude in which each smoker reclined: the white round arm gently extended, the fingers just touching the shaft of the pipe, which was cased in embroidered velvet; the tobacco was of the most delicate kind, and a piece of scented wood, or of composition, was laid on the pipe's mouth, which sent with every whiff an agreeable odour through the apartment

In the Turkish families the daughters are very often betrothed when children, and married at an early age: in the Koran, the Prophet not only ranks women as true believers, but particularly ordains that they shall be well treated and respected by their husbands: he has secured this by the law of dowry and inheritance; if a wife is divorced, her whole dower must be paid to her, even though it involve the husband in ruin. In very many cases, the girls do not even see their destined husbands; but the change from the strict subjection of home to the condition of a wife at the head of her own household, is so agreeable, that they are too happy to adopt it A lady may not only go to the public bath, and on excursions into the country, or to the promenades around Damascus, but she visits at the houses of her relations; and her husband's following her to those places would be deemed an unpardonable intrusion. Then she has visitors at home, friends, musicians, and dancers—all the news and scandal of the town is detailed and canvassed—and the husband cannot enter the lady's part of the house without giving notice. The grandees, and men of great wealth, the governors of cities, and the pashas, have often separate houses and establishments, harems and wives, and female slaves: these ladies often lead a life of seclusion, a lonely, imbittered, and neglected life; but the great and the wealthy, who have such establishments, are not in the proportion of one to ten thousand of the population of the country. If a man of respectable rank and property marry a woman of respectable connexions, she becomes mistress of his family; and should he have only one house, he can scarcely avail himself of the Prophet's permission of a plurality of wives; nor can he take even a second wife, and place her on an equality with the first, without involving himself in great trouble and vexation. The dower usually settled on such a lady, her unlimited authority over her children and servants, give her much importance; and she is supported by her relations in all her rights and privileges. Few can comparatively practise polygamy: the separate establishments, the separate wardrobes and servants, and other disbursements, make the experiment too burdensome to persons of moderate means, who wish to preserve their wonted comforts and indulgencies of life; and the quarrels and jealousies that often ensue, are enough to send the husband over the dark river before his time.


The tradition that the garden of Eden once stood here, originated in the extreme loveliness of the site, which is, however, of too alpine a character to render the locality probable. The ancient cedars are near: the hill on the right, on whose crest the village stands, as well as the other eminences, are part of Lebanon. Eden is literally an eagle's nest, placed almost between heaven and earth, like a lone sentinel on the everlasting cedars: above Eden rises a pyramid of bare rock, the last peak of Lebanon in this quarter; and a small chapel, in ruins, crowns its summit Vineyards, gardens, mulberry and walnut trees climb the declivities, watered by numerous rivulets and little canals: and every cottage is supplied with wine, of which no less than twelve kinds are made on the range of Lebanon; most of them are sweet, strong, and pleasant; two or three are excellent, particularly the celebrated vin d'oro, of a golden colour. The salubrity of the climate during the greater part of the year, is a strong recommendation to this region: from the keenness of the mountain air in winter, its people descend to the village of Zgarti. Eden is the Bagneres of Lebanon: were it as near and easy of access as the Pyrenees, what multitudes of the invalid and curious would cover its romantic fields! The numerous monasteries in the neighbourhood offer an agreeable resort and relief from the monotony of a mountain life—in the society of some of the fathers, the use of the libraries, and the hospitality of the refectory. The country is here as remarkable for the innumerable multitude of its mulberry trees, as Egypt is for its palm trees. During the chief part of the year, these mulberry trees clothe the prospect, in every direction, with a delightful verdure. As they are not cultivated for fruit, but for their leaves, from which a great quantity of silk-worms are reared, they are pulled generally when the stem is about six feet high, and the small branches, or rather twigs, then burst out in most luxuriant foliage. An immense quantity of silk is thus raised in Syria: the trees are planted in regular line: in the winter months, a light plough is passed over the soil between them, so that the earth may drink in the rain more plentifully The square-roofed cottages in view are of the form universal in this region, and in use probably in very ancient times: earth is mostly carried up, and laid evenly on the flat roof, and hardened by a stone roller, that the rains, so prevalent here, may not penetrate: upon this surface, as may be supposed, grass and weeds grow with difficulty

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