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PREFACE.

The occasion and plan of this second journey in the Holy Land are set forth in the beginning of the introductory Section.

During the more important part of the journey, my companion in travel was, as before, the Rev. Eli Smith, D.D. He went with me to Jerusalem and the vicinity of Hebron; and thence northwards as far as to Hasbeiya. From Hasbeiya the Rev. W. M. Thomson accompanied me to Bâniâs and back; and then, on the way to Damascus, until within a day's journey of that city. From Damascus, the Rev. S. Robson became my companion to Ba'albek and around the northern end of Lebanon to the cedars, and so to Beirût.

That very much of the success and comfort of the journey depended on the long and familiar acquaintance possessed by my companions with the language and character of the people, I need not here repeat. Each of them kept his own separate journal of daily occurrences and observations.

These were kindly left in my hands; and have been freely used in the preparation of this volume. To these friends, the public, as well as myself, are under lasting obligations.

The present volume is strictly supplementary to the former BIBLICAL RESEARCHES ; and is published in connection with the new edition of that work. It is also issued separately, for the convenience of those who already possess the first edition of the Researches.

The observations made during this second journey, rendered necessary a new construction of the Maps of Palestine. This has been done by Kiepert of Berlin, with his accustomed scien

VOL III.-A*

tific skill. It will be seen, that the routes of the different years very rarely coincide.— The other maps also are republished; that of Sinai with some corrections; and the interior of Jerusalem is given according to the Plans of Tobler and the English engineers.

In the Index of Arabic Names and Words, the Arabic letters have not been employed. These are sometimes important to the scholar; but never to the great mass of general readers. Yet the system of notation in respect to Arabic names will be found sufficient, in nearly every case, to indicate to scholars the proper Arabic letters; and this is strictly all that is required. This notation, however, is fully carried out only in the Index of Arabic Names and Words.—The slight variations which occur in the spelling of several names, have arisen from like variations in the popular pronunciation.

For an exposition of the system of notation above-mentioned, the reader is referred to the specifications immediately following the Preface in the new edition of the former Researches, Vol. I; as also to Dr Smith's Essay on the Pronunciation of the Arabic, in the Appendix to the first edition, Vol. III. pp. 89-111.

With this volume closes, of course, the record of my personal observations in the Holy Land. The principles according to which it has been prepared, are the same with those, which lie at the basis of my former work. If it shall be deemed a worthy supplement to that work, I shall be satisfied. To these my BIBLICAL RESEARCHES in the Holy Land, the fruit of thirty years of preparation, and of personal travels in 1838 and 1852, I can hope to add nothing more. The work is now published as a whole, and in a permanent form.

The great object of all these travels and labours has been, as formerly announced, to collect materials “for the preparation of a systematic work on the physical and historical geography of the Holy Land.” To this work, so much needed, should my life and health be spared, I hope speedily to address myself.

With the renewed expression of humble gratitude to God, the author here takes leave of his work; praying that He, who has thus permitted it to be completed, will continue to make it useful for the furtherance of His truth.

New York, July, 1856.

CONTENTS.

Motives and plan of a seoond journey in Palestine, 1, 2. Occasion, 2. London,

Berlin, 2. Route to Trieste, 2. Fine scenery along the railway, 2, 3. Embark at

Trieste, 3. Straight course to Corfu, 3. Meleda, not Melita, 3. Course around

Greece, 3. Syra, 3. Delay at Smyrna, 3. Antiquities, 4. American missionaries, 4.

Embark at Smyrna, 4. Crowded with deck passengers, 4. Patmos, the Sporades,

coast of Asia Minor, 5. Rhodes, 5. Our track the same as St. Paul's, 6. Cyprus ;

Baffa, Paphos, 6. Larnaka, Citium, 7.

BEIRUT. Landing, 7. At home with Dr E. Smith, 7. Plans, 7, 8. Movement

among the Druzes, 8. Prospect, Lebanon, 8, 9. The weather, storms, 9. Beirût

prosperous, 9. Its commerce, 9, 10. Antiquities, 10. Hills around the city, 10.

Roads, 10. Sand-hills, 11. Cape Beirût, 11. Mosk, sarcophagi, 11, 12.

Excursion to Nahr el-Kelb, 12. Nahr Beirût and bridge, 12. Way along the

shore, 13. The pass, 13. Bridge and aqueduct, 13.

Excursion to Deir el-Kül’ah, 13. Raggod ascent Lebanon, 14. The many ter-

races, 14. Gorge of Nahr Beirút, ancient aqueduct, 14. Site of the convent, 14.

Extensive view, 15. Basin of Nahr Beirút, 15. District el-Metn, 15. Sandstone and

pines, 15. Damascus road and Bhamdûn, 15. Remains of an ancient temple, 15, 16.

Inscriptions, 16, 17. Maronite monks, 17. Beit Miry, horseshoeing, 17. Ancient

aqueduct with tubular stones, 17, 18. Brummâna, Nahr el-Maut, 18.

Excursion to 'Abeih, 18. Solitary place of many sarcophagi, 18, 19. 'Arâmôn,

'Ain Kesûr, 19. Boys' school of the American mission, 20. Examination, 20. Site

of 'Abeib, 20. Basin of the Nahr Damûr, 20, 21. Return to Beirút by Shemlân, 21.

The priest Flaminius, 21. Wady Shahrûr, its fertility, 21, 22. Traces of the ancient

aqueduct in the plain, 22.

Meeting of the Syrian mission, 22. Letter and invitation from Dr Perkins, 22. New

Arabic version of the Scriptures by Dr Smith, 23. Protestantism in the Turkish em-
pire, 23. Three successive ordinances in that behalf, 24, 25. The mission encour-
aged, 25. Native churches, 25. Chapel in Beirût, services, 25, 26. The mission
cemetery, 26. Grave of Lieut. Dale, 26, 27.

Native literary Societies, 27, 28. Foreign consuls, 28, 29. Meet our former ser-

vant Komeh, 28. Arrangements for our journoy, 29, 30. Preparations, 30, 31.

Turkish post, 32. Lines of steamers, 32.

April 5th. Departure from Beirät, 33. Nabr Ghudîr and Nahr Yabis, 33. Khân

Khulda, Heldua, 33. Many sarcophagi, 33. Nahr Dâmûr, Tamyrus, 34. Râs Sa'diyeh,

Platanum, 34. Roman road, 34. Neby Yûnas, el-Jiyeh, Porphyreon, 34, 35.–April 6th.

Our tent blown down at night, 35. Early start, Roman road, 35. Sidon, house of

Mr Thomson, 36. Antiquities, 36. Turn east towards Lebanon; character of the

region, 36, 37. Way leads by Hâret Saida, 37. Deir Mukhallis, 38. Encamp at

Kefr Fâlûs, 38.

April 7th. Tokens of rain, 38. Start for Râm, valleys, 38, 39. Rain; take refuge

at a goat-house, 39. Proceed to Rúm; the road bad, 39. Village of Rûm, 39. Tako

refuge in a peasant's house, 39. House described, 39, 40. Furniture and food, 40.

Set off in the rain for Jerjú’a, 40. Difficult road; lose the way, Kaitûleh, 40, 41.

Jebâ'a, 41. Arrive at Jerjû'a ; lodge in a peasant's house, 42.- April 8th. Village of

Jerjú’a, 42. Wide view, 42, 43. Chasm of the Zaherâny, Jebel Rîhân, Wady Jer-

mŭk, 43. Neby Sâfy, Neby Sijud, Kúlat esh-Shủkîf, 44. House described, 44. Our

host a potter, 44. The old priest, 45. No antiquities, 45. Visit the fountain of tho

Zaherâny, 45. Ancient aqueduct to Sidon, 45, 46. Sculptured tablet and inscrip-

tion, 46, 47.

April 9th. Set off for Kŭlat esh-Shủkîf, 47. Long descent; 'Arab Sâlîm, 47.

Bridge over the Zaherâny, 47. Tell Habbûsh, 47, 48. Nebâtîyeh, horseshoeing, 48.

Way to Arnôn, 48, 49. Village of Arnûn, 49. Ascend to the castle, Belfort, 49.

Site and prospect, 49–51. The fortress, 51. Bevelled stones, 52. Dimensions, 62.

Older than the crusades, 52, 53. Way to bridge of Ka'ka'iyeh, 53. Chasm of the

Lîtä ny, and bridge, 53.- April 10th. Way up Wady Hujeir, 54. Turn up W. Selûky,

to reach Kübrîkhah, 54. Splendid fields of wheat; tares, 55. Kesâf, Achshaph, 55.

Temple-ruins at Kübrikhah, 55, 56. Tâlin, Khirbet Silim, 56. Remains, 56, 57. Our

guide a horse-thief, 57. Tibnin, castle and village, 57. Visit to the castle, Sheikhs,

58. A fortress of the crusaders on older foundations, 58. Statistics, 59. Sculptures

on the way to Tyre, 59.- April 11th. High wind; we leave our tent for a house, 59,

60. Easter Sunday; our host secretary of the Beg, 60. House described, 60.

April 12th. Way to Hârîs; brow looking towards Tyre, 61. Wady el-'Ayûn ;

turn up to Yâtir, towards Tyre, 61. Antiquities, 61, 62. Return, and follow up
Wady el-'Ayûn to Hazireh, 62. Arch and other antiquities, 62, 63. Not Hazor of
Scripture, 63. Tum S. W. to Râmeh, Ramah of Asher, 63. Sarcophagi, 64.- April
13th. Cry of jackals, 64. Ascend the high hill Belât, 64. Ancient remains; a tem-
ple? 64, 65. View towards the west, 65, 66. Region rarely visited, 66, 67. Kūl'at
Kurein, 66, 67. A hunter of partridges, 67. Way by 'Aiteh to Wady el-'Ayūn and
Rumeish, 67, 68. Adjacent valleys, 68. Way to Kefr Bir'im; cold, 68. We lodge

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