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menaces; and declared he would punish, with the utmoft feverity, all those who dared to quit the harbour without his leave. But, notwithstanding all these threats, Vasconcelo, with fome more officers, weighed anchor and failed in the night. As soon as the viceroy was informed of this, he dispatched some of his galleys and long-boats, with a detachment of men, to order Vasconcelo and those who accompanied him, to return, and, upon refusal, to sink their ships. These accordingly followed with great expedition; and Vasconcelo not complying, they began to batter his ship with great fury. They brought down her main fail yard, killed two of the sailors, and threatened to destroy every soul on board, if Vasconcelo did not immediately return to the harbour. Thus forced by necessity, he at last returned to Goa, where he was put under confinement. A council of war being held upon this occasion, it was resolved he should be sent to Portugal in fetters. One of the officers, who had been extremely active in this affair, and had shewn an extraordinary contempt of Albuquerque's orders, was condemned to have his head struck off. The rest of the officers were ordered to be hanged. Two of them accordingly suffered death, and the others would have undergone the like fate, had they not been saved by the interceffion of the king of Narsingua and Cambaza's embassadors. He accordingly gave them their lives, but deprived them of their commissions, and sent them home to Portugal.

“After the affairs of Goa were settled, and the island fortified with a strong garrison, Albuquerque failed against the Sultan's feet towards Arabia ; but the wind continuing contrary, it was resolved to give over this expedition, and proceed for Malacca ; whither he arrived on the first of July 1511

Malacca is situated at the mouth of a small river, in the peninsula to which it gives name, It was at that time one of the most celebrated eastern marts, being in length about four miles, but its breadth inconsiderable. The river divided it into two parts, which were joined by a bridge. The walls and buildings of the town were extremely elegant; the people were of a tawny complexion, and very much civilized in their manners and way of living, and their language was much efteemed for its sweetness. The prince of this city and country round it, was formerly tributary to the king of Siam, but had then for some time maintained his independency, partly by force of arms, and partly by bribing the king of Siam's minifters.

• The king of Malacca being a bigotted Mahometan, had massacred some Portuguese belonging to Admiral Sequire, a few years before, who had failed thither with five large ships, in order to establish a trade with the Malaccans. Some of them likewise had been detained prisoners, and it was to take vengeance for this insult, that Albuquerque was now come with a Aeet of twenty three large ships.

· Next day after his arrival, Mahomet, for that was the king of Malacca's name, sent deputies to the viceroy, in order to clear himself of the mischief done, to the Portuguese. Albuquerque made answer, that if the king was fin cere, and really disapproved of the unjust treatment of Sequeire and his men, he expected his majesty would set the Portuguese in his custody at liberty, and make restitution of the goods taken from them. To this the king replying in an evasive manner, Albuquerque ftormed and took the city, after a bloody and vigo. ous defence on the part of the enemy. The plunder was considerable, Emmanuel's fare, which was only one fifth, amounting to two hundred thousand ducats; beside three thousand brass and iron cannon.

Albuquerque, in order to secure this new acquisition, built a strong fort: and, by his wise regulations, induced great numbers of people to fock into the city. He made laws for their government, and coined money of gold, silver and tin, with the arms of Emmanuel upon them. This he settled as the current coin, and affixed a severe punishment on those who should make use of any other.

• Whilst these things were transacting at Malacca, the Portuguese settlement of Goa was reduced to the last extremity being attacked by one of Zabaim's generals, with a numerous army. However, they found means to hold out, and at last even to distress the enemy; who were entirely driven out of the island on the arrival of Albuquerque from Malacca, who concluded a peace with Zabaim Idaliam. Soon after this Albuquerque likewise made peace with the Zamorin of Calicut, who allowed the Portuguese to build a fort; which being finished, the viceroy set sail for the red fea, having first appointed Peter Mafcaregn governor of Goa, as he had Roderick Brittio governor of Malacca, at his departure from that city,

These atchievements bring down the history to Book IX. which with the remaining three, is equally full of no less daring, tho' not quite fo glorious performances, as the conquests of Goa and Malacca. But of these we have not even room to give an abstract, and shall therefore content our



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felves with laying before the reader the following account of Albuquerque's death, and the endeavours of his enemies to ruin him in the esteem of Emmanuel: This we shall give in the translator's own words.

• It is the misfortune of princes to be often furrounded with a number of persons, who delight in envy and detraction; thus it happened that Emmanuel had some prejudices instilled into him against his viceroy in India. Albuquerque had at this time brought all the Indian coast from the river Indus to Cape Comorin, under the Portuguese power. He had also conquered Malacca, and settled every thing in the island of Ormus on a sure footing. In short, by his prudence and bravery, he had spread the name of Emmanuel far and near: Nor could the Indian nations help thinking, that the king, who had a general of fuch extraordinary abilities, must himself be somewhat of a divinity.

Emmanuel of himself was very well disposed towards Albuquerque, yet by the infinuations of a certain set of envious detractors, he at last began to harbour fome suspici. ons against this great man. These persons incessantly buzzed in the king's ears, that Albuquerque was a rash hot-headed man, and of the most intolerable ambition, nay, they e-. ven accused him of treacherous designs; for they said he aimed at sovereignty, and to make himself lord of all India, that by the number of his relations and dependants, and the fame he had acquired among the Indian princes, his wealth and power was already much greater than that of any subject ought to be;, for whilft a man's income is moderate, he can brook a higher authority, but when he arrives at an extraordinary pitch of wealth and power, he then cannot endure the thoughts of a superior.

Albuquerque, relying upon his innocence, took no pains to refute these calumnies; fo that his enemies at length prevailed on the king to recal him from India, Lopez Suareo Alvarenga being sent to succeed him. When Albuquerque received this news, he could not contain himself; but lifting up his hands, "Heavens! said he, how can I extricate inyself from the difficulties which surround me? If lobey my king I incur the odium and contempt of mankind: and if I study to please men, then I fall under the displeasure of my royal master. To thy grave, old man, to thy grave!" These last words he repeated often, which fhewed the agony and disorder he was in. However, afterwards when his mind came to be more composed, he expressed himself in the following manner: “ I am persuaded,

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faid he, that the king has a divine foreknowledge in many things, otherwise he could not have acted in the present affair with so much foresight. I am now wearing towards death; and if he had not at this time appointed my fucceffor, the affairs of India might have been greatly endangered.

Being extremely ill, he wrote the following short letter to Emmanuel. 66 I now write

you this last letter, fetching my breath with difficulty, and with all the fymptoms of inevitable death upon me. I have only one son; him I recommend to your majesty, hoping that in consideration of my fervices, you will take him under your royal protection and favour. What I have done for


honour and interest, the deeds themselves will testify." He soon after died with a great deal of composure and satisfaction, having always testified his desire to die in India.

It is not easy to fay, whether he excelled most in the arts of war or peace. In the former he behaved in such a manner that he was justly reckoned an expert general, and, in settling the affairs of India he gave the strongest proofs of his skill in the art of government. His funeral rites were performed with the greatest magnificence, amidst the cries and lamentations of the people of Goa, who lamented his death as that of a tender parent.

Emmanuel, when he received the news of his death, could not help shewing the utmost regret; and immediateby sent for his fon Blas Albuquerque, whom in remembrance of his father, he ordered to be called Alphonfo; he likewise bestowed on him several dignities, and procured him a very honourable marriage.'

ART. XXX. The Female Quixote : or, The Adventures of Arabella.


2 vols. 6 s. Millar.

HE character of Arabella is a counter-imitation of TH

that of Cervantes's Don Quixote. As the adventures of the Spanish knight were written to expose the absurdities of romantic chivalry; so those of the English heroine are designed to ridicule romantic love, and to shew the tendency that books of knight-errantry have to turn the heads of even their female readers. Arabella, how. ever, does not run the extravagant lengths of Don Quixote, i, e: does not fancy a flock of sheep to be an army of men, or take wind-mills for giants. Having had her education in the most retired part of the country, and taken her notions of the world from old romances, the persuades herself, that the times she read of, were the same with those the lived in, and that the characters the found in her manuals of chivalry, were no other than such as she should meet with, whenever she should quit the recess she was brought up in. Hence, in her entrance into the great world, to speak in the language of some modern travellers, the is led to conclude, that every man she comes nigh, is a hero, or a lover, or a ravisher, or &c. And on occasion of every fancied adventure, she conducts herself as Mandana or Statira would have done, in the same circumstances. Whether a plan, and character, of this kind, be agreeable nature, or to the age and the country we live in, our readers will determine for themselves.

ART. XXXI. A description of MAY; from Gawin Dou

glas Bishop of Dunkeld. By Francis Fawkes, A. M. 4to. I s. 6 d. Whiston, L. Davis, &c.

P to

author; who was nobly descended, being a son of the illustrious family of Angus.' He was born about the latter end of the year 1474;

Chaucer and Douglas, as Mr. Fawkes observes, may be looked

upon as the two bright stars that illumined England and Scotland, after a dark interval of dulness, a long night of ignorance and superstition, and foretold the return of day and the revival of learning.

This description of May, which is extremely picturesque, may serve as an instance, that the lowland Scotch language, and the English, at that time, were nearly the same. It is prefixed to Gawin Douglas's translation of Virgils Æneis, and intitled, Ane singular lernit proloug of the description of May. Beside the old Scotch, which is here printed exactly after the Edinburgh edition in 1710, we have an elegant paraphrase, or rather translation, in modern English verse, by Mr. Fawkes; who from this specimen, appears to be a proper hand to modernize Gawin Douglas'stranslation of the Æneid, the beauties of which we have often heard highly extolled by the best judges of the old Scotch language.

As a specimen of the performance now before us, take firft the description of Aurora or the Morning



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