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" That General Santa Cruz has, with the vernment of Buenos Ayres! Why was it force under his command, dilacerated Pe- passed over ? surely that government reads ru, and arrogated to himself an absolute the Eco, the public organ of its rival. power, sanctioned by diminutive and in
We conceive the charge of assisting the competent assemblies;
"That this scandalous proceeding at- expedition of Freire against Chile to have tacks the principle of popular sovereignty, been amply refuted, since the documents to which all the republics of South America establish it are not forthcoming when chalrecognize as the basis of theirinstitutions; lenged-and we cannot assume as fact that
“That the intervention of General San- which does not appear to have any exista Cruz to change the political order of tence. But this affects Chile, not Buenos Peru is a criminal aggression against the Ayres. liberty and independence of the American states, and a notorious infringement of the alluded to, seem not so important as to re
The intrigues, inquietude, and uncertainty law of nations ;
“That the concentration in his person qnire specification in the very document of an authority for life, despotic and un- which, nevertheless, would assign them as limited over Peru and Bolivia, with the sufficient causes of war! The original power of naming his successor, tramples Manifesto, which serves as a running comupo the rights of both states, and insti- mentary on the Declaration of War, does tutes a personal fief, which the acts of in- indeed state these particulars, and complains dependence of both republics solemnly that the Peruvian President gave no answer proscribe;
“ That the extension of such power, by to the repeated complaints of Buenos Ayres an abuse of force, overturns the conser- on this head. Now let us observe, that Bovative equilibrium of peace in the repub- livia formed at the time of the declaration lics bordering on Peru and Bolivia ; of independence of 1814 a part of the state
“Considering that the cantoning troops of Buenos Ayres; that, in a countiy of such of the army of General Santa Cruz on the vast extent, the capital being 500 leagues northern frontier of the confederation, the from this portion of the state, the petty towns anarchical expedition sent to Chile from had their mutual rivalries and dissensions the ports of Peru under the notorious protection of the agents of the said chief, and for want of an effective supreme controlhis simultaneous, constant, and perfidious as has been the case with every nation in intrigues, to create insurrection in the Ar- every age under anything like similar cirgentine republic, confirm the existence of cumstances: that at the time of the separaå political plan to render the independence tion of Bolivia from Buenos Ayres these and the honour of the states bordering on quarrels existed, and were probably aggraPeru and Bolivia subordinate to the interests of the usurper ;
vated on both sides by the distinction of na"That the continual state of inquietude tionality which then took place—that the and uncertainty in which the Argentine complaints were mutual—Salta, Tucuman, republic is placed by the insidious conduct Rioga, &c. all independent, but all confedeof the government of General Sa Cruz, rated in the republic of Buenos Ayres, had causes all the evils of war without any of such dissensions, and have them still, even its advantages;
with their own nominal chiefs; for one party “And lastly, that the double and false
are called Unitarians, from their insisting policy of General Santa Cruz has rendered of no avail any guarantee depending
on the necessity of amalgamation of all on the faithful fulfilment of his promises :
these petty powers into a Central State, and “It declares-1. That in consequence their opponents have banished the leaders. of the numerous acts of hostility alluded Jujui, the frontier town of Bolivia, was, preto and proved, the Argentine confedera- vious to 1825, in the precise category of the tion is at war with the government of Ge towns already named. Complaints of these neral Santa Cruz and his adherents,” &c. dissensions have been persevered in by It will be sufficient to notice, that the two in them is transferred from the petty dis
Buenos Ayres, and the animosity originating assertions of the fourth paragraph are en tricts to the two governments; but the charge tirely false, for the President, in his official of not answering these complaints is oppoanswer to the proposition, accepted the au, sed by the public and notorious fact, that thority only till the formation of a federal General Armasa, after his unsuccessful miscongress.
This official document bears sion to Brazil about two years since, prodate August 17, 1836: and since it was ceeded from thence as chargé-d'affaires to public and official, and since it annuls the Buenos Ayres, for the express purpose of pretended violence to American liberty, it arranging these differences; but the gois of portance should not be alluded to in the fused to receive the negotiator, on the strange
vernment of Buenos Ayres absolutely republic and official declaration of the go- pretext that his credentials were addressen
to the government of Buenos Ayres, with president dictator for life---if South Peru out the specific addition of “and charged and North Peru severally elected him-if with the foreign affairs of the Federation.” all, or either of these three states, chose even This was a singular objection for a govern. to make him their sovereign-was it conment desirous of peace to make as an obsta- petent for Buenos Ayres to interfere ? and cle to all arrangement, especially as the by what right? existence of that federation had never been When we notice that Peru, since the adquestioned by the Bolivians. Good-will ministration of Santa Cruz, for the first time (says the Scotch proverb) never yet stopped exhibited both the power and the inclination at the door-stone. Yet the government of to pay a portion of her national debt, we Buenos Ayres stopped not only the negotia- are at some loss to understand what is meant tion, but the negotiator also in limine, for by the dilaceration of Peru. Peace, we they would not let him advance, and they believe, is the nurse of a nation's wealth; refused him passports to return.
peace has been preserved unbroken in Peru With this manifestation of their real feel. during the interval above mentioned. Now, ings before us, we are the less tempted to would the foreign minister of Buenos Ayres give weight to the additional charge of the prefer for Peru what he seems to desiderate emigrant Unitarians in Bolivia being en for his own country, in preference to it, viz. couraged to scheme against their own go- the advantages of a war ? vernment. The assertion is easy, but here One of these advantages has been already again unfortunately the proofs are entirely for Peru the necessity of withholding the wanting
first instalment from her creditors, to meet For the remaining articles quoted above the expenses and the advantages of war. (or omitted, as they converge to the same Yet we do not find the English holders of point), it may be fairly asked, if the Peruvi- Peruvian bonds greatly benefited by these ans of the north and the south in their sepa- advantages, nor particularly grateful to Chile rate congresses are not competent to decide and Buenos Ayres, by forcing these advanupon a dictator for themselves, how comes tages upon them in lieu of their money.this right in the hands of Buenos Ayres ? The gain, we suspect, of piracy and plunespecially since they who did not (as it der, such as war has bestowed upon certain would appear from the line of argument fol. portions of the New World, however advanlowed by the declaration before us), they tageous to some individuals, have not been so who did not possess it, i. e. the two nations much so to nations as generally to induce themselves, could not transfer it to that fo- their desiring its recurrence. "Bloodshed, reign state. The representatives of a nation, anarchy, discredit, and debt have been the chosen by the nation, may surely be con- only results of it for them, and these advansidered to represent the nation that chose tages are scarcely worth what they cost to them, better at least than a foreign power, attain. which, so far as it appears, was never applied
We find it affirmed that the other Repubto in the matter. But perhaps in Buenos lics are siding, or expected to side, with Ayres the principle may be different, and Buenos Ayres and Chile in the war.
They the representatives there have nothing to do have sadly disappointed this expectation with the nation, and possess no weight in then, for the Ecuador has offered its mediathe political system. We are led to this tion for peace, which Peru accepted; and conclusion by observing that the declaration the two others have remained in perfect of war against Bolivia and Peru is simply harmony with Peru, notwithstanding the the act of the foreign minister of Buenos " fearful despotism and unlimited ambition, Ayres, the governor of a single province; the intriguing restlessness and faithless chaand that the representatives of the nation racter, of the President ;” and though the have not even been asked to pronounce an proximity of this confederation is even opinion, still less to authorize this ultima greater for tangible purposes than that of ratio REGUM! The “concentration of au- Buenos Ayres, or of Chile, they have not thority so despotic and unlimited in the per- yet discovered the perils obvious to eyes at son" of Santa Cruz, however dreadful, has a greater distance. Is it that distance mag. as yet not gone to such lengths of unlimited nifies danger when seen from Chile or Bu. despotism as this one proceeding of a min. enos Ayres, i. e. through intervals of 400 and ister so jealous for the honour of the sepa- 500 leagues ? rate provinces of his government, as to bar But let us ask, is not this assumption of the door against pacification because they right on the part oi Chile or Buenos Ayres, were not specified in the forms of creden- to dictate who shall or shall not rule in a tials.
third free State, as well as indicating the And yet, if Bolivia chose to render her precise degree of power, and the mode of
administration to be permitted there, any republic, when we behold these flames thing but the worst principles of the Holy breaking forth against and destroying their Alliance, without its grounds and excuses ? own leaders because they, the army, will Were Peru and Bolivia, like Spain and Na- not march against their Federated Sisters. ples, in a state of peace before, and of dis But the war is not against the Federated turbance after the great political step they States, only against their elected chief. It adopted, thus endangering, by their open is a war of principle, we suppose, that is to example, the unbroken tranquillity of Bu- trample down that first principle of nations, enos Ayres? Or, had its own form of go- the right of each to choose its own form of vernment subsisted so long,* or so entirely government. That this war of principle united all parties in tranquil enjoyment at includes a hankering after the advantages home, that they should become, like the of war is a fact that speaks rather for perMedian Deijoces
, the universal arbiter, per sonal than political objects. And it is to be force, from the blameless purity of their carried on against an individual. The allong previous existence ? Let the assassi- lied powers declared they would not treat nation, tumult, and bloodshed that, according with Napoleon, because from him they to the papers, have so often disturbed the could no longer hope the blessings of peace. peace of that country-let the depreciation The two American republics declare war of credit that has reduced their paper dollar against Santa Cruz, because they cannot to six pence—let the Unitarian party, driven obtain from him “ the advantages of war.” from their country to take refuge amongst Is this a satire or a delirium? Have the strangers—let Rivadavia, Sarratea, Bal- two high dictating powers so well paid the carce, men known in Europe for their intel- debts they incurred for former dissensions, ligence, information, capacity, their honor that they can afford to carry on a war whose and urbanity, answer this—their crime was advantages are to be reaped at the distance the love of country, the belief that unity is of 1500 miles? Or is Europe to particistrength.
pate in these advantages by fresh loans, as The official protest of Great Britain a bonus for the loss of her South American against the proceedings of the Holy Alli- trade ? Bolivia never incurred a debt : ance was sternly rebuked by the popular Peru, but only since the Union, was serivoice in England at the time, as asserting ously taking steps to pay hers: these countoo feebly a fundamental principle. Yet tries are rich. * Chile and Buenos Ayres none knew better than the able and fearless are involved in debt; the former has actustatesman who promulgated it
, that the time ally proposed to pay her debt in 100 years, was one of difficulty and danger. Italy, and the latter dreams of no payment at all. Spain, and Portugal in convulsion; France These then are poor; the Peru-Bolivian still heaving amain from the tempest that confederation rich, in money, in productions, had swept over her; Germany in the wild in commerce, in credit. Are the adrantatumults of that enthusiastic excitement which ges of war held forth to incite the poor to had roused her youth so lately, and still plunder their richer neighbours ? National sighed for an ideal ; and Russia herself independence is then a gem apparently of feeling the love of change and revolution some price in Buenos Ayres. The tobacco spreading through her frame with daily monopoly of Chile was pledged for the increasing rapidity, and enervating her payment of her debt to her creditors. Where forces. The tone of England, therefore, are the proceeds? Have not the creditors was courteous but firm; her language frank, been defrauded of these? but weighing the circumstances of the time.
As the charges against Santa Cruz perStill the general voice held all this light sonally, we are little interested in them.compared with the necessity of opposing the Every individual rising to power in a time dogma of foreign intervention. Has this of public convulsion is answerable not so dogma lost its odiousness or ameliorated its much for the means as the end. The misnature by a transfer from long established chief and misery that exist in such cases governments to states like those of America, render every approach to settled govern. still reeking from recent revolutions? Need ment a blessing, not a reproach; and if we say recent? Scarcely had the papers persor al ambition incurs no more odious announced the patriotic devotion of the Chi- accusation than that of bestowing peace and lian army to their superiors, and the ardor restoring prosperity, it may justly be called that inflamed them against the Peruvian the Vice of Angels. Since the three Con
federate States have severally acquiesced * It reminds us of the long duration of Wat publicly seeking it, it is clear that they are
in his supremacy, to say nothing of their Tinlynn's cottage—" It had not been burned for a satisfied and tranquil under his sway, and year or more !"
do not want any one to be unhappy for But what proof or indication have the them; the acquiescence of the people is the hostile nations given of their desire to disprinciple of the law of nations. But, were charge either their moral or pecuniary we to enter into personal inquiries as to the obligations? Is it in the pompously parasteps by which he rose to power, it would ded restoration in the Buenos Ayres panecessitate a similar inquiry as to the con- pers of the Order of the Jesuits ? that body duct of his rivals and adversaries under which holds the end asjustifying the means; similar circumstances. He, at least, is not which adopts in its practice all that is decharged, even by his enemies, with obtain-structive in principle; and with which ing power by popular insurrections and confession is the instrument that makes the Gaucho violence, or with maintaining it by very sacredness of home, the field of domesintolerance, assassinations, and bloodshed. tic enjoyment, the very fittest field of esWe are reluctant, therefore, to go into this pionnage, where a man's foes are those of particular part of the question, less for the his own household ? Has Chile shown sake of Santa Cruz,-for his conduct, as greater faith or greater wisdom, by conwe observed in the commencement of this verting the funds that ought to have paid article, speaks for itself and for his nation, her creditors, to the purpose of importing -than because we would not wish to pur- Friars and Monks from Europe, with all sue inquiry in other quarters where it might the vices and horrors of monastic instituseem in vidious.
tions, because her own sons will not devote We must aver, then, that, from the clos- themselves to those cloistered abominations? est examination we can give to the subject, Do not these acts speak sufficiently loud the complaints of Chile and Peru against for their authors ? Where, we would ask, the President of the Confederated States, in either of these states, are the public are but the fancies of jealousy, and arising works, the improvement of roads, the prefrom two different sources: in the former, miums for industry, &c. &c., so freely formfrom the abstraction of previous commer- ed in Bolivia and Peru? We trust
, nay, cial advantages, such as we have intimated, we feel confident, that the prosperity of now transferred from her to the natives of these countries is not deferred forever by Bolivia and Peru :-in the latter, besides the hostility of their enemies; and that the above cause, from a certain soreness at shame, and the slow sense of justice, will the separation of Bolivia, her richest pro- compel these to accept the now offered mevince, from Buenos Ayres; the consequent diation of Great Britain, so desirable for loss of the situados, or morey remittances their happiness, and with the gratitude due to the latter, through the interior; the con- to its author. finement of trade along her coasts, and the
We have dwelt at some length upon this dimunition of her chief exports (mules, political question, not merely from the injuhides, and beef,) to Lima, by the reciprocal ry which it offers to our trading interests, trade of the confederates. That these are but also from the still greater injury which the real reasons we are satisfied; for, were it offers to political rights and liberties. the dangers of individual ambition so ur- We have argued freely from the Peruvian gent as they are pretended to be, would the Exposé, because, though long since pubEcuador and Paraguay cultivate the friend- lished in London, it has yet encountered no ship of the Peru-Bolivian dictator? We reply, nor any attempt wliatever to answer fear the trail of the serpent is too visible in its statements, which, therefore, we conthe proceedings; but though the necessity clude to be true. That Orbegoso, the forof warlike preparations, and the mainte- mer president of Peru, himself yielded up nance of troops along the coast, entail on his own power to be transferred to Santa the confederated States an expense
Cruz, is a public evidence of the merits of vents for the present the liquidation of the the latter-but history reminds us, that in Peruvian debt, the calumniated president the world there were some baser minds, has done what his rivals never dreamed of, who hated Aristides because he was aci. e. evinced his desire of paying it: for we knowledged The Just. regard his ordinance, that the double duties, incurred by vessels touching previously at foreign ports, may be paid in the Confederated States by the Peruvian bonds, at their full nominal value, however inefficient a measure towards the creditors, still as a proof of his honest intentions—the best that could be given, perhaps, in the circumstances of the case.
tells us, of European doubt and confusion, ART. XI-Aus dèm Tagebuche eines in and longed for the East,—the cradle of
Grossbritannien reisenden Ungarn.- mankind. He was anxious to forget the (Extracts from the Journal of an Hun- actual state of things, and to hear the voice garian Traveller in Great Britain.) - of nature, not that of politics : for all which Pesth, 1827.
reasons it is perfectly natural that he should
have bent his steps to the West, and come hic we are not, members of to London. Here he first discovered, for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful travelling improves us all, that he had exKnowledge, we know no one thing that changed the dark (blue) heaven of Asia could so earnestly occupy our attention as Minor, and its transparent sea, for the fogthe impression our national character, in- gy atmosphere (Nebelwolken) of England, stitutions, and domestic life, make upon fo- which hangs like a pall (Leichentuche) reigners. These may be ignorant or pre- over the earth;" that he was close by the judiced, doubtless, at limes; and, as educa- Thames,* in the very metropolis of comted under a different aspect of society, they merce,
“ where the untixed and malleable may come to us with the same reasonable history of actuality is wrought, as in a manuor unreasonable prepossession for custom factory." He was uneasy at this discoor for novelty that we ourselves indulge in very, till reflection came to his assistance, when we first cross the Channel; swallow- and taught him that "the constant intering admiration in the shape of Institut, course with calculation and machinery Academie, Pinacotheca, côte rôti, hock, leaves man himself in the end nothing but Xeres, Salmi, and Champaigne, as if our a calculation and a machine." The feeling national as well as individual existence de- of the lofty and the spiritual disappears, pended on it, or deploring through classi- and utilitarianism, he observes, rules as in cal or Gothic Europe the absence of beef. America, that father-land of egotism, that steak, and weeping in secret sympathies for republic upon Bentham's system, where a pot of beer.
the intellectual is altogether naught, where Let none complain of the want of philo- life loses its principal charm and brightest sophy in bearing these mournful privations; hues, and finally subsides into weariness; a for philosophy can but teach us truth: and hint as new as it is valuable for brother Jo. what truth can she teach more important nathan, we calculate. This gnawing worm for us to kuow than the connexion between of life, however, is most unfortunately not the body and the soul ? an intercourse re-confined to our transatlantic brethren, for it newed every six hours at farthest, through had embittered many hours of our traveller the friendly' mediation of the stomach. But himself, and even in his native land; and there are different kinds of philosophy, ac- hence we presume it was that he suddenly cording as the body or the soul is for the discovered himself here, as he tells us, in time in the ascendant; and to the impulses the very focus of utilitarianism; here, of the latter we are indebted for the journal where, as he had believed, the body ruled of our Hungarian traveller. We are satis and the understanding, not the spirit, which, fied, therefore, to take our notions of our in the words of Holy Writ, alone can make selves from a human source, instead of re-alive." All this, bowever, was to disapquiring
pear soon; for, once in London, he saw his
error, and felt that it was not trade and ma"Some God the gift to gie us,
chinery that lower our age down to the To see ourselves as others see us" very prose of life through the aristocracy
of wealth; and that the shopkeeping of the and the rather as, in our Hungarian's re contient was a different affair altogether. flections, the placens imago of our existenee In England he perceived that riches are is as little distorted as we could expect in the companions of commerce; not dwinany reasonable degree. Yet what is so dling away, as in Germany, amidst tasteunreasonable as reasoning man ? and, much less buildings and expenses, but completing as the traveller before us uses this faculty splendid edifices. No where in the world, of reason, we shall appeal with confidence says the traveller, are space and land so from his judgment at times to our own;
dear as in London; and yet no high, narthe maxim with individuals being, pari passu, applicable to nations, viz. tbat each is the best judge of its own condition.
* This information may be useful in Germany, But our traveller is a philosopher; deep- where a more recent writer affirms, in a Geograly imbued with classic lore, classic taste, Serpentine river, which falls, at some distance; and a love of naiure. He was weary, he into the Thames. Is this the Schoolmaster abroad?